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The renewed interest taken in Semitic studies in general 
within these recent years, and in particular the continued issue 
from the Press of numerous and important Ethiopic texts, — 
encourage the hope that an English .edition of the leading Ethiopic 
Grammar may prove not wholly unwelcome to English-speaking 
students at the present time. Few competent judges will challenge 
the claim of Dillmann's 'Grammar 1 to be thus described. No 
doubt a long time has elapsed since its first publication, and much 
investigation has been applied to the language during the interval ; 
but it may be questioned whether any of the essential principles 
laid down in Dillmann's work have been affected by these labours, 
otherwise than by way of confirmation, or whether any facts of 
really fundamental grammatical importance have been added to 
our knowledge. Accordingly, although some useful smaller Gram- 
mars now exist, — notably the excellent manual published in 1886 
by Prof. Praetorius — , the serious student of Ethiopic must still 
have recourse to Dillmann's work, particularly in the form given 
to it in the second edition (of 1899) by Prof. Bezold. It is from 
that edition that the present translation has been rendered. 

It is not contended, in the light of recent research, that 
Dillmann was invariably happy in his frequent excursions into 
the fascinating but treacherous field of Comparative Semitic; but 
even when his conjectural etymologies seem farthest astray, they 
are always stimulating and ingenious. It has been thought right, 
however, in this connection, to append here and there a cautionary 
footnote, when the author appears to give play too freely to his 
imagination. Farther, Dillmann's criticisms of the results obtained 
by his great predecessor Ludolf are often severe, seldom generous, 
and occasionally unfair and even inaccurate. Several instances 
are pointed out in the footnotes. But, with all due deduction 


made for such blemishes, Dillmann's work remains a monument 
—second only to his 'Lexicon',— of his genius, industry and special 
erudition. It may be relied on as a safe guide through the mazes 
of a difficult speech; and as an institutional work, the foremost in 
its department, it is entitled to a high rank among the leading 
Semitic Grammars. 

Little or no alteration has been made on the text in the 
course of translation. I have ventured only to cite a few additional 
examples, in the Syntax, from some of the more recently published 
Ethiopic works, inserting them either tacitly in the text itself, or 
avowedly in the footnotes. The somewhat meagre Table of Con- 
tents, given in the German edition, has been considerably expanded; 
and the details have been applied marginally, in their proper 
places, throughout the book. A few additions have been made in 
the first of the appended Tables of Forms; and an Index of Pas- 
sages has been drawn up and placed at the end of the volume. 
As far as possible, the supporting-passages have been re-verified. 
In particular the quotations adduced from the important text of 
Henoch, as edited by Dillmann, have been compared with the 
corresponding passages in Flemming's more recent and more ac- 
curate edition; and the differences, when of any importance, have 
been pointed out in footnotes ( 1 ). This course was considered pre- 
ferable to applying in the body of the work the improved readings 
presented in Flemming's edition, or the suggestions made by 
Duensing in his careful discussion of Flemming's Henoch, con- 
tributed to the "Gelehrte Anzeigen", 1903, No. 8 (Gottingen). 

It would be difficult to exaggerate my indebtedness to the 
distinguished scholar who prepared the last German edition, 
Prof. Bezold of Heidelberg. From the first he took a lively 
interest in the version. It was submitted to him in manuscript, 
and his suggestions were attended to. He had the great kindness 
also to incorporate, at that time, numerous illustrative passages 

(*) Just as these lines go to the Press, another edition of the text 
of Henoch, by Prof. Charles, is announced as immediately forthcoming. 
Dr. Charles has already done excellent work in this field, — witness his ela- 
borate translation and commentary: 'The Book of Enoch 1 , Oxford 1893. I am 
sorry to have missed seeing his edition of the text, in time to compare, in the 
following pages, as occasion might arise and grammatical interest demand, 
the readings of this new edition with Flemming's readings. 


from his admirable edition of the very important text of Kebra 
Nagast, then passing through the Press, and to enrich the version 
farther by adding many most useful philological and biblio- 
graphical footnotes. I have also to express here my sincere 
gratitude for the unfailing courtesy and patience with which he 
lent his invaluable assistance in the reading of the final proof- 
sheets. Proe. Bezold's direct contributions are enclosed in square 
brackets, both in the text and in the footnotes, — with the excep- 
tion that I am responsible for a few bracketed words of a purely 
explanatory nature, which occur here and there in the text. My 
own footnotes are marked by square brackets enclosing the let- 
ters 'tr'. 

I have also to thank the staff of the Drugulin house for the 
successful accomplishment of their difficult task in printing this 

James A. Crichton. 


A fresh treatment of Ethiopic Grammar had for a long time 
been urgently required; and, so far as known to me, none of the 
older qualified scholars seemed disposed to supply the want. In 
these circumstances I readily responded to an invitation addressed 
to me by the publishing firm in the summer of 1855, to undertake 
this business, — one quite as laborious as remunerative. I was 
aware indeed that, if only a larger number of texts had been thor- 
oughly investigated and settled, and greater progress had been 
made with the deciphering of the Himyaric monuments, many 
details would have allowed of more certain and complete recogni- 
tion and acceptance. Seeing however that the accomplishment of 
these tasks lay still in the distant future, I did not think it wise 
to wait for it; and, even as it was, a rich field, ripe for cutting 
and gathering in, already lay before me. 

The terms of my arrangement with the publisher restricted, 
to some extent, the time available for work, and also the compass 
of the volume. Still, I have endeavoured to satisfy, as far as pos- 
sible within the prescribed limits, those requirements of a gram- 
matical work which are insisted on by our advanced philology. 
The material of the language has been thoroughly gone over afresh, 
in all its parts and on every side; and many new observations, 
of which Ludolf had no presentiment, have been the result, 
as every single section of the book will show. In explaining the 
phenomena of the language and duly ranking them in its system, 
I was still more completely left to my own enquiries, as fore- 
going labours in this department have been much more scanty. 
Many things here are, of course, matter of grammatical theory 
previously adopted, so that others, who profess a different theory 
will attempt a different explanation. Many things, — in the views 
given of Pronunciation and Accent for instance, — must per- 


haps always remain uncertain and obscure, because the historical 
information, which alone could decide, is wanting. Many things 
too had to be set down without being fully demonstrated, because 
space was not obtainable for their proper discussion. In the refe- 
rences mentioned, it is but desirable that other scholars should 
now speak out, and take up the discussion of these more difficult 
and obscure questions. Science, — to the service of which alone 
this book is devoted, would be a gainer. But every one who 
peruses my book will be convinced, I trust, that Ethiopic grammar, 
which has been neglected so long, sheds quite as much light on 
the grammars of the other Semitic languages as it receives from 

Perhaps some justification is required for the great length 
at which, in the Phonology, I have sought to authenticate by exam- 
ples the Sound -transitions between Ethiopic roots and those of 
the other Semitic tongues. I know from experience the perplexing 
effect, which is produced upon one who approaches Ethiopic from 
the side of the other Semitic languages, caused by a host of ex- 
pressions and roots ; and therefore I wished to clear the way for a 
more thorough insight, by discussing a number of etymologies, and 
by analysing the Sound-changes upon which this phenomenon rests. 
Much here is, of course, merely matter of conjecture and must 
long remain so, — in fact until dialectic phonetic interchange is 
more strictly investigated by Semitic philologists, and traced back 
to sure principles. However, even the danger of falling into error 
here and there in detail, did not prevent me from tackling the 

In the Syntax I was obliged to compress my work, seeing 
that the space allowed was already more than exhausted. Accord- 
ingly it was only what was peculiar and remarkable in Ethiopic 
that I was able to treat with any thoroughness; while I could 
merely touch upon what had become familiar from the other 
Semitic languages. In the arrangement of the Syntax I have ad- 
hered almost entirely to the order adopted in Ewald's 'Hebrew 
Grammar', which seemed to be the most accurate and suitable. 
Altogether this part of the work, for which Ludole did almost 
nothing, claims to be no more than a first draught, which still 
awaits much filling in by means of farther studies. A few para- 
graphs I would gladly have altered, if the manuscript had not by 


that time left my hands. Then too, the Sections turned out some- 
what unequal in extent; but, on account of the constant references 
backwards and forwards, it had become exceedingly difficult to 
make any alteration in this respect. 

The supporting-passages I have taken, as far as possible, from 
the Bible in print, and in this I have founded upon Platt's edition 
of the New Testament, Ludolf's of the Psalms, Laurence's of 
4 Esra, and my own edition of the Octateuch and the Book of 
Henoch. Quotations are occasionally made from Manuscript sources 
in the case of the other Biblical Books, as well as in the case 
of the Book of Jubilees, (Kufdle), Vita Adami, (Oadla Adam), Li- 
turgies, Organon, Hymnologies of the British Bible Society, Abys- 
sinian Chronicles and Salota Reqet. 

It is hoped that every foreigner will kindly excuse, and every 
German approve of, my having written the book in German: to 
write a Grammar in Latin is restricting and troublesome, and to 
read it is pain. 

It seemed to me unnecessary in itself to add an Index of 
Words and Subjects, and it was besides precluded by my having 
already exceeded the limits allowed the book. 

Kiel, 15 th April, 1857. 

The Author. 


The highly honouring proposal was made to me on the part of 
the Publishing firm, at the suggestion of Prof. Noldekb, and with 
the sanction of the Author's representatives, to prepare a second 
edition of the present work. A wish which had been cherished for 
many years by the Author, who has been removed from us, was 
thereby to be fulfilled. Prof. Dillmann had gathered together 
a large number of notes in his own interleaved copy of the Gram- 
mar with a view to a revised edition, and had continued the process 
till shortly before his death. A foundation was thus laid for the 
present edition, which, at the express desire of the representatives, 
takes, upon the whole, the form of a reproduction of the original 
work, with the author's numerous additions and relatively few emen- 

In consequence of the restriction thus laid upon me in the work 
of revisal, the original character of the book has been absolutely 
preserved. But another consequence of course was, that it be- 
came impossible for the new editor to undertake any thorough- 
going alterations in individual passages. Prof. Dillmann him- 
self, if it had been permitted him, would doubtless have undertaken 
a much more vigorous recasting or regular revision of the book. 
Beyond trifling alterations of expression, and the tacit correction 
of manifest errors of the Press, I have merely rectified certain 
mistakes, — proved by facts to be such, — and which Dillmann 
would at this time of day have acknowledged. The entire respon- 
sibility, as well as the entire merit, accordingly remains with the 
Author, even in this second edition. My contributions — in the 
way of correction of the original work and addition of a few notices 
of the literature of the subject — are marked by square brackets. 

I thought I might venture upon greater liberty in the use 
made of the Author's Manuscript additions. In particular, the 


lengthy and frequently recurring extracts from later writings, — 
which Dillmann had entered in his copy, manifestly for his own 
readier guidance, — have been replaced by mere references to the 
works concerned: other material too, especially all that seemed to 
lie beyond the scope of an Ethiopic grammar, has been left out 
of account. On the other hand I considered that I was acting in 
the spirit of the Author in endeavouring to extend, support and 
adjust the. lists of examples, often very briefly stated by him, and 
in many cases consisting of a single Ethiopic word, — a labour 
which was facilitated, and in many cases in fact made possible, only 
through Dillmann's '■Lexicon Linguae Ethiopicae'. Occasionally, 
instead of a long series of supporting-passages I have given a direct 
reference to the 'Lexicon'. 

The now antiquated second Table of the first edition, with 
the "older Forms of Ethiopic writing", has been set aside for 
various reasons. 

A few additions, marked "Noldeke", originated in the course 
of reading the proof-sheets, which Peof. Noldeke revised at my 
request on account of the extensions of the new edition springing 
out of Dillmann's copy. Of course the distinguished scholar just 
named does not thereby incur any responsibility for my perfor- 
mance. But, beyond an honest endeavour to restore as well as I 
could the work of the much revered dead, it was his lively in- 
terest in this work and his continual assistance with head and 
hand, which alone gave me the needful courage to undertake the 
task and to conduct it to its close. For this service I hope he will 
kindly accept here my heartfelt thanks. 

Lugano, 25 th April, 1899. 

C. Bezold. 


It is with great pleasure that I avail myself of the oppor- 
tunity, here afforded me, of expressing my thorough approval of 
Dr. Crichton's translation of Dillmann's work, which will form a 
worthy companion- volume to his recent edition of Prof. JSIoldeke's 
l Syriac Grammar'. The clear and idiomatic English, into which 
Dillmann's rather difficult German has been rendered, testifies 
once more to Dr. Crichton's ability and skill in such translation, 
as well as to the minute and conscientious accuracy, combined 
with sound scholarship, with which he has undertaken and brought 
to a successful completion his laborious task. I venture to hope 
and believe that Dillmann's book will henceforth appeal with 
effect to a still wider circle of readers, and increase yet farther 
the interest taken in Ethiopic Grammar among English-speaking 
students of Semitic. 

Heidelberg, November 1906. 

C. Bezold. 




§ 1. Sketch of the History of the Language 1 

Its Name 3 

§ 2. Origin and Character 3 

§ 3. Close Affinities with Arabic: — Resemblances and Differences . . 4 

§ 4. Development of the Language 7 

§ 5. Changes in its Phonetic System and Vocabulary 9 

§ 6. Ethiopic Literature. Modern Investigations 11 


§ 7. Minao-Sabaic Origin of the Alphabetic Characters 15 

§ 8. Number of the Consonants 16 

§ 9. Names of the Consonants 17 

§ 10. Order of the Ethiopic Alphabet 18 

§ 11. Form of the Script. Direction of Writing . 21 

Vowel Denotation. 

§ 12. Vowel Denotation incorporated with Consonantal Script ... 23 

§ 13. Short a assumed as present in Consonantal Ground-form ... 26 
Discussion of the Indication of Short Vowels other than a, and of 

the Absence of a Vowel . 26 

§ 14. Forms of the Consonants to indicate the Presence of the five Long 

Vowels severally 27 

Forms indicating the Presence of a Short Vowel other than a, or 

Absence of a Vowel 29 

§ 15. Development of the {/-containing Letters, and their several 

Forms 31 

§ 16. Interpunctuation- marks. Numerical Signs 32 




§ 17. Preliminary Observations. Short Vowels other than a .... 34 

§ 18. The Ground-vowel, Short a 35 

Long a 36 

§ 19. Short, indeterminate c 37 

§ 20. I and u 39 

§ 21. e and o 39 

§ 22. Pronunciation of fugitive c, 41 


§ 23. Preliminary Observations 42 

§ 24. Gutturals (Aspirate-) 44 

§ 25. The firmer Gutturals (Palatal-) 48 

§ 26. The 77-containing Gutturals 50 

§ 27. Dental-Lingual Mutes 54 

§ 28. Labial Mutes . 56 

§ 29. No distinction recognised between an Aspirated (or Assibilated) 

and an Unaspirated pronunciation of Mutes 59 

§ 30. Sibilants 59 

§ 31. Fluctuation and Interchange of Sibilants 61 

§ 32. The Liquid and Softer Letters: Nasals; Linguals; and Semivowels 65 



General Rules of the Syllable. 

§ 33. Constitution of the Syllable 67 

§ 34. Beginning of the Syllable 68 

§ 35. Termination of the Syllable 70 






§ 36. Shortening of Long Vowels. Lengthening of Short Vowels . . 71 

Weakening and reducing of Vowels 73 

§ 37. Treatment of Short e, under change of Syllabic Conditions . . 73 

§ 38. Treatment of Short e, at the end of Nominal Stems 74 




§ 39. Contraction and Coalescing 'J 

§ 40. Hardening of Vowel into Semivowel /9 

§ 41. Interpolation of Separating Consonant 81 

Displacing of one Vowel by another 82 

§ 42. Meeting of the u of Z7-containing Gutturals with certain Vowels 82 


(a) Influence of Aspirates on the Vowels. 

§ 43. Close relation of Vowels and Aspirates 83 

Aspirate must have a Vowel directly next it • 84 

§ 44. Preference of Aspirates for the a-sound So 

S 45. Reduction of a of open Syllable preceding Aspirate, to e in cer- 


tain cases 

§ 46. Lengthening of Vowel preceding Aspirate in the same Syllable . 87 

§ 47. Occasional Disappearance of Aspirates 90 

§ 48. Aspirates and the Word-Tone . . • 91 

\y passing into a Semivowel 9l 

(p) The Vowels I and U and the Semivowels. 

§ 49. Hardening of i and u, as 1st Radicals, into Semivowels ... 93 

§ 50. Vowel-Pronunciation of i and u as 2™* Radicals 94 

§ 51. Hardening of i and u as 3^ Radicals • • • 95 

§ 52. Radical i or u meeting with Formative Vowel i or w . . . . 97 

§ 53. Rejection of u (and i) 99 


§ 54. Doubling of Consonant as Result of Assimilation 101 

§ 55. Doubling of Consonant, to make up for shortening preceding Vowel 104 

Doubled Consonant always written in Single Form 104 

§ 56. Giving up the Doubling 1° 5 

Occasional Compensation for Loss of the Doubling 106 

§ 57. Exchange of Consonants. Transposition 107 

§ 58. Interpolation or Rejection of individual Consonants ..... 108 

Softening of Consonants into Vowels 109 


§ 59. The Tone of the Word, and its Adjustment 110 

§ 60. Vocalisation of the Word, as influenced by the Tone .... 112 


§ 61. Interjections 114 

§ 62. Pronominal Roots:— Demonstratives 115 

8 63. Interrogatives 118 




§ 64. Pronominal Roots: — Relative Pronouns 119 

§ 65. Personal Pronouns 120 

§ 66. Conceptional Roots.— General Description 122 

§ 67. Tri-radical Roots:— Strong Roots 125 

Weak Roots 125 

Roots med. gem 125 

Roots med. inf. 126 

§ 68. Vowel-sided Roots: — Vowel-beginning Roots 127 

Vowel-ending Roots 128 

§ 69. Doubly Weak Roots 129 

§ 70. Certain Strong Ethiopic Roots compared with, corresponding but 

"Weak Roots in kindred Languages 130 

§ 71. Multilateral Roots : (a) Originating in repetition of Individual Rads., 

or of the whole Root 131 

§ 72. M. R. : (b) Originating in Interpolation of Firm Letter after 1st Had. 134 
§ 73. M. R. : (c) Derived from Triliteral Roots and Words, by External 

Application of Formative Letter 135 


§ 74. Methods followed generally in Word-Formation. Division of Words 

into:— 1. Verbs; 2. Nouns; 3. Particles . 138 


§ 75. General Description of Verbal Stems 140 


§ 76. Scheme of Stems. I. Ground-Stems:—!. The Simple Stem. . . 141 

Transitive and Intransitive Forms . . . 142 

§ 77. 2. The Intensive Stem 143 

§ 78. 3. The Influencing Stem 146 

§ 79. II. Causative Stems:— 148 

'1. Causative of the Simple Stem 148 

2. Causative of the Intensive Stem 150 

3. Causative of the Influencing Stem 150 

§ 80. III. Reflexive-Passive Stems: — 151 

1. R.-P. of the Simple Stem 151 

§ 81. 2. R.-P. of the Intensive Stem 153 

§ 82. 3. Reflexive of the Influencing Stem: — Stem of Reciprocity . 154 

§ 83. IV. Causative-Reflexive Stems: — 156 

Causative-Reflexive Stems 1 & 2 158 

§ 84. Causative-Reflexive Stem 3 159 


§ 85. Scheme of Stems 161 

I. Ground-Stem 161 



II. Causative Stem 162 

86. III. Passive-Reflexive Stems 163 

IV. Causative-Reflexive Stems 164 

87. 'V. Second Reflexive Stem 164 


General Remarks.— Uses of the Perfect 166 

Uses of the Imperfect 169 

Derivation of the Moods from the Imperfect Tense 173 

General Rules of Formation in the Perfect and Imperfect Tenses 174 
Older Form of Imperfect Tense used as the Subjunctive 
Mood.— Fuller Form as the pure Imperfect (= the Indicative 

Mood) .176 

§ 92. Tense and Mood Formation in— 1. Simple Ground-Stem.— Transi- 
tive and Intransitive Pronunciation I 77 

T. and M. Formation of Aspirate Verbs 178 

§ 93. T. and M. Formation of Weak Verbs:— Verbs med. gem. ... 180 

Verbs prim. voc. . . . 180 

Verbs med. inf. . . . 181 

§ 94. Weak Verbs continued:— Verbs tert inf. 183 

Verbs Doubly Weak 184 

§ 95. Tense and Mood Formation in— 2. Intensive Ground-Stem . . 185 

T. and M. Formation in— 3. Influencing Ground-Stem .... 186 

§ 96. II. T. and M. Formation in Causative Stems 187 

§ 97. III. T. and M. Formation in Reflexive Stems 191 

§ 98. IV. T. and M. Formation in Causative-Reflexive Stems . . 195 

§ 99. Tense and Mood Formation of Multiliteral Verbs:— .... 197 

I. In Ground-Stem I 98 

II. In Causative Stem 1" 

8 100 III T. and M. Formation in Reflexive Stems of Multiliteral 

Verbs 200 

IV. In Causative -Reflexive Stems 200 

V. In Second Reflexive Stem 200 


§ 101. , General Remarks 201 

1. Personal Signs of the Perfect 202 

2. Personal Signs of the Imperfect— (Indicative and Subjunc- 
tive) 203 

§102. Attachment of Personal Signs in the Perfect 20o 

§ 103. Attachment of Personal Signs in the Imperfect— (Indicative and 

Subjunctive) 209 





$f Stem-Formation 212 


Hm,— with accented Short Vowel 

ieented Short Vowel or Tone-long 


i , .■ 220 

«3 as Verbal Nouns from the 

IB):~ . . 930 

* e after 2»<* Radical, but now 

»d Accent on the 1st Syllable . . 220 

er2»dBadical ....... 222 

i as Verbal Adjectives and Parti- 

...... 225 

............. 226 

............ 226 

, 227 

bowels long from the first:— . . 22& 

al (and e after 2&) 229 

Radical (and a after 1st) ... 230 


Verbal Stems:— 

rated by doubling 2*"* Rad., with 

Sad Bad., and a after 1st ... 231 

■ Reduplication of. both the last 

a the last Syllable and a in the 


saw: — (a) Oonceptional Words, 
tem,— with a after 2» d Rad.j and 

em.-ending a . . 232 

sive Stema,->with a after 2»d Bad.. 

gj formed by ta closed by 1 st Rad. 234 

tire Words from Derived Stems,—- 


; (a) Simple Oonceptional Words 

, , , 236 

a have short e - 237 

m have short a ...... . 237 

ble has a, and the first either & or e 237 



(b) Descriptive Words, and Substantives derived from them 238 

(c) Stronger Conceptional Words (Nomina Actionis), with a 

in the last Syllable, and a in the preceding one , . . 239 


(a) Forms reached by means of Prefixes. 

§ 113. With the Prefix K 239 

With the Prefix ma, (1) in Participles from Derived Active 

Stems, Part. Act. having e in last Syllable, and Part, Pass, a:— 240 

S 114. Participial formation with ma,— (a) from St. I, 2 241 

„ . „ „ „ (6) from St. 1,3 242 

„ „ (c) from St. II, 1 242 

„ „ (d) from St. II, 2 242 

„ „ (e) from St. IV, 1,2, 3. . . . 242 
M „ „ ,, (/) from Active Stems of Multi- 
literal Verbs 243 

§ 115. Prefix ma, (2) in the formation of Names of Things, 

(a) to express the Place of the Action 244 

§ 116. (b) To express the Implement or the Products of the Action, 

or the Action itself:— 245 

(a) Formation with a in 2nd Syllable 246 

(|3) Formation with e in 2^ Syllable 247 

(y) Prefix ma reduced to me in 1st Syllable, with a, a or e 

in 2nd Syllable 248 

(b) Forms reached by means of Affixes. 

§ 117. Denominative Nouns:— 1. Adjective-Formation: 

(a) with termination I: — 249 

(a) With i attached to Nouns of the Type gabbdr, or from 

any of the Derived Stems 250 

§ 118. ([3) With I attached to Participles formed by means of 

ma, turning them into Nomina Agentis 251 

(y) With % attached to Proper Names and a few Personal 

Words and Names of Things 252 

§ 119. Adjective Formation: (b) with termination awl, in the derivation, 
from Substantives and Adjectives, of New Adjectives and Words 

indicating Persons 253 

Shorter Ending ai, alternating with awl, at least in Numeral 

Adjectives 2o4 

§ 120. 2. Abstract Nouns formed from Words with these Adj .-Endings, 

by appending Fem.-Sign; (a) as it,— sometimes as ut— . . 254 
(6) Oftener as it or e: Abstracts in it; Conceptional Words 

in e, from Verbal Stems 255 

§ 121. (c) Forms, chiefly Infinitives, in accented ot and o. . . . 257 

(d) Nouns of Circumstance and Condition in Tone-bearing at 258 

§ 122. (e) Abstract Forms in an or on, and na 259 

No special Form for Diminutives; nor any true Compounds . 261 




§ 123. Participles: General Remarks.— Comparative Failure of Regular 

Participial Forms 262 

Compensated partly 1— By the Gerund; 2.— By Periphrasis in 

a Finite Tense 263 

Infinitives: Distinction between Nominal Infinitive and Verbal 
Infinitive or Gerund 263 

§ 124. Certain Abstract Forms sometimes employed for the Nominal 

Infinitive 265 

Formation of the Infinitive Proper: 1. The Gerund in the several 
Stems 265 

§ 125. 2. The Nominal Infinitive in the several Stems 268 



§ 126. The two Genders: Masculine and Feminine. Signs of the Feminine 271 
§ 127. Feminine Endings and the Mode of their Attachment in the 

case of 1. Substantives: (a) Ending at 274 

(6) Ending a 275 

(c) Ending e 277 

§ 128. (d) Closely attached and Consonantal Ending *t . - . • 277 

§ 129. 2. Feminine of Adjectives and Participles: — 

(a) By Interpolation of a in the Stem 279 

(b) Outer Formation by the Ending ^ 281 

§ 130. The Gender-usage in Ethiopic 283 


§ 131. Numbers of Nominal Stems.— Faint Traces of a Dual .... 286 

1. Contrast between Class -Word and "Word denoting an Indi- 
vidual of the Class (Generalis and Nomen Unitatis) . . . 287 

2. Contrast between Singular and Plural (Owe and More than 
One) 288 

Special Uses of certain Plurals 289 

(a) Outer Formation of the Plural. 

§ 132. Masculine Plural Ending in an; Fem. in at 290 

1. Personal and Descriptive Words taking Outer Plural Ending 
an. Detailed Rules and Exceptions (a—g) 291 

§ 133. 2. Substantives taking Outer Plural Ending at:— 

(a) Certain Masc. Personal Names 294 

(6) Singular Fem. Forms taking at in Plural 295 

§ 134. (c) Many Masc. Singular- Stems taking Outer Plural Ending 

at (a-y) 296 

{d) Nominal Stems with Prefix 0D, which sometimes take 
the Outer Formation in the Plural 299 


(b) Inner Formation of the Plural. Page 
General Account of the Inner Plural or Collective Form . . . 299 
I. Collective "Words from Singular- Stems of the Simplest For- 
mation from Tri-radical Roots 301 

1. Collective-form, Type «?flC (gebdr) 301 

2. Collective-form, Type ft^flG (agbdr) 302 

§ 137. 3. Collective-form, Type K*7fl*C (agbiir) 304 

4. Collective-form, Type J% c 7'flC (dgber) 305 

5. Collective-form, Type ft^-flC^* (agbert) 305 

§ 138. II. Collective Words from certain longer Singular- Stems of Tri- 
radical Roots,— the Collective-form being of the Type "jflC'ih 

(gabdrt) 307 

§ 139. III. Collective Words from longer Stems of Triliteral and Multi- 
literal Roots, Type 7flCC (gabarer): — 308 

1. Collective-forms from various Nominal Stems of Multiliteral 
Roots 309 

2. Collective-forms from Nominal Stems which have Prefixes 
(a-c) 310 

§ 140. 3 Same Formation occurring with many Nom. Stems of Tri- 
rad. Roots which have a long Vowel after 1st r 2 nd Rad., 

or have a Vowel-termination (a—c) 311 

IV. Traces of a Collective Formation, contrived by applying Ab- 
stract Terminations proper to Fern. Sing 314 

§ 141. (c) Plurals of Plurals. 314 


§ 142. 1. The Nominative and Vocative 317 

§ 143. 2. The Accusative:— Usual Marking. When such Marking is 

not exhibited 320 

§ 144. 3. The Genitive Relation:— (a) The Construct State .... 324 
§ 145. (b) Periphrastic Indication of the Genitive by Prefixing 

Rel. Pron. to Determining Word 326 


§ 146. I. Pronouns: — 1. Demonstrative Pronouns 328 

§ 147. 2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns 332 

§ 148. 3. Personal Pronouns.— (a) The Third Pers. Pron 336 

(6) The Second Pers. Pron 338 

(c) The First Pers. Pron 338 

§ 149. Formation of the Accusative and Genitive in the Pers. Prons. . 338 

Suffix Pronouns 339 

§ 150. Expression of the Ace, Gen. and Norn, of a Pers. Pron., on which 

a Special Emphasis rests, (a) Emphatic Ace. -form of Pers. Pron. 341 

(6) Emphatic Qen.-form of Pers. Pron. 342 

(c) Emphatic Nom.-form of Pers. Pron. 343 

Reflexive use of CKft and *lQt\ with Suff - Pron 345 



§ 151. Attachment of Verbal Suffixes. Binding-vowel 345 

1. Attachment when Pers. Forms of the Verb end in a Consonant 347 

2. "When they end in a 347 

3. Attachment when Pers. Forms end in formative-i* . . . 348 

4. When they end in Fem.-formative-i 348 

5. "When they end in a 349 

§ 152. Special Cases of the Attachment of Verbal Suffixes .... 349 

§ 153. Attachment of Nominal Suffixes. Binding-vowel 351 

1. Attachment of Suffixes to Plural Forms 352 

§ 154. 2. Attachment of Suffixes to Singular Forms:— 

(a) To Nominal Stems ending in a, e or o 354 

(b) To Nominal Stems ending in a Consonant; 

(a) when these Stems stand in the Accusative .... 354 

(P) When they stand in the Nominative 356 

(c) To Nouns ending in % 356 

(d) To certain Short and Old "Words 357 

§ 155. 3. Suffixes often attached to Singular Stems in the Plural fashion, 

and to Plural Stems in the Singular fashion ; (a) l 8t case when 

the Sing. Stems are similar in form or meaning to Plurals 358 
(6) 2 nd case, when the PL Stems may be conceived of as 

suggesting Unity 359 

4. Suffixes applied to the Infinitive 359 

§ 156. Use of the Suffix in certain cases, equivalent to Apposition . 359 


§ 157. II. Pronominals: — 1. Compounds of Pronouns and Conceptionai 

Words taking the place held by Pronominals in other Languages 361 

2. Conceptionai Words, used only when compounded with Suff. 
Prons 361 


§ 358. III. Numerals:— 1. Cardinal Numbers 364 

2, Derived Numerals: — (a) Ordinal Numbers 369 

(b) Number of the Day of the Week or Month .... 370 

(c) Multiplicatives 371 

(d) Abstract Numerals 372 

(e) Numeral Adverbs 372 

(/) Fractional Numbers 373 

(ff) Distributives 373 

(h) Expressions for irp&rov, levrspov, rp/rov 375 



§ 160. 1. Adverbs of Demonstrative Meaning:— 

(a) Particles of Demonstrative force 375 

(6) Independent Adverbs of Place and Time 377 



§ 161. 2. Interrogative Adverbs and Adverbs of Relative Meaning: — 

(a) Interrogative Adverbs 378 

(6) Relative Adverbs 380 

§ 162. 3. Negative, Affirmative, Exclamatory and Restrictive Particles, 

together with certain Enclitics 380 


§ 163. 1. Adverbs of Place and Time (Ace. of Noun); of Kind and 
Manner (Ace. of Adj.); and Adverbs formed by prefixing 
Prepositions to Substantives or Adjectives, instead of taking 
Ace 383 

2. Other forms of Adverbs, being originally Nouns, with or 
without inflection, or with special terminations 385 

3. Adverbial Notions expressed by Verbs 387 

4. Adverbial Indication of the Language in which anything 

is spoken or written 388 


§ 164. General Account of Prepositions 388 

(a) The Prepositions in most frequent use: — 1. fl . . . 389 

2. ft ... 391 

3. h9°1l ■ • 392 
§ 165. (b) The other more frequently used Prepositions (4—10) . 394 
§ 166. Prepositions (Class b) continued (11—23) 399 

(c) Words occurring as Prepositions, but less frequently 

(24-38) 404 

§ 167. Attachment of Suffixes to Prepositions 406 


§ 168. General Account of Conjunctions 410 

1. Copulative, Disjunctive, Adversative and Restrictive Con- 
junctions (1 — 9) 411 

§ 169. 2. Inferential, Causal and Final Conjunctions (1 — 10) . . . 414 
§ 170. 3. Conjunctions expressing Conditional and Temporal Rela- 
tions (1—10) 417 

§ 171. Prevalence and Force of Prefix- and Affix-Particles in Ethiopic 420 




§ 172. Subject and Predicate. I. Periphrasis of the Article:— 

1. Methods of indicating Definiteness in the Noun .... 423 
§ 173. 2. Methods of indicating Indefiniteness in the Noun .... 426 




(a) The Verbal Object expressed by the Accusative. p 

§ 174. Accusative of an associated Women as determining the idea of the 
Verb. 1.— Accusative of Determination: — 

(a) Adverbial Accusative of Kind and Manner 430 

(b) Accusative of Place and Time 431 

(c) Accusative of Measure 432 

§ 175. 2. — Accusative of Purport or Reference: — 

(a) Emphatic Ace. of Derived Noun, or Noun of Kindred 

Meaning 432 

(fe) Ace. of Related Noun, with "Verbs of Plenty and "Want &c. 433 

(c) Accusative of Relation or Limitation 434 

§ 176. 3.— Accusative of the Object Proper, with Verbs of various 

meaning (a—h) 435 

§ 177. 4.— Double Accusative (a—g). Triple Accusative 438 

5.— Accusative after Reflexive Verbs, and after the Passives 

of Verbs which govern two Accusatives 440 

Accusative after Verbs of Being, Becoming &c 441 

§ 178. 6. — Suffix Pronoun used as a Secondary Accusative or a Dative 

of Special Reference 442 

§ 179. (b) Subordination of Nouns and Pronouns by means of Prepositions 445 


§ 180. 1. Second Verb determining (a) Kind and Manner, Circum- 
stances or Time of the action of the First:— 448 

(a) By the two Verbs being set side by side without (D 448 
(P) By the Verb of Principal Action being subordinated 
in the Ace. of the Inf. to the Verb of Circumstance 

or Time 449 

§ 181. Second Verb expressing (&) more exact Determination of Time, 

Circumstance &c: — (a) By the Gerund 450 

(p) By the Imperfect without 0) 451 

(Y) Qualifying Verb being introduced by Conjunction, 

such as Jj'Jff &e 452 

(§) "When the Qualifying Verb is represented by the 

Subst.-Inf. of Principal Verb 452 

§ 182. 2. Second Verb determining the Contents of the Leading Verb: — 
(a, a) In the form of the Ace. of the Subst.-Inf. of Sub- 
ordinate Verb j (j3) in the form of a Finite Verb introduced 

by a Conjunction 453 

(&) Forms adopted by Second Verb to express intended Result 
or Aim of Principal Verb :— (a) Subst.-Inf. with ft prefixed; 

(P) Subjunctive without Conjunction 456 

(y) Subjunctive with Conjunction . 457 

(§) Usage with Verbs of Beginning and Ceasing .... 457 


§ 183. 3. Second Verb as Remote Object, specifying Direction, Pur- 
pose or Consequence of Principal Action:— (a) In the In- 
finitive , 458 

(b) In the Subjunctive without Conjunction 458 

(c) In the Subjunctive with \\QO 459 

4. Second Verb subordinated as Subst.-Inf., with the help of 

Prepositions 459 



(a) The Genitive Relation. 

§ 184. (a) The Genitive Relation:— 1. The Construct State 459 

(a) Relation of Possession 460 

(b) Genitive of Limitation 461 

(c) Genitive denoting Material or Origin 462 

(d) Genitive indicating other Determinations of Condition 463 
§ 185, Rules observed in the use of the Constr. St. Relation .... 464 
§ 186. 2. Periphrastic Indication of the Genitive: — 

(a) By means of Jf, M+, hti 468 

(b) By means of A 470 

( c ) By JijPVi to express the Partitive Genitive .... 471 

(b) Subordination through the Accusative or through Prepositions. 

§ 187. (b) Subordination through the Ace. or through Preps.:— 

1. Infinitives and Certain Descriptive Words governing an 
Accusative 47*2 

2. Conceptional and Descriptive Words, supplemented by Noun 
governed by intervening Preposition 473 

3. Prepositions employed in intensifying and comparing Quali- 
tative Conceptions , 474 


§ 188. 1. Co-ordination and Concord of Substantives and Demonstra- 
tive Prons., and of Substantives and Adjectives .... 476 

§ 189. 2. Substantives in co-ordination with Substantives .... 480 
3. Apposition-forms in the case of the Subject or the Object 
of a Sentence: — 

(a) When the Word in Apposition is a simple Substantive 481 

(b) When the Word in Apposition is an Adjective . . . 482 

(c) When an entire Clause is in Apposition 483 

§ 190. (d) Co-ordination of Predicate-Object with immediate Object, 

after Verbs of Perceiving, Declaring &c.:—l. As an Ac- 
cusative of the Participle 483 

2. As an Accusative of the Gerund, with or without Suffix . 484 

3. As a Finite Clause introduced by ft'JHi an( i equivalent to 

the Participle 484 



4. As an Independent Clause, subordinated directly to the Verb 

of Perceiving, without any Conjunction. Attraction . . . 485 

5. As a Clause subordinated by \\ao 485 

6. Predicate-Object expressed by Finite Verb in the Subjunctive, 
•with or without \\(fD, after Verbs of Causing or Making 486 

§191. Addendum: Union of Numerals and Nouns. 1. Cardinal Numbers 486 

2. Ordinal Numbers 489 


§ 192. 1. The Subject 490 

(a) Indefinite Mode of Expression 491 

(b) Impersonal Mode of Expression 492 

(c) Passive Construction 494 

§ 193. 2. The Predicate 495 

§ 194. 3. Union of Subject and Predicate: (a) Connecting-words when 

Predicate is a Noun of some kind 497 

Persona] Pronoun as Copula 498 

Use of UACD and \\ J as Connecting-words 499 

§ 195. (6) Agreement of Predicate with Subject in Gender and 

Number, when Predicate is a full Verb or an Adjective 500 

§ 196. (e) Arrangement of the Sentence: — 502 

(a) Usual Order 503 

(p) Alteration of Usual Order, for Purposes of Emphasis 504 

(Y) Other Determining Motives 507 



§ 197. 1. Negative Sentences.- (a) With ^ 508 

(6) With Ml 509 

(c)With'JfcAP 510 

(d) Various Negative Phrases . . . 512 

§ 198. 2. Interrogative Sentences.— (a) Independent Interrogation . . 513 

(b) Dependent Interrogation . . 515 

(c) Disjunctive Interrogation . . 515 

(d) Strengthening Particles in Interrogation, and Particles 

of Reply 516 

(e) Definite Interrogative Words: <W»^«, 9°7l'fr an< i others 516 
§ 199. 3. Exclamatory Sentences.— (a) With a single Noun .... 518 

(6) With the Imperative in Affirmative Charges, and the 

Subjunctive in Prohibitions 518 

(<?) Entire Sentences forming the Exclamation 519 

(d) Special Words in Exclamation 520 

(e) Optative Expressions 520 

(/) Various Exclamatory Particles 521 



(a) Copulative Clauses. 

§ 200. 1. Copulative use of ffl and YitH, and some other Particles 521 

2. Adversative Clauses, Restrictive and Intensifying Additions 

to the Sentence 525 

3. Causal and Inferential Expressions 527 

(6) Attributive Relative Clauses. 

§ 201. 1. Presence or Absence of Introductory Relative Pronoun . 527 
(a) When Rel. Pronoun is present, Supporting-Noun is 

sometimes merely understood 528 

(&) Usages when Supporting-Noun is expressly mentioned . 529 

Attraction of Noun . 530 

§ 202. 2. Expression of Case-relations of the Rel. Pronoun within 
Rel. Clause, (a) By supplementing Rel. Pron. by a Pers. 

Pron. attached as Suff. to Noun concerned 531 

Or by prefixing necessary Prep, to Suff. Pron 532 

(6) By prefixing Prepositions and Signs of Case to the Rel. 

Pron. itself 532 

(c) By longer Prepositions placed after the Rel. Pron. which 
they govern 533 

3. Relative Construction as Periphrastic Substitute for Parti- 
ciples and Adjectives 534 

4. Position of Words in a Relative Clause 536 

(c) Conjunctional Relative Clauses. 

§ 203. 1. Subject or Object expressed by an entire Clause: — 

(a) Declarative Clause introduced by ff 536 

(b) Supplementary Object-Clause introduced by il0D, 
fitltro &c 537 

(a) After Verbs of Perceiving, Recognising &c 537 

(|3) „ ■ „ „ Saying, Declaring &c 538 

(Y) „ ,, „ Fearing and Guarding against . . . 539 
(8) „ „ ,, Beginning and Leaving off ... . 539 
(e) ,, „ „ Ability, Understanding &c. "... 540 
2. Remote Object — Design, Consequence, Cause &c— expres- 
sed by an entire Clause: — 540 

(a) Final Clauses 540 

(b) Consecutive Clauses 541 

(c) Causal Clauses 542 

§ 204. 3. Comparative Clauses 542 

4. Temporal Clauses 544 



(a) Conditional Sentences. p 

§ 205. General Description. Particles and Tenses employed in Protasis 

and Apodosis ^" 

1. In Simple Conditional Sentences . 548 

2. In Unreal Conditional Sentences 551 

(b) Correlated Clauses and Words. 

§ 206. Various Formulae of Correlation 554 





Characters of the Ethiopic Alphabet l 

The Formation of Verbs T II v 

The Formation of Pronouns *I 

The Attachment of Verbal Suffixes VII 

The Gender- and Number-Formation of Nominal Stems VIII— IX 



§ 1. The beginnings of the great Abyssinian kingdom stretch sketch a 
back to pretty early times, which cannot now be more exactly oft heLan- 
determined. It emerged into the light of history immediately upon s ua ^ e - 
its conversion to Christianity in the third century, and with in- 
creasing clearness on to the seventh; and from that time forward, 
all through the Middle Ages and up to the commencement of 
the seventeenth century, it occupied an important position in the 
midst of the bordering populations of Africa and Arabia. In that 
kingdom once nourished the language commonly called Ethiopia, 
and it is to the description of that language that the present work 
is devoted. Originally one only of the manifold dialects into which 
the Arabic- African branch of the Semitic tongue split up, though 
one of the noblest among them, it gained, through the tribe by 
which it was spoken, the position of being the leading speech in 
the kingdom, starting as it did from their country of Tigre and its 
chief town Axum, and keeping pace with the development of the 
kingdom, while the modes of speech native to other tribes in the 
land lived on alongside of it merely as vulgar dialects. Farther, 
by means of the numerous writings, chiefly of Christian contents, 
which were speedily composed in it, it became bound up in the 
most intimate manner with the life of the Church and the whole 
culture of the people. In this position it maintained itself, as long 
as the centre of gravity of the kingdom remained in Tigre and 
Axum. It is true that when the South- Western provinces grew 
into importance, and the seat of government was transferred to 

the district south of Takazze toward Lake Sana, another dialect, 


- 2 - §1. 

the Amharic, came into fashion as the ordinary speech of the 
court and of the officials of the country; but Ethiopic even then 
continued to retain its full importance as the literary language, in 
which all books and even official documents were written; and the 
three centuries of this period may be regarded indeed as the age 
of the second bloom of the Ethiopic speech. It was only when 
the Gralla tribes pressed into the country after the close of the 
sixteenth century, and thus shook and loosened the entire king- 
dom, that the language received its deathblow. The kingdom was 
broken up; the several parts were dissevered from the whole; 
civilisation yielded to a rapid recrudescence of barbarism; 
Christianity was pressed hard and partly supplanted by Islam, and 
in itself it degenerated into the merest caricature of a Christian 
faith. Along with the power, culture and literature of these lands 
the venerable speech died out also. To be sure it has remained 
the sacred language and the ecclesiastical language up to the present 
day ; and, as late even as last century, books, especially the annals 
of the country, were still composed in it; but it was understood 
by the educated priests only and perhaps by a few of the nobles, 
and even such men preferred to write in Amharic. Now-a-days 
even among the priests, only a few probably are to be found who 
possess some scanty acquaintance with the Ethiopic tongue ( x ). 

The dialects of the several tribes and provinces, — most of 
them being no doubt of Semitic origin, but containing a strong 
admixture of elements from the adjoining African tongues — are 
now flourishing there in motley variety and rank luxuriance. The 
most widely extended among them is the Amharic ( 2 ), which in 

( x ) For Ethiopic Bibliography cf. : G. Fumagalli, 'Bibliografia Etiopica. 
Catalogo descrittivo e ragionato degli scritti pubblicati dalla invenzione della 
stampa fino a tutto il 1891 intorno alia Etiopia e regioni limitrofe\ Milano 
1893; [and L. Goldschmidt, 'Biblioteca Aethiopica, vollstaendiges verzeichnis 
und ausfuehrliche beschreibung saemmtlicher Aethiopischer druckwerke 1 , Leipzig 
1893, as well as the "Litteratura Aethiopica" in Peaetoeius' 'Aethiopische 
Grammatik\ Berlin 1886, p. 21 sqq.) and 0. Conti Rossini's 'Note per la storia 
htteraria abissina': Mendiconti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, Classe di 
scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, Vol. VIII (Roma 1900), p. 197 sqq.]. 

( 2 ) Europeans have been made better acquainted with this language 
through Isenbkrg's 'Dictionary of the Amharic Language 1 , London 1841, and 
'■Grammar of the Amharic Language 1 , London 1842. [V. now also Peaetoeius, 
l Die Amharische Sprache 1 , Halle 1879; Guidi, ' Grammatica elementare della 


— 3 

manifold forms is spoken, or at least understood, in Shoa and in 
all the district lying between Takazze and Abawl. On the other 
hand the language spoken in the Tigre country has retained the 
nearest resemblance to Ethiopic ( x ). 

The name, Ethiopic Language, which the old national speech it 8 Name, 
of Abyssinia commonly bears among us now, is derived from the 
classical denomination given to the inhabitants of these regions, and 
has been taken over from the Greek by the Abyssinians them- 
selves. Accordingly they called their kingdom h/tpfrf, and the 
national tongue frtfi : hfrf'fr?- Tne original native appellation 
for the people, however, and farther for their speech, is *7dlf, liter- 
ally "roaming", then as a national designation, in the sense of 
"the Boamers", "the Free"; and thus comes Afli * IdH "the 
tongue of the Free" ( 2 ). 

§ 2. In origin and essence Ethiopic is a pure Semitic speech, origin and 
transplanted by people who migrated from Yemen to Abyssinia. arac 
In its sounds and laws of sounds, in its roots, inflectional ex- 
pedients and word-forms, in all that is reckoned the structure 
and essence of a language, it bears throughout a genuine and un- 
corrupted Semitic stamp ( 3 ). All its roots may be pointed out as 
recurring in the other Semitic languages, especially in Arabic, 
although often diverging greatly in form, or preserved merely in 
a fragmentary condition. From the indigenous languages of these 
African regions only a very few names of plants and animals have 
been taken; while the names of the months, — which Ludolf ima- 
gined to have come from the same stock, — appear to be of de- 
cidedly Semitic origin. True, the Ge r ez people learned a few stray 
things, about matters so external as writing, from the Greeks, 
with whom the Abyssinians had dealings in times even before 
Christ, and with whom they continued in uninterrupted intercourse 

lingua Amarina\ Roma 1889; D'Abbadie, 'Dictionnaire de la langue Ama- 
rifma\ Paris 1881 and Guidi, 'Vocabolario amarico-italiand 1 , Roma 1901.] 

( x ) [Cf. E. Littmank, 'Die Pronomina im Tigre': Zeitschr. f. Assyrio- 
logieUl, pp. 188sqq.; 291 sqq.; 'Das Verbum der Tigresprache\ ibid. XIII, 
p. 133s^., XIV, p. lsqq.; and Noldeke, 'Die semitischen Sprachen 1 , 2 nd ed. 
Leipzig 1899, p. 71 sq.] 

( 2 ) V. Ludolfi 'Historia Aethiopica\ lib. I, cap. 1, 4, & cap. 15, 3. 

( 3 ) Pbaetorius tries to point out Hamitic elements in the Ethiopic 
Lexicon: ZDMG XLIII, p. 317 sqq. 

- 4 - §3. 

up to the Mohammedan conquest of Egypt. From the Greeks also 
they borrowed several names and several terms of art, which 
passed into the flesh and blood of the language. In a similar way 
a number of pure Aramaic and Arabic words were adopted into 
it through intercourse with the Arabs, Jews and Aramaeans. But 
the entire sum of these contributions does not exceed the ordinary 
proportion of borrowed words which prevails in other languages 
maintained otherwise in purity. Ethiopic, from its very start, was 
protected against such a considerable infusion of foreign elements 
as we see in Syriac, by the superior richness of its vocabulary, 
and by the long- continued activity of the faculty of formation 
possessed by the language, which enabled it to produce equivalent 
Ethiopic expressions for notions of every kind, however abstract 
they might be. On the other hand the language kept itself at the 
same time, as regarded 'its structure, quite free from Greek in- 
fluences. Even its Syntax, which in its flexibility, variety and 
marvellous faculty for co-ordinating and subordinating long phrases 
in one whole, so remarkably resembles Greek syntax, proves on 
closer investigation to be founded merely upon a very rich develop- 
ment, and skilful handling, of original Semitic grammatical ex- 
pedients and formative tendencies. It must, of course, be granted 
that this peculiar leaning in the Ethiopic language to grandiose 
periods and bold arrangements of words was confirmed by the 
familiarity of Abyssinian authors with Greek ( 2 ) works, and was 
thereby stimulated to a more manifold development of its several 
close Affi- § 3. Of Semitic languages Arabic is the one with which 

ArlblcT- Ethiopic has the most numerous and close affinities ( 2 ). Nothing 
Begem- e \ se cou id h aV e been expected, when regard is had to the derivation 

blances and f» ci i ai- i i 

Differences, of the Abyssinian Semites from Southern Arabia, and to the 
active intercourse which they long maintained with it. This re- 
lationship is at once and clearly betrayed by marks like the follow- 
ing: — in the alphabetical system — the division of the old Semitic 

( x ) V., however, Pkaetobius, 'Grammatik der Tigrinasprache\ Halle 
1871, p. 2, Bern. 

( 2 ) V., on the other hand, Haupt, 'J. Am. Or. Soc.\ Vol. XIII, p. 
COLIIs^., according to whose opinion Ethiopic, of all the Semitic lan- 
guages, stands nearest to Assyrian. 

§3. - 5 - 

n and S each into two separate sounds ; in the structure of words 
and inflections — the frequent endings in a short vowel, the greater 
multiplicity of conjugational forms in the Verb, and the fuller 
development of Quadriliteral and Multiliteral roots, — the Inner 
Plural or Collective formation in the Noun, the regular distinguish- 
ing of the Accusative, as also of the Indicative and Subjunctive in 
the Imperfect, the capability of attaching two Pronominal suffixes 
to one verb, and a host of other scattered and subordinate phe- 
nomena; in the vocabulary — an unmistakeable array of roots 
which are elsewhere developed or preserved in Arabic only, and 
not in the more northerly Semitic languages. 

And yet Ethiopic is far from being a mere dialect of Arabic, 
especially if we understand by that the ordinary Literary or 
Middle Arabic. In fact the vocabularies of the two present a 
very peculiar contrast, in respect that Ethiopic usually employs 
altogether different words and roots from Arabic, for the ex- 
pression of precisely those notions and objects which are most 
frequently met with in common life( 1 ), while vice versa the words 
and roots, usual in Arabic in such cases, are found in Ethiopic in 
scattered traces only. Then the most of the Prepositions and 
Conjunctions are quite different in the two, with the exception of 
a few which are common to all the Semitic tongues. In the 
structure of its syllables Ethiopic has not developed the richness 
in Vowels which characterises Arabic, or else it has lost it again: 
in this respect it comes nearer to Hebrew. As regards its roots, 
it has, in opposition to all the other Semitic languages, very 
strongly-marked phonetic changes and transpositions, and it oc- 
cupies quite a peculiar and unique position in the Semitic family 
through the evolution of the it-containing Gutturals and Palatals. 
Ethiopic never attained to the copious wealth of Eorms possessed 
by Arabic, although it is certain that it had a greater number of 
forms in earlier times. In particular, Diminutives and Augmen- 

ts Compare the words for:— God, Man (Homo), Man, Woman, Body, 
Sight, Earth, Land, Town, King, Animal, Sun, Moon, Day, Mountain, Valley, 
good, bad, big, little, much, rich, poor, remaining; farther for:— to go, to reach, 
to turn back, to follow, to send, to forsake, to fall, to sit down, to dwell, to flee, 
io carry, to will, to call, to command, to write, to seek, to finish, to find, to 
repeat, to conquer, to say, to tell, to act, to rejoice, to love, to bum, to 
build &c. 

- 6 - §3. 

tatives are altogether wanting, as well as the Emphatic state ( 1 ). 
It farther took a different course from Arabic in the formation of 
the Imperfect, as well as in Case-formation — with the exception 
of the Accusative. In the sensitiveness of its vowels to the ut- 
terance of a guttural ( 2 ) it ranges itself with Hebrew rather than 
with Arabic. It has gone farther than the rest of the Semitic 
languages in evolving strong roots out of weak ones; and it has 
developed the formation of the Conjugations in certain directions 
with more consistency than Arabic itself. And in various other 
things ( 3 ) it has kept to a more antique stage than the rest of the 
Semitic tongues. Ethiopic has no Article, but it has preserved 
an originality and a fulness in the department of the Pronouns, 
unmatched by its sister languages. Then it has a host of prono- 
minal particles, of which not a trace is now left in Arabic, while 
in the perfecting of Enclitics it has followed out an original 
Semitic bent with a thoroughness which is found nowhere else. 
In framing Sentences and Periods it has hrought into many-sided 
use expedients and devices, which have long been given up in 
Arabic, but are still hinted at in Hebrew as belonging to the 
ancient Semitic speech. As regards its treatment of the Gender 
of Nouns, it seems to transfer us quite to the original condition 
of the language, when the settlement of Gender was still in 
process, and all as yet was fluctuating; nor has it gained any 
fixity on this point, even in its latest stages. And finally, we 
come upon many expressions in the vocabulary, which have dis- 
appeared from Arabic, at least in the meaning concerned, al- 
though they belonged to the original Semitic common-stock ( 4 ). 

(*) According to D. H. Muller, 'Epigraphische Denhmaler cms Abes- 
sinien\ Vienna 1894, p. 72 = ' Denkschriften d. h. AJcad. d. Wiss., phil.-hist. 
Ctosse' XLIII, III— these conditions are to be explained by the influence of 
the Hamitic tongues upon Ethiopic. 

( 2 ) Of. Konig, l Neue Studien iiber Schrift, Aussprache wad allgemeine 
Formenlehre des Aethiopischeri', Leipzig 1877, p. 137. 

( 3 ) Konig classes along with these {ibid. p. 87 sq.) the Imperfect-form 
JW7C> tlie endings \\, fa., ft« in the Yerb, and the Feminine formation of 
Adjectives like, thHil, v. infra §§ 92, 129, 13B. 

(*) M^ (tf«), bb (V?)» Ml? (w), mCV (dt) (£j;ls)> iHh 
(dw?>), dM (*-*!) <W, FT** (pii»), *"7A0° (ton), <*»1fr* 

§4. - 7 - 

All this leads to the conclusion that Ethiopic, after its sep- 
aration from the Northern Semitic, pursued a common course 
with Arabic for some time longer, hut parted company with it at 
a pretty early date and at a time in fact when Arabic had not 
yet attained to its present luxuriance in forms, nor yet to its 
strictly regular, inflexible, stiff monotony. Ethiopic in this way 
saved a good deal of the old Semitic, which Arabic suffered to 
decay, and it also developed a portion of it in a wholly different 
manner from Arabic. The most of its force, however, subsequent 
to its severance from the rest of the Semitic languages, was ap- 
plied to the elaboration of a multiplicity in the methods of con- 
joining and arranging words in a sentence, — answering to the 
multiplicity existing in the possible modes of thought and dis- 
course, — an d to the development of the pronominal section of the 
roots which specially conveys the more subtle relations and con- 
ditions of thought. 

§ 4. In contrast, however, with the antique character of Dereiop- 
Ethiopic— in various respects truly remarkable,— stand a large ™^ ige * 
number of decidedly later modes of formation and expression, in 
which we see it coinciding with languages that have reached an 
advanced stage of development, like Aramaic. In this reference 
we attach no particular importance to the softening of the pro- 
nunciation of one or two Semitic sounds, such as Gutturals and 
Sibilants, inasmuch as that process appears to have predominated 
only in the course of the Middle Ages, and is a phenomenon 
illustrated contemporaneously in other Semitic dialects, though 
it has gone farthest in Amharic. But our statement is borne 
out by the fact that Ethiopic has given up, or replaced by 
external formations, many old forms and inner formations, which 
once it must have had, as well as by the fact that, alongside 
of the old forms and formations which it retains, it has ad- 
mitted several new and more external ones, mainly with the 
view of attaining thereby to a greater freedom in the structure 
of its periods. It has entirely given up the Dual both in Verb 

(nD»), tone (nap, fcfrtu* (W> oaD i (D, ?o)> flhn c«#)>" "If A 
(*&), VK (Kto), *1UA (^j^n?), a>t>h («£), fcAtf*»£ Cnafe, ft&£ 
(-ibd), V*l£ (*)3i) T , (D£id (nT), ftm-Atl (a^in) (^), m$0 (vp.$), 

LIS (rns) (-*»), mf 4> (pn) (<jte), and several others - 

- 8 - §4. 

and Noun, just like Aramaic. Towards the formation of Nouns 
and Inner Plurals it has manifestly at one time possessed a greater 
number of forms, but owing to a certain economy, abundantly 
noticeable too in other matters, it has put many of them aside as 
being unnecessary. Even in the Yerb this frugality is shown, so 
that only a few verbs make use of more than four Conjugations 
(Stems), while the most of them do not use even so many. A special 
Passive voice is no longer met with; and its place is supplied by the 
Reflexive, just as in Syriac. The Active Participle, in the simple 
Conjugation (Stem) at least, has almost disappeared: in the derived 
conjugations it is more frequently formed to be sure, but still not 
regularly, and it is very often lengthened by an external Adjective- 
ending. Upon the whole the place of the Participle is taken either 
by Conjunctional Periphrasis or by some other grammatical device. 
The simple Adjective-formation has greatly decayed. Gn the 
other hand the formation of words by external addition through 
prefixes and suffixes, and the formation of derived Substantives 
and Adjectives, have gained ground. Ethiopic, as we know it, has 
the capacity of forming Adjectives from all possible Nouns by 
means of added terminations, of deriving many Abstracts by 
means of endings, and of advancing Collectives to be Nouns of 
bulk by means of external plural-endings. Even from Nouns 
that had been formed by means of external increase, it derives 
new Verbs, still preserving the additions found in the Nominal 
formation, and it has allowed the external formation strongly to 
affect the Infinitive also. To express the Genitive relation it has 
developed, alongside of the old Construct state, the indication 
given by an external Genitive sign, just like Aramaic. The 
roundabout expression of the Genitive and Accusative relations 
by means of a pronoun appended to the governing word, followed 
by a preposition having reference thereto, — is quite as often met 
with in Ethiopic as in Syriac, and at the same time it serves in 
most cases to compensate for the Article. The use of a pronoun 
affixed to the verb, with a dative signification, has become very 
common. Then along with the early Semitic form and method of 
conjoining words in the sentence, ample occupation has been 
found for Prepositions and Conjunctions in this endeavour. And, 
— to come back once more to the sounds of the language, — 
the disappearance of the short i and u, and the dissolving of all 

§ 5. _ 9 — 

the short vowels, except a, into the most undefined and character- 
less of all the vowels, viz. the short e, constitute a phenomenon 
not indeed original, but still very ancient, in the Ethiopic speech. 

Consequently much that is old and much that is new lie 
here together, sometimes strangely mingled: Things which in 
other languages are allotted to different stages of growth or to 
different dialects are met with in Ethiopic side by side. We may 
therefore conclude that Ethiopic, as it presents itself to us in its 
literature, has a long period of development behind it, and that 
the people who once spoke it attained in early times to a high 
degree of culture. Moreover the people who produced such an 
admirable and majestic style of sentence with the implements of 
Semitic speech must have been endowed with great intellectual 
genius and logical gifts. 

8 5. It would be a highly desirable advantage for us of changes in 

its Pho- 

course, to be better acquainted with the language during the time netic Syg . 
when it was thus coming into being, and to be able to follow it ^ m * nd 

° Vocabu- 

up throughout its various stages of development. But just as in iary. 
most other languages, so also in this, such an advantage is denied 
us. The most ancient of the larger monuments of Ethiopic which 
we have, viz. the two long Axumite inscriptions, made known by 
E. BtJPPELL ( x ) — barely reach back to the end of the 5 th century 
of our era. Certainly other shorter inscriptions from Axum and 
other places exist, and have been to some extent noticed already 
in books of travel ( 2 ), being of still older date than those first- 
mentioned, — to judge from the form of their letters: they are, 
however, both too short and too inaccurately copied to enable us 
to deduce much from them. Lastly, the Minao-Sabaic monuments, 
which in quite recent times were discovered in great quantities, 
exhibit to us a language that, in spite of the agreement in alpha- 
betical character, diverges greatly from Ethiopic, and furnish us 

(*) In the Supplement to his 'Travels' printed 1838—40; v. notice of 
the work in ZDMG VII, p. 338 sqq. [V. also D. H. Muller, ' Epigraphische 
Denkmaler aus Abessinien\] 

( 2 ) V. the Travels of Salt and Lord Valentia: One of the In- 
scriptions mentioned there has been republished in Isenberg's 'Dictionary of 
the Amh. Lang., p. 209. [V. also C. Oonti Rossini, 'L'iscrizione delV obe- 
lisco presso Matara: Bendiconti delta B. Accad. del Lined Vol. V (Roma 1896) 
p. 250 sqq.] 

— 10 — § 5. 

with a proof that the last-named language parted company in very 
early times with its sister languages of Southern Arabia. Thus it 
comes that we have not the means of acquainting ourselves with 
the condition of the Abyssinian national speech in times anterior 
to the conversion of the country to the Christian faith. And it is 
only from stray internal evidence, as for instance from the oc-~ 
casional appearance still, with the Noun, of the Suffix Pronoun 
of the 1 st Pers. Sing, i, instead of a later (e)ya,—imm the re- 
tention of e 0«) in a few Interrogative Particles, or the Negative 
g n (^), — and such other things, — that we are able to conclude 
that Ethiopic in its earliest period of development had a much 
closer affinity with Hebrew than appears in the later form of the 
language. For this very reason we need not wonder that the 
deciphering of the Minao-Sabaic inscriptions yielded many re- 
markable analogies between that dialect and Hebrew. 

Altogether Ethiopic appears at the beginning of its last 
thousand years of existence as already a full-grown language, 
which experienced only a few alterations as time went on. The 
principal changes which it underwent during that period concern 
on the one hand its phonetic system, particularly in the pronun- 
ciation of its vowels, and on the other its vocabulary, and the 
continuance in use, or the falling out of use, exhibited by one or 
two Word-forms. In the first reference we hold that not earlier 
than during that period can the softening of the pronunciation 
of many Consonants have become so marked and so general, — 
that many peculiarities in the relation of Gutturals to Vowels are 
of comparatively late origin, — and that many words and forms 
have exchanged a fuller and more original Towel-pronunciation 
for one more faint and faded. We cannot, it is true, obtain proof 
for what has been advanced, from a comparison of the Inscriptions 
with the later literary language, because these inscriptions have 
themselves only defective and occasionally fluctuating vowel-signs (*) 
(§ 12 sq.); but the most ancient Manuscripts which we possess, 
dating from the 13 th and 14 th centuries onwards, place in our 
hands evidence of every kind to support those propositions; and 
we may infer that if we ever came upon Manuscripts belonging 

( x ) [This view, however, is not confirmed by the accurate copies which 
we now possess: The Axumite Inscriptions are fully vocalised.] 

§6. - 11 - 

to any of the six or seven earlier centuries, such evidence would 
flow in upon us still more copiously. The details of these questions 
will be explained farther on, in the Grammar itself. 

As regards the other point, all truly careful investigation of 
old Texts, up to the oldest, and their various readings, proves 
that many forms and words, and meanings of single words, though 
in use in earlier days, fell into disuse as time went on, and were 
replaced by new ones, — also and specially, that Arabic words, 
which were rarely employed in the language of literature, but 
were quite intelligible to the people, streamed in again more 
abundantly in the days of lively intercourse with Arabic-speaking 
populations and tribes, or through the medium of books trans- 
lated from Arabic ( x ). 

8 6. The language was cultivated for literary purposes Etwopic 

. Literature. 

mainly in the service of religion and of the Church, lhe large Modem in- 
majority of the extant writings are of ecclesiastical character. ™** e ga ~ 
These had their basis in the versions of the Books of the Old 
and New Testaments, in the widest acceptation of the word, 
which versions were followed forthwith by the translation, or 
even the independent elaboration, of a series of theological and 
liturgical works. Beyond question all native authors, in their 
methods of thought and statement, were dependent more or less 
on Scripture models. After the Mohammedan conquest of Egypt, 
and following the cultivation of an Arabic Christian literature, it 
was in their turn these Arabic models by which Ethiopic authors 
let themselves be swayed. The language at that time found varied 
application in setting forth historical, legal, chronological and 
mathematical material. Many original works of the most diverse 
kinds were produced in the latest period of prosperity enjoyed 

( x ) In neither of these points referred to has much been done hitherto 
for the investigation of Ethiopic. Ludolf paid no attention whatever to 
such historical examination of the language, and represented many things 
which are ancient and divergent as being mere copyists' errors. So too 
Thomas Pell Platt, in the edition of the N. T. which he prepared for the 
English Bible Society (London 1830) [reprinted at Leipzig 1899], disregarded 
this point of view. As for myself I have devoted special attention to this 
matter in my editions of Texts, as the Apparatus Criticus found in them will 
-show, but I must express the wish that others who edit Texts would do the 
«ame thing. 

- 12 - §6. 

by the speech and the nation, namely from 1300 to 1600 A. D., 
among which incontestably the most important are the great 
native Chronicles. Mohammedan Magic-hooks also, and writings 
on Astrology and Medicine, gained entrance among the people 
about the time when barbarism and darkness crept over them. 
Poetry was always cherished by the Ethiopians with special predi- 
lection, but almost exclusively in the service of religion, so far as 
we yet know. The great Service Hymn-books of the seventh and 
following centuries are fine poetical productions, but constructed 
very decidedly on the model of the Psalms. Later on, Sacred 
Poetry degenerates into an innumerable quantity of Encomia of 
Saints — men and women, — and proportionately sinks in intrinsic 
value. Unfortunately this department of Ethiopic literature has 
hitherto been very little enquired into ; yet this much we can even 
now see, — that an artistic Metric had never been developed 
in it; the farthest that was reached in the evolution of orderly 
form was the articulating of verse in symmetrical strophes, ac- 
companied with rhyme,— for the matter of that often enough very 

The Ethiopic language has never had native grammarians, 
as far as yet known ; and this circumstance sufficiently explains 
why one or two phenomena- in it, — like, for instance, the Conju- 
gational-formation (Stem) and Imperfect-formation of several 
derived Conjugations (Stems), or the treatment of the Gender of 
Nouns — , continued to the last so fluctuating and irregular. 
1 Attempts at Ethiopic-Amharic Dictionaries were made in 
abundance, it is true, about the time the speech was dying out, 
but they are all very crude, and do not occupy themselves with 
the grammatical part of the language. 

In Europe people began to interest themselves in Ethiopic, 
in the 16 th century. Besides the Abyssinian Tesea-Zion and his 
associates, who published the N. T. at Rome in 1548, — and to 
some extent even before him, — it was John Potken of Cologne, 
Maeiantts Victoeius of Keate, Jo. Scaligee, Th. Peteaeus and 
J. G. Nisselius, Jac. Wemmees at Antweep, and lastly Edmund 
Castell, who rendered meritorious services to Ethiopic in various 
degrees, partly by printing some of the shorter Texts, and partly 
by grammatical and lexical endeavours ( x ). A more comprehensive 

C 1 ) Cf. also: '■Chaldaeae seu Aethiopicae linguae Institutiones: nunguam 

§ 6. — 13 — 

and exact acquaintance with the tongue we owe first, however, to 
the immortal services of Job Ludolf (*) , who published the first 
edition of his 'Orammatica Aethiopica\ 4 t0 , in 1661, and the second 
edition, folio, in 1702, the latter being still useful. A second and 
indispensable help was added in his 'Lexicon Aethiopico-Latinum\ 
the second edition of which, folio, was printed at Frankfort-on- 
the-Maine in 1699. Inasmuch as Ludolp in his labours had the 
advantage of being tutored by a born Ethiopian, — Gbegoby, — 
at a time when Ethiopic was still tolerably well understood in 
Abyssinia, we must take his facts as the groundwork for all which 
relates to Pronunciation. It deserves to be kept in view, however, 
that the facts referred to, justify conclusions merely for the pro- 
nunciation of Ethiopic common in later times, and are not to be 
relied upon throughout. In every other point the labours of 
Ltjdoli 1 have long outlived their sufficiency. Judged from the 
present position of philology they can no longer be regarded as 
satisfactory in any single part. During the 150 years that have 
elapsed since Ludolf's day, the furtherance of our knowledge of 
Ethiopic has been almost wholly neglected both in Germany and 
in the rest of Europe. At the most a few printed texts have been 
revised or simply re-issued, and an occasional reference to Ethio- 
pic has been made here and there in Hebrew Grammars and 
Dictionaries ( 2 ). In 1825 H. Hupfeld gave( 3 ) a certain impulse 

antea a Latinis visae, opus utile ac eruditum. Item, — Omnium Aethiopiae 
regum qui ab inundato terrarum orbe usque ad nostra tempora intperarunt 
Libellus: hactenus tarn Graecis quam Latinis ignoratus, nuper ex Aethiopica 
translatus lingua 1 . And at the end: 'Impressit omnia quae in hoc libro con- 
tinentur, ex primatum licentia Valerius Doricus Brixien, opera Angeli De 
Oldeadis. Romae. Anno natali Christi M.D.L.IL 4°. [For the first printed 
text of the Psalms (in 1513), and of the N. T. v. also Guidi, 'La prima 
8tampa del Nuovo Testamento in Etiopico fatta in Roma nel 1548 — 1549', 
in Vol. IX of the Archivio della R. Societa Romana di Storia patria, Rome 

( x ) [Cf. J. Flemming, 'ITiob Ludolf: Ein Beitrag zur G-eschichte der 
orientalischen Philologie' in Beitrage zur Assyriologie, Vol. I, 1890, p. 537 sqq, 
and Vol. II, 1894, p. 63 sqq.] 

( 2 ) The 'Grammatica Aethiopica conscripta' a Jo, Phil. Hartmanno, 
Frankfort a. M. 1707, 4 t0 is a poor epitome of Lxjdolf's work; nor has 
learning been advanced by J. G. Hasse's 'Handbuch der arabischen und 
athiopischen 8prache\ Jena 1793. 

( 3 ) In a paper written in early youth 'Exercitationes Aethiopicae 1 

- 14 - §6. 

to the resumption of grammatical labours in the field of our 
language, without, however, this start having been followed up 
either by himself or others. Some valuable contributions to 
Ethiopic phonology have been furnished by H. TuchC) ; and many 
excellent hints on isolated phenomena in the Ethiopic language 
are found in the latest edition of Ewald's l Ausfuhrliches Lehr- 
buch der hebraischen Sprache'^). 

Lips. 1825, 4°. The chief merit of this paper lies in pointing out the true 
distinction between the first and the second Conjugations (Stems) of the 
Yerb, which Ludolf had entirely mistaken. As to what Hupfeld has ad- 
vanced about the Ethiopic pronouns in his treatise 'Semitische Demonstrativ- 
bildung' in the 2 ud vol. of the Zeitschr. f. d. K. d. Morg., it appears to me 
in many respects untenable. Deechslee's work 'De Aethiopicae linguae 
conjugationibus\ Lipsiae 1825, has complicated rather than amended Ludolf's 
theory of Stem-formation: the sole value it possesses belongs to its collection 
of supporting-passages for a series of verbal forms. 

( x ) I. 'Commentatio de Aethiopicae linguae sonorum proprietatibus 
quibusdam\ Lips. 1854; II. 'De Aethiopicae linguae sonorum sibilantium 
natura et usu\ Lips. 1854. 

( 2 ) [V. now, particularly A. Dillmann's 'Lexicon linguae Aethiopicae 
cum indice Latino 1 , Lips. 1865, as well as F. Pkaetorius' Aethiopische Gram- 
matik mit Paradigmen, Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar' = 'Porta lin- 
guarum Orientalium 1 . — inchoavit J. H. Peteemann, continuavit Herm. L. 
Strack.,— Pars VII, Leipzig 1886.] 


As the Etliiopic alphabetic Character differs completely in 
form and in kind from that of the other known Semitic tongues, 
the subject itself invites us to begin with a description of that 


§ 7. The Ethiopic Character has been fashioned, by a series Miuao- 

of more or less important alterations, from the Minao-Sabaic rf^ of 

character, or one resembling it, and together they represent the the Alpha- 
betic Chfl- 
Southern branch of the alphabetical systems, into which the ori- raoters. 

ginal Semitic alphabet was very early divided. The opinion of 
earlier scholars, that the Ethiopic Character was of Greek origin^), 
must now be regarded as completely set aside. The characters 
of the Abyssinian Inscriptions are either identical with the Minao- 
Sabaic, or so like them that there can be no manner of doubt 
about their derivation ( 2 ). The changes which the Minao-Sabaic 

(*) Y. on this point Hopfeld, Exercitationes Aeth. p. 1—4 and Kopp, 
'Bilder und Schriften der TorzeiV. Ludolf too inclined to this view, but 
still he thought that the 'inventor' had had an eye also on the Samaritan 
alphabet, therein showing a correct apprehension of the Semitic origin of 
this Character (Hist. IV, 1. Comment, p. 60, 555). 

( 2 ) As to the literature, cf. E. Konig, l Neue Studien uber Schrift, Aus- 
sprache, und allgemeine Formenlehre des Aethiopischen, aus den Quellen ge- 
schbpft, comparativ und physiologisch erlautertf. Leipzig 1877 [in what follows, 
quoted as "KoNiG"]. Farther, Schlottmakn in Riehm's HWB p. 1420852.'; 
Derenboueg, l Journ. as.' VII, 19, p. dlbsqq.; Fkdb. Mullee, l Ueber den Vr- 
sprung der himjarisch-athiopischen Schriff, Vienna 1869 [and D. H. Muller, 

the Conso 

- 16 - §8. 

form of writing has undergone in Abyssinia are manifold, and 
will be farther described by-and-by; but they are not so marked 
as to prevent us from recognising without difficulty the ancient 
Minao-Sabaic characters in the ordinary Ethiopic ones, indepen- 
dently even of the intervention of the Ethiopic Inscriptions {cf. 
Table I). The character, like the speech itself, and even more 
decidedly, has kept to a very antique stage. Both in print, and 
as a rule in Manuscripts, it is inscribed with large, firmly impressed 
strokes; and the older the manuscripts, the more pronounced is 
this feature. 
Number of § q. I. Like all the other Semitic forms of writing, the 

Ethiopic is originally consonantal. The number and the order of 
these consonants are not the same, however, in this language as 
in the others. Farther, the names given them are here and there 

(1) In Number the Ethiopic Consonants are six-and-kventy, 
— four more than in the Northern Semitic tongues. Two of these 
four are accounted for by dividing, in two cases, a sound that once 
was single into two modes of pronunciation. The strong Guttural 
n was divided, just as among the Arabs, into the two sounds th 
( ), and *} ( •,) ; and in the same way the sibilant X was divided 
into ft (ye) and (^e). Other divisions, peculiar to the Arabs, 
of sounds originally one into two, viz. n into c^ and &, 1 into t> 
and <j>, and is into Jo and Jfe, are unknown to the Ethiopians, though 
perhaps the Minao-Sabaeans had them. On the other hand the 
Abyssinians possess two additional sounds, which were not admitted 
into Arabic, viz,— a hard, peculiarly-formed Labial (§ 28) ft = J?; 
and one that answers more to the usual p, — that is f, mostly 
employed in foreign words. Besides these 26 characters, Amharic 
letters appear, it is true, in Ethiopic books, when foreign words 

'Epigraphische Denkmaler aus Abessinien', p. 69 ; M. Lidzbarski, 'Ephemeris 
fur semitische Epigraphik' I, p. 109 sqq., II, p. 23 sqq.; and Praetorius, ZDMG 
LVIII (1904), p. 715sqq.]. On the earlier theory of the connection of 
the Ethiopic alphabet with the Indian, cf. Salt, 'Voyage to Abyssinia 1 (1814), 
p. 415; Lepsius, 'Zwei sprachvergleichende Abhandlungen 1 (1836), p. 76 sq. and 
Deeke, ZDMG XXXI, p. 598; on the opposite side, Dowson, 'J. Bog. As. 
Soc? XIII (1881), pt. 1.— Completely astray is the account given in J. Bird's 
'Sur I'origine de V alphabet Himiarite et de I' alphabet Ethiopien' in 'Nouvelles 
annales des voyages' 1 , Paris 1845, Tol. II, p. 196 sqq. 


— 17 

or native proper names from the various Abyssinian dialects have 
to be written with greater exactness, but these do not concern 

us here( x ). 

8 9 (2) The Names of these alphabetical characters and Names of 

° ' ct J the Conao- 

sounds are essentially the same as among the other bemites, and nants> 
have manifestly been taken over along with the alphabet ( 2 ). Some 
of them have been so far altered as to conform to the Ethiopic 
expression or word in use, without the original sense of the Name 
being affected; a few others remain only in a corrupt form and 
without any clear meaning. In particular, Alf, Bet, Geml, Kdf, 
Ain directly coincide with the old names: Qaf is to be under- 
stood for Qof, according to § 18 ; Tait and Sadai rest upon the 
resolution of the diphthong e into ai: Bees is the ordinary Ethiopic 
word for "head", Mai, for "water": the old name Yod was not 
available, because the Ethiopic word for "hand" was rather "hR, 
and it was accordingly replaced suitably by Yaman "right hand": 
for a like reason Nun "fish", which word is not in use in Ethiopic, 
has been exchanged for a word of like meaning Nahas "serpent"; 
in this way in the last two cases the starting sounds y and n have 
been properly preserved. But when the Ethiopians exchanged Pe 
"mouth" for Af which is their word for "mouth", then the general 
rule } — according to which the commencing sound in the name 
must be the same as the sound of the character, — was set at 
nought, and a clear proof was given at the same time that the 
Ethiopic name is not the original one. For Waw and Taw the 
Ethiopians, in accordance with § 38, say Waive, Tawe. For Het 
they prefer to use an Arabic word, but of the same meaning, Haut 

(JeLrL), and for its sister-sound they have created a new name of 

like meaning, Harm U^ DID) "hedge" ( 3 ). On the other hand^ai, 

(*) [For the benefit of students, however, these letters have been added 
on Table I. te.] 

( 2 ) On the names of the Ethiopic Consonants among the Abyssinians 
of to-day, consisting each of an Ethiopic word, which starts with the sound 
designated, e. g. * */"&, 1 I'Tl^, 0rh£ cf. Praetorius, 'Amhar. Spr.' 
§ 16 and ZDMG- XLI, p. 687. [Cf. farther, on the names of the Ethiopic 
Letters, Noldeke, 'Die semitischen Buchstabennamen' in 'Beitr. z. Semit. 
Sprachwissenschaff , Strassburg 1904, p. 131 sqq, te.] 

( 3 ) [Noldeke ('Beitr. z. semit, Sprachio: p. 133) rejects this explanation 


— 18 — § 10. 

Dent (v. Gesenius, l Thes.' > p. 727, and infra § 32) and still more 
strongly Laive, proj)eiiy Laiv, — seem to have been corrupted from 
ZainC), Dalt and Lamed respectively: These three names have 
no longer any meaning in Ethiopia Hoi is just as obscure a name 
as He, with which it appears to be identical. The most obscure 
names, however, continue to be Saut and Sat instead of Shin and 
Samech: the most probable explanation is that they are imitations 
of the outward form of the names Haiti and Bet, to the characters 
of which their own present a resemblance. Sappa(*) (originally 

Dappa) I compare with jU.o "a bolt", which is quite appropriate 
to the ancient form of the character. Fait is a name formed in 
imitation of Tail, next to which it stands in the Alphabet; and 
Pa is the Greek Pi: Moreover, the name of the last-mentioned 
character was once given with a slight sibilation, — Psa. 
order of the § 10. (3) Of more importance, however, than its divergence 

Alphabet, from the Northern-Semitic Alphabet in the Names of the Conso- 
nants, is the divergence of the Ethiopic alphabet in the Order in 
which they stand. The Hebrew order of the characters is, as we 
know, very ancient •, but we do not know how ancient the Ethiopic 
order may be, nor even whether the Minao-Sabaeans had the 
same order. We are not justified in contending right off that the 
Hebrew order is the original, and the Ethiopic the derived one. 
It may, on the other hand, with some reason be thought that 
during the times which followed the invention and spread of the 
Alphabet different orders of the letters came into vogue, being 
definitely arranged in different ways in different regions. And in 
fact, on closer investigation of the order of the Ethiopic Alphabet, 
one peculiarity in it appears to yield the inference that that order 
may well be very ancient, and other orders compared with it be 
decided innovations ( 3 ). The Northern-Semitic alphabet, as is well 

of the name Harm, remarking that »j.*. begins with _ and not with p and 
does not mean "hedge". He says the name rather suggests a connection with 
g }G0°'i m l ' a small stroke", tr.] 

(*) Although it should be noticed that the Greeks have no nasal sound 
either, in the name of their letter lyra (v. Hupf. p. 2). 

( 3 ) Certainly not an imitation of Kappa, as Gesenius in 'Eesch und 
Gruber's Encyclopadie* would have it. 

( 3 ) Cf. Bohmer, ZDMG XVI, p. 579. 

— 478 — §188. 

an Adjective in the Plural masculine, or feminine. But all other 
Plurals, particularly those of inner formation (Collective forms), 
may again be conceived of as compact collective notions, and. 
therefore as Singulars, and either masculine or feminine, — fol- 
lowing in fact the same fluctuation which prevails in the Gender 
of the Singular. In these cases a Plural may just as readily be 
associated with an Adjective in the Singular masculine or femi- 
nine, as with an Adjective in the Plural m. or f. (v. § 135). We 
meet with •flH-'Vj i ;V|»ft? Mark 2, 15; ftjMHl ■" 'flH^'J Mark 
3,20; h£(\C i WP'} i (DhdhlC i ><PW Hen. 1,6; Oft.?* i 
fl>£-4-fH- » M-t Hen. 5,4; 600) : '(lH-^i Hen. 32,3; hAM* : 
h(h a lC Mark 4, 36;— but also with -\*h9°^'i t ' OhJ$\ '• <Dfl(Nh> 
Hen. 36,4; ^a^ }^ : "7^ Hen. 67, 13; KAflfl • V>Hfft Gen. 24, 
53; -flH-V : fc^H-fl Gen. 17,4; Ohh* » ?W Hen. 13,10; TJj* 
*t ' -TlA-je. Matt. 9, 17; "?^ : -m<\ Ps. 92, 6; ^q^.* ' !*"?£. 
It may be given as a general observation, that any Plural, what- 
ever be its form, may be joined to an Adjective in the Plural in 
that gender which belongs to the word in the Singular, — but also 
that any Plural, or even Plural of Plurals (§ 141) may be conceived 
of too as a Singular, — in which case it usually takes to itself the 
Adjective in the Singular and in the readiest gender, the Mascu- 
line, although it may also be in the Feminine. But, on the other 
hand, words which are Singular in form, — if they are either es- 
sentially the expression of collective notions, or even have merely 
a collective meaning in the particular passages concerned — , are 
joined to the Plural of the Adjective, and that too in the Gender 
which properly belongs to the individual components of the collec- 
tive idea: -fllKV} : frflfc Mark 4,1; AlMl : KWi Gen. 14,5; 
Deut. 9,2; JHlrh'T" : Od n P'l* "great splendours" ('great magnifi- 
cence') Hen. 65, 12; AH£tf»87i : "Thfl^Afc" ■ C'lb^'i "for distant 
future generations" Hen. 1, 2( a ); and even OOh^'f* : OflJ&i' 
Hen. 85, 6 ; cf. also 0fl£"Th : Tf«S"{J° with 0fl.f : fl^ao 1 Esr. 2, 
49. — An Adjective which admits of an inner plural form, generally 
assumes it when the Noun, with which it is co-ordinated, has also 
the Collective form: OV'flC^ ' Ofltf^ Gen. 1,21; ^h9°C » Ofl 
fft Josh. 24, 17 ; hfon-n i Onj&^ : <D8Vn Josh. 23, 9; Ma** 

(*) [Instead of the last two words here, Flbmming reads C/h«]Hf*> the 
Fern. Sing, and does not, like Dillmann, repeat ^|"lO"AJ?r« TR I 

— 20 — § 10. 

ing occasioned the shifting of rh into the first row, and of ft 
into the second, through which arrangement the juxtaposition of 
the Gutturals in one and the same row was secured. On the other 
hand £, may have changed place with fl, only when it became 
necessary to attach -p to the Ethiopic alphabet, and then £ was 
finally placed at the end of the second row immediately before f. 

(3) When men had still a clear consciousness of the twofold 
division of the alphabet, the two Southern-Semitic sounds *Tr and 
were added, one to each row, and in fact at the end of each 
row. In consequence, the letter ft came to stand immediately 
before its sister-sound at the end; and, in accordance with the 
first of the points of view which are being noticed here, V was 
moved on to **i and in fact placed after it, to separate *\ from \\. 

(4) Then a regard to the similarity of the sounds operated as a 
last regulative point of view. People wanted to have similar 
sounds as close together as possible, and only separated them in 
the several instances by one letter of a different nature, in order 
that two which were similar might not directly clash together. 
In this way d\ is brought up to U, but is separated from it by A; 
rt to IP but separated by £; £ to m, separated by 1; while ft 
and at one time did not resemble each other in sound so closely 
as they came to do later. Thus the first row, — originally beginning 
with A and ending with -f? — contains the Liquids A 0° *i and ^, 
together with the two Sibilants ft and w, along with the three 
Gutturals th *1f and the three Mutes «J» fl »J» (fl in place of original 
<£.) ; and the entire series begins with a guttural corresponding to 
the Alf. This row gives the most clear indications of purposeful 
arrangement. In the second row, as compared with the correspond- 
ing Hebrew one, still more violent transpositions are to be noticed. 
It is only K (D H f which present any likeness to the Hebrew 
succession. In 7 m & however, we again meet with three Mutes 
placed together, and in ni ft ft with four Explosives. 

I have not up till now met with any deviation from the 
order developed hereC 1 ) - , yet it is to be noted that Potken inter- 

O An Ethiopic alphabet is met with in the MS. Add. 16240 of the 
British Museum; cf. Dillmann, 'Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum Orien- 
talium qui in Museo Britannico asservantur' ; pars tertia, Londini 1847, p. 58, 
No. LXXI. 

§ 11. — 21 — 

changed the positions of the 5 th and 7 th letters IP and ft,— an 
alteration which, provided it rest upon a historic basis, might 
easily he proved to he the better arrangement. 

§11. II. With regard to the Form of the Ethiopic script, Form of 
it has already been mentioned that all the letters have been Direo tion' 
fashioned out of forms presented by the Minao-Sabaic; only the of Writin 8- 
character f appears, like its sound, to have been derived from 
*P (or II?). The letter *1f was at one time very like U and seems 
even to have sprung from it in Minao-Sabaic just by a slight 
alteration. For Zai the Abyssinians took the Minao-Sabaic 
character for Dsal. The origin of the character & is still obscure: 
it might be nearest the mark to recognise in it a new formation 
from fl or <{. (in its old form). 

By and by, however, there occurred with the Abyssinians an 
important alteration in the old mode of writing, — for it gradually 
became the custom to write from left to right. Among the Minao- 
Sabaeans the writing as a rule ran from right to left, just as it 
did among the rest of the Semites, with the exception of the Ba- 
bylonian-Assyrians ; sometimes too the writing was j3ovarpo(f>yjb6v. 
A few of the older Ethiopic Inscriptions still indicate that the 
direction from right to left was at one time known also among the 
Abyssinians; but evidently the example of the Greek mode of 
writing, which was familiar to the Abyssinians even in pre- 
Christian times, and especially in Christian times, helped to bring 
about the gradual establishment of the direction from left to 
right C). The practice of writing towards the right had gained 
prevalence even in the age of Ruppell's pair of long Inscriptions ; 
and in books it is met with exclusively. 

This gradual change in direction seems to have had no 
ulterior effect on the form of the characters themselves ; the most 
of them suited either direction. The characters *| *i tl lend them- 
selves even more readily to the new direction of writing than to 
the old; only <£, instead of its original curve from right to left, took 

( x ) The common view, that the direction of Ethiopic writing to the 
right is a pure innovation of the Greek missionaries, cannot be maintained. 
If the opposite manner of writing had been the only one known and allowed 
before the Greeks brought their influence to bear, then it would be incon- 
ceivable how and why this complete reversal of the old method had been 
arrived at. 

— 22 - § 11. 

the opposite curve. On the other hand in still early times, when 
writing came into more frequent use, a different position with 
respect to the ground-line was assigned to several of the characters, 
in order to give them a more pleasing and symmetrical appearanceO, 
viz., to A? 0°, W, i*> &r <*.; farther, the character for th was 
reversed. Moreover, the essential and distinguishing lines of a 
few of the letters were brought more distinctly into prominence 
(as, for instance, with f and <•), while in other cases unessential 
lines were given up (-} and £); and finally all were set at equal 
height. While sharp corners predominate in almost all the letters 
of the Minao-Sabaic and ancient Ethiopic script, the natural 
result of much writing and of consequent efforts to write with 
greater rapidity was to round these corners off. In this way 
what took two, three, or more strokes of the pen in old times 
could be completed in one stroke (as in V f h 0° V* 4» ft K h 
¥ & 7 m ft 0) '• It is only in characters which have broken lines 
that the sharper angles remain (1 ^), and in A and A, because 
the rounding off of these might have led to their being mistaken 
for fl and ft. Even in Buppell's Inscriptions we find this round- 
ing off of the strokes carried out to some extent, although the 
angular style would have been easier on stone. 

Scarcely a start had been made towards binding individual 
letters into groups of letters. In Ruppell's Inscription II, 38, 
such a group appears to be met with( 2 ); and in Manuscripts too, 
in the case of the Ethiopic name for God, we come upon the 
crasis of *7 and tf into «tf, and upon the group fo for $9°, and 
upon tf for Iff &c. But such interlacing is extremely rare 
and is evidently meant withal for abbreviation (cf. infra § 15 
N. 2; and § 16 ad fin.). Then the peculiar mode of writing 
the vowels must have set itself against the prevalence of 
this device (§ 13 sqq.). It has thus remained a rule almost 
without exception, coming down from the most ancient times, — 
that the several letters of a word be placed beside one another, 
but independently and without attachment, just as in other old 
modes of writing. 

( x ) The notion of Hupfeld (p. 2), — that the shape of the letters was 
affected by the Abyssinian style of housebuilding,— is more ingenious than 
sound. It can have no application in the case of«|»|P<7P0P&10' 

( 2 ) [This assumption is not confirmed by Bent's accurate copy.] 

§ 12. — 23 — 

So much the more it became necessary to separate the 
several words from one another in some way, if confusion was not 
to arise. In the Minao-Sabaic, and in the more ancient Ethiopic 
writing, a perpendicular stroke (|), which is constantly employed 
in Ruppell's Inscriptions, had come into use as a word-divider. 
This stroke was transformed later on into two points standing the 
one above the other (:), which bore the name J^T "points" 
among the Ethiopians: they are quite regularly and indeed with- 
out exception placed after every complete word( x ). And this 
method of separating the words. — which prevents all coalescing 
of different words, — has also made it possible to break up a word 
at the end of a line when there is no more room, and put the rest 
of it into the next line. The introduction of the so-called literae 
dilatabiles has therefore become superfluous ( 2 ). 


§ 12. III. This mode of writing, inherited by the Ethiopians voweiDe- 
and farther developed in the way pointed out, was originally con- JJ^J' 
sonantal. like all the other Semitic systems except the Babylonian- witn 0on - 


Assyrian. The vowels in Semitic word-formation are exceedingly script, 
changeable and shifting; the consonants are the firm, unalterable 
portion of the word. It was therefore a subtle conception, suited 
to the genius of the Semitic tongue that, provided the firm and, 
so to speak, visible and corporeal portion of the word were written, 
the spiritual and mobile j* 01 ^ 011 might remain without out- 
ward sign. 

Meanwhile it is well-known that none of the Semitic modes 
of writing adhered to this their first and simplest stage. In con- 
sequence of the want of any vowel-marking, obscurity in many 
cases supervened, and an endeavour was made at a second stage 

( x ) [In the more recent printing of Ethiopic these points (I) are kept 
strictly to the function of separating one Ethiopic word from another. For 
instance they are not usually employed now after an Ethiopic word which 
stands alone, nor even after the last word of an Ethiopic group, te.] 

( 2 ) On the Abyssinian method of writing the vowels, v. now also 
Halevy, 'Jotirn. «s.' VIII, 6, pp. 2488^., 273 and D. H. Mtjllbr, 'Epigr. 
Denkm.\ p. 69sqq. 

— 24 — § 12. 

of development to remedy this defect by employing the semi- 
vowels (and finer gutturals) as vowel signs for certain long vowels 
and diphthongs. Then at a third and last stage all vowels were 
marked by placing various points and strokes above or below the 
line. Among the Ethiopians also this advance from defectiveness 
to greater clearness in the writing was gradually effected; but in 
their case all that concerns this matter was evolved in a quite 
independent and quite peculiar manner; and the final result was 
a most complete and accurate system of vowel-marking, which 
differs entirely from the other Semitic systems, and in some 
measure resembles more the Indian system. 

It is true that the employment of the semivowel characters 
to make up for long I and «, or for diphthongs compounded of i 
or u, was not unfamiliar to the Southern-Semitic tribes ; but, com- 
pared with the Northern-Semitic systems, the usage was less 
common. It was only diphthongs that were with comparative 
regularity written by means of w and y, while these letters were 
not usually employed to indicate u or l except at the end of a 
word( x ). Such is the case in the Minao-Sabaic Inscriptions, as 
well as in the two or three words of the oldest Ethiopic Inscriptions 
which one can read from existing copies. No proof has yet been 
given that the finer Gutturals ever came to be used in the South 
as Vowel signs; and such a use is peculiarly improbable in 

The Ethiopians appear never to have advanced to any more 
frequent employment of (D and f to denote u and l. In the In- 
scriptions of Buppell, — which indeed have many other vowel 
signs, — we nowhere find them used with this object, not even in 
cases where I and u belong to the root; &, is written ft; p-JJ°, 
p*7D; cph, 0d}x\ HTiv tt0°'t, and so on( 3 ). Only, Diphthongs 
proper were continually written with a (It or a f : and even after 
the introduction of the new Vowel signs, this style of writing them 

( x ) Already pointed out by Ewald in Hofer's 'Zeitschrift fur die 
Wissenschaft der Sprache" 1 I, p. 302, and by Ostandek, ZDMG X, p. 35sg. 

( 2 ) [The recent copies of these Inscriptions show, however, that they 
carry out thoroughly the ordinary vocalisation; cf. above p. 10, N. (1).] — 
If in I, 1 and II, 2 'Uhtlf is met witl1 for ihe later r fl?lrt»' that h as n0 
bearing upon vowel writing; it merely shows that the construct state of 
"flK/i, na< ^ a * one ^ me a f u ^ er sound. 

§ 12. — 25 — 

continued in vigorous use, but yet in such, fashion that Oh and JS, 
were with greater accuracy set clown instead of the more general 
ID and f . 

In all other cases, however, the Ethiopians entirely aban- 
doned this path, pointed out to them by the rest of the Semites, — 
a path which, however thoroughly followed up, would never have 
brought them to their goal, — and they struck out another path 
which rewarded their efforts far better, and gave a notable proof 
of their genius. Starting from the fundamental conception of 
Semitic writing, — that the written consonant is a body in which, 
inheres unseen a soul, a vowel, by which alone it becomes 
audible — , they set to work to indicate the kind of vowel present 
in the particular consonantal character, by attaching to it small 
strokes or rings. This device was appropriate and sufficient, and 
being governed by very exact rules it brought about the develop- 
ment of the original consonantal script into a highly perfected 
syllabary, which for completeness and effectiveness leaves little to 
be desired. There are short Ethiopic inscriptions in which no 
trace of this new mode of denoting the vowels can be detected. 
In the Inscriptions of Bxtppell it makes its appearance already, 
half-forme d^). Its beginnings must therefore be referred to no 
later a date than about the fifth century of our era and may go 
even farther back. Foreign influences are not to be thought of in 
this matter ( 2 ) : the invention of the system was the work of the 
Abyssinian people. 

O [Cf., however, above, p. 10, N. (1); and p. 24, N. (2).] 
( 2 ) De Sacy entertained the singular idea that the Greek vowel-signs 
somehow served as a model. Then the Syriac new vocalisation-system can- 
not have any relevance in this matter, seeing that not only is it quite dif- 
ferent in its nature but also was just beginning itself to be formed at that 
remote time. "W. Jones, Kopp, and Lepsius ventured""a guess at Indian in- 
fluence, and the last-named would also have derived from the same source 
the right-hand direction of the writing; but the Indian vowel- writing re- 
sembles the Ethiopic only in taking in the short a, while in every other 
respect it is formed quite differently. Nor can I agree with "Weber in what 
he advances about India borrowing the principle of the Ethiopic mode of 
denoting the vowels, in his essay "Ueber den semitischen TJrsprung des in- 
dischen Alphabets" (in 'Indische Studied), [Perhaps however, Dillmann's 
complete exclusion of the possibility of foreign influence in this matter has 
not been altogether justified, even by this Note.] 

— 28 — § 14. 

to the right limb with the effect of lengthening the same ; but, in 
order to prevent the letter from stretching over the base-line, it is 
made smaller in size, and so presents the appearance not of 
having the right limb lengthened, but of having the left limb or 
limbs shortened (*), thus A Ax fi fl h h H H "1 fc H- (2) If the letter has 
only one foot, this ought properly to be lengthened; but to avoid 
passing over the base-line, this prolongation turns off at a right 
angle towards the left (by way of distinction from i), $> *h C> $ p JT'( 2 ). 
(3) If the letter is rounded underneath, then it is propped under- 
neath on the right side '/ °7 "f *J H \ on ty G> nas the P ro P i n * ne 
centre <P. (4) Of the two letters which have a horizontal line 
below, one — &. forms its sign for long a by assuming a more 
upright position and by lengthening its middle stroke, 4-, while the 
other, <J, breaks off its horizontal line in an upward direction and 
attaches the prop to this *£.. (5) Finally, J lets the lower portion 
of its broken line stand for prop, and completes itself by assuming 
a new line above, *?. 

(b) The sign for u, or for *, consists in a horizontal stroke 
applied to the right side of the letter, which may be considered 
as indicating a divergence in the pronunciation, — a turning aside 
from the straight, open a-sound. The distinction between the 
signs for it and for l is made patent by applying the stroke to the 
lower end of the letter to denote I, and to the centre of it to 
denote u( 3 ). (1) The sign for u is in all cases attachable without 
farther difficulty : Only, in the case of £ the lower line again has 
to be broken off, but this time in a downward direction, so that 
the vowel-line, as distinguished from that lower line, may readily 
catch the eye 4« (*) : I n exactly the same way £. must be under- 
stood. (2) The sign for i is also of easy attachment to most of 
the letters : only, in the case of % °% **i, flj % %, the ground-forms of 
which are rounded below, the attachment is effected by means of 
a small auxiliary line. With 6 and <(, the divergence in the pro- 
nunciation is signified by the turning upwards of the lower line ; 

( 1 ) As Ludolf, in fact, incorrectly supposed was the case. 

( 2 ) The hook, attached thereto is not an essential part of the letter 
or sign, but is a mere nourish both here and in other similar cases. 

( 3 ) And yet the reverse proceeding -would be more natural, for u is 
the deeper sound, and i the higher. 

( 4 ) Very deserving of notice, however, is L = ru in the Inscriptions. 

§ 14. — 29 — 

and with f, the l-sign is applied,— perhaps to obviate confusion 
with &, — by means of an auxiliary line in the centre of the 
letter, ft. 

(c) The sign for e is a development of the 2-sign. The hori- 
zontal line, which represents I, is bent upwards and back into the 
letter, thus forming a small ring( x ), to represent e=*a + i = i+a 
(§ 40). The mode of attachment is exactly the same as with the 
stroke for %\ only, in & and ^ it is simpler than in that case( 2 ). 

(d) The sign for o is twofold. According to one conception 
o was an Ablaut of a, and so was at first marked like a ; but a 
distinction was speedily introduced, according to which in the 
case of o the prop was attached to the left side (rhfl(lfcf , f p / , fl£' 
fl* £ £ P)j or in tne middle (<f° ¥>) ; with f the same is to be signi- 
fied by slanting the foot, y. According to another conception, 
however, which we meet with even as early as in the Inscriptions, 
o, on account of its origin from u and iv, has come to be denoted 
by a small ring applied to the upper part of the letter, — a sort 
of small at, (If C $ •£ "V f G) "> witn A° it is attached to the centre 
(though, in the Inscriptions, to the top( 3 )). But in the case of f, 
to avoid attaching two rings together, a simple stroke put at the 
head (a kind of higher-placed n-sign) appeared to be sufficient 
(f«) ; and similarly it seemed enough in the case of 1 to place a 
stroke perpendicularly on the upper line, which stroke, it may be, 
was originally meant to carry the small circle (■». Manifestly 
writers at one time wavered between these two methods of de- 
signating o ; but the first seems to have gained the upper hand, 
and it was only in cases where it could not well be applied that 
the second method obtained a firm footing. 

(e) The signs for short vowels other than a, and for the want Forms in - 
of a vowel, meet in a single sign( 4 ), as has already been mentioned. the Prefi . 

(*) This ring might also be explained as an abbreviated f = f, 
particularly as the ring more than once denotes I in the Inscriptions. 

( 2 ) Laurence's Isaiah-Manuscript frequently gives 0« as well as *^, 
t.g. capp. 22, 20; 27, 4; 37, 35. 

( 3 ) [In the earliest MSS., and down to the IS* 11 century, the character- 
istic form of lo is jV ; cf. W. Weight, 'Catalogue of the Ethiopic Manuscripts 
in the British Museum', London 1877, p. X.] 

( 4 ) The view that this sign signified at first the weakest vowel-sound, 
and only in the second line the absence of a vowel— is defended by Konig, 
p. 58. 

— 30 — § 14. 

enoe of a This also, like the sign for o, varies with different letters and has 
ei other sprung from different conceptions, — a circumstance which is the 
than a, or j ess ^ ^ e W ondered at here, seeing that the sign has a different 

Absence of ^ . . 

a vowei. value in different cases. In one division of the letters we find an 
upright line in the letter either broken, or bent in, whether above 
or below (\) £y C *l \l *7 T ¥ T)» or se f i n a sloping position (ft), — 
by which devices the complete breaking off of the direct pronun- 
ciation, or, in other words, the virtual absence of the vowel, is 
probably indicated. With other letters, however, a sign, like the 
one for u and i, — that is, a horizontal stroke by the side of the 
letter — has become established* The one sign must originally 
have had a like signification with the other, and certainly had 
been meant to indicate a divergence — a bending away — from the 
a-sound. By way of distinction from the signs for u and i, how- 
ever, it was, as a rule, attached to the left side of the letter, either 
at the top or in the middle (/h 4 1 ^ 1 ft "H? 9° *fl)> Dut m other cases 
to the right at the top of the letter (Oh £• A* #") ; with fr, fy and /" 
it was transformed into a perpendicular line, to save space; and 
in the case of £ it was drawn right under the letter. The alpha- 
bet was shared between these two methods of designation; and the 
grounds which led to the one method being adopted in the case 
of one letter, and the other method in the case of another, were 
to some extent merely fortuitous, for with fl, for instance, the 
same marking might have been looked for as with fa. But after 
the vocalisation had become established, the meaning was quite 
the same, although the sign used might have sprung from the one 
or the other conception. 

In this way seven permanent forms were gradually evolved 
for every one of the 26 letters, out of very irregular and fluctua- 
ting beginnings. In the alphabetic summary the Abyssinians them- 
selves have brought these forms, of seven different kinds, into a 
definite succession, as is set forth in Table I. Correctly enough 
they put in the first position the ground-form which is to be pro- 
nounced with a and which they called °7d"lf i. e. the nature or 
plan of the rest, from which they were developed. The remaining 
six forms take their names from their order, \\6i\ Second (Form), 
°t Aft Third &c. The order which in this way they have arranged 
has, to be sure, little to recommend it. It seems particularly in- 
appropriate to put the form, which indicates e or the want of a 

§ 15. — 31 — 

vowel, in the sixth place and before the o-form. But perhaps the 
sixth and seventh forms were assigned their places at the end 
on historical grounds, because in fact it was known that both 
these forms were of composite growth, being each of them derived 
from diverse principles of designation, and that they were the last 
of all to be reduced to fixed rule. 

§ 15. (f) But alongside of these seven forms, possessed by neveiop- 
each of the 26 letters, there grew up farther in the case of 4 of p-contain- 
the letters 5 new forms for each. As will be explained farther on in g- Letters ? 

^ and their 

(§ 26), a special mode of pronunciation was developed with the several 
letters *\ *|» h 1, according to which, when they have to be pronounced 
with an a- or an -i-e-sound, a u in certain cases thrusts itself 
between the consonant and the leading vowel. For this ^-contain- 
ing pronunciation of the gutturals the perfection of the system 
demanded special signs. These were developed out of the or- 
dinary designation of the u (i. e. by a horizontal stroke placed at 
the side) by attaching in a special way to the n-stroke the sign 
for the leading vowel. To indicate ue a perpendicular stroke is 
placed upon the n-sign (^* '*?. Vf* T") ; for ul the S-sign is rather 
attached beneath, the perpendicular stroke reaching over the hori- 
zontal line («!»*• r V. \p, 7*-) 5 when compounded with the signs for a 
and e on the other hand the it-stroke is shifted to the foot of the 
letter (# qua, fk que &c); to indicate ua, the w-sign is closed at 
its end into a ring («fe &c.) (*). 

In a later age the wa-sign, originally contrived for these foiir 
letters, was now and again appended in the signification of wa to 
other letters, namely to fl *f« A 0° rt & &'■> and !>., for example, was 
written for *fl*P, &c. ( 2 ). In this way a new kind of grouping of 
letters is produced, by compressing two written characters into 
one (cf. supra § 11). 

The difference of these vowel-signs from one another in their 
seven respective forms is patent and clear with most of the letters ; 

(*) For \\, "\ &c. Vt, 'Jld is often written in manuscripts, e. g. 0O\), 
t'i't' [and ui seems to be written for ue in certain instances in MS. P 
(14 th century) of the Kebra Nag. ; v. ibid., Introd. p. XV and Note 1], 

( 2 ) V. the signs originating in this way in MS, 16240 of the British 
Museum, referred to above, p. 20, Note (1), and in Isekbeeq's 'Grammar of the 
Amharic Language', p. 4. 

— 32 — § 16. 

but one or two forms become very like each other through the at- 
tachment of certain of the vowel signs, and so may easily be 
mistaken in reading and in writing, viz: — 4« an( i &"> C an ^ & C 
and G, *Tf and % Oh and CD., fc f- p., £ £ %, 4- and fa &+ and 

<£, JP and <p, ft and ft( x ), fl and % fc and y., <P and fP( 2 ). This 
comparatively early development of a complete vowel-system, which 
was soon adopted generally in books, gives a great advantage to 
Ethiopic, as compared with other Semitic languages and modes of 
writing ( 8 ), and greatly facilitates the acquisition of the language from 
the writing, as well as the comprehension of the books themselves. 
At the same time we must keep in view that not even with the 
Abyssinians did such a system of Vowel- writing come into existence 
all at once, fully and symmetrically formed, but that it was per- 
fected only in the course of a considerable length of time. This 
may farther be proved by manifold errors in the vocalisation of a 
number of words, especially of proper names which have been 
established and handed down in the Texts of the Bible from an- 
cient times ( 4 ). Such errors can be explained only on the suppo- 
sition that in the case of several words the vowel-marking was 
either entirely wanting, or was somewhat fluctuating and irregular 
in the use made of the various signs. 

§ 16. Apart from consonantal characters and vowel-marks 
the Abyssinians did not farther develop any special written signs. 
Numerical Tn e distinction between the aspirated (or assibilated) and the 
unaspirated pronunciation of certain Mutes seems to have been 
unknown to them. Nor do they ever indicate the doubling of a 
consonant by any special mark, — although, like the most of 

( x ) [E. g. in the very old Cod. Aeth. 32 of the Bibliotheque Nationale; 
v. Hackspill in Zeitschr. fiir Assgr., Vol. XT, p. 368, N. 1.] 

( 2 ) JZ for V is met with in dAbb. 55 in Hez. 1, 26; 10, 1; M. Faus (MS. 
XI, last page fWT); Hernia £W>*/^E'A- — Ancient and peculiar vowel signs 
are exhibited by the Cod. Laur. of the Twelve Minor Prophets, in the Bod- 
leian Library. [Cf. Dillmakn, 'Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum Biblio- 
thecae Bodleianae Oxoniensis 1 , Pars VII, Oxonii 1848, p. lQsq., No. VIII.] 

( 3 ) [But the same, of course, must be said of the Babylonian-Assyrian 
writing, inasmuch as the signs for simple syllables are recognised as being 
used in this way.] 

( 4 ) In my own editions of Bible Texts I have drawn attention to such 
-ancient errors in many passages. 

§ 16. — 33 — 

the other Semites, they write every double consonant once only, 
except when the two sounds are separated by a vowel. There is 
therefore a slight defect in their writing in this respect: it is only 
from the rules of formation or from tradition, that we can deter- 
mine when a letter must be pronounced as a double one, and 
these aids do not always suffice. 

The sign of the close of a sentence is :s [called by the 
Ethiopians lT*fl "drop" or "point", or — together with I, •?•:• and 
:: = :: — 9°d6*Q "pause" or "sign of pause"], — a doubling of the 
ordinary word-divider (v. § 11). When this sign has to serve at 
the same time as a section-mark, it is generally amplified into 
•:•!■ or doubled as k = k, after which a new line is frequently com- 
menced. Smaller marks of division are not employed, as a rule; 
j, however, serves this purpose; in enumerations I is very fre- 
quently placed between the several words (e. g. Henoch 10, 20; 
15, 11). In later manuscripts f :; ■*•!« are oftener employed, but 
mostly in the wrong place through the ignorance of copyists. 

The Abyssinians borrowed their Numerical Signs from the 
Greeks. Whether they ever possessed any of their own, — in par- 
ticular whether they used their own letters as numerical signs, — 
we do not know. The Greek signs appear already in the In- 
scriptions; but an attempt was made, wherever possible, so to 
fashion the foreign sign that it should come to resemble the char- 
acter for some Ethiopic letter or syllable : thus *% was formed so 
as to resemble the sign of §a, 9 the sign of ha, h the ancient sign 
of ru &c. In this way the ciphers given in Table I were finally 
evolved. In order that they might be more easily recognised as 
numerical signs, and might not be mistaken for letters of the al- 
phabet, a small horizontal stroke was applied to them both above 
and below. In the manuscripts the separating points are usually 
omitted after ciphers, and & and 6, as well as j, and ^ are fre- 
quently interchange d (*) . 

( x ) For T "10" d' Abb. 55 has the sign Te Jer. 48, 1. 2. 8. In like manner 
7o(D| is met with for T(Dp MS. Jul. M. a. IX. 14 (Genzat), foil. 30, 110; 
MS. Berol. Peterm. II, Nachtr. XXVIII (Gadla Abba Garimd), foil. 39, 61, 
63, 64 &c. [An exceptional way of expressing "100" is *J? in Kebra Naff. 
141 a 18.] On the Minao-Sabaic numerical signs cf. ZDMG XXVI, p. 74Ssqq. 
and 'Journal as. 11 VII, 1, p. 511 sqq. 


— 34 — § 17 

The Abyssinians have no Abbreviation-marks. In Texts in 
which a word is repeated very often, it is of course frequently 
shortened, but this shortening consists merely in giving no more 
than the initial letter or the two opening letters of the word and 
then adding the word-divider, e. g. 4* • for #»,#.f|. Standing ab- 
breviations are not met with (but cf. § 11). "htl£>h,A is written 
ZtfcA in many manuscripts, as if it had been a compound of d/**<£. 
twenty and h,/\- In tike manner numerals, even when they do 
not appear in their pure ground-form, although they are fre- 
quently written in ciphers, have yet one syllable, — a suffix, it may 
be, of the ground-form, — attached in letters, e. g. fffltf*' i. e. 
hAft.lf' 10 -. In Genzat fol. 13 (Cod. Tub. M. a. IX. 14) we read 
for 'Hallelujah' occurring thrice: VA» : fc$ s *tb * fc$ ! H&$ * tf- 
ibid, foil 20, 36, 37 &c.C). 



Preliminary § 17. When a glance is cast over the stock of vowels in 

tioM^hort tne Ethiopic language, as it is exhibited in the system of vowel 
voweis writing, consisting of short vowels a e, of long ones aiu and of 
a. mixed sounds e b, the attention is arrested by a peculiar phenom- 

enon, viz. that i and u, which next to a are the two chief vowels 
in all ancient tongues, are wanting in their shorter forms, though 
represented in their respective long forms, while a sound of the 
second rank, e, comes forward to take the place of such shorter 
forms. This cannot possibly be original. The pure sounds u and 
i must once have existed in the speech; and the circumstance that 
both of them gave place to the more general and indeterminate 

( x ) [In Cod. Mon. 11 the Divine name is frequently abbreviated: 

K*7 n.h'flth, or fc«7 nJvH or h°I Hft or K*7 1L °' M; it is ™ that case 

mostly written with, red ink and without the final points (5); so too, \lCtl^*- 
ft -sis. for ft«*fc*J is met with in Zebra Naff. 113, Note 14; 159, Note 18; 
164, Note 26, A° J or ft»^ : for &?*$? Laodicea, and *J s for 0<Jfl<g « 

found in Brit. Mus. Or. 2263, fol. 6.] 

§ 18. — 35 — 

sound e, may be regarded as a sign of the early inroads of decay 
on the vowel-pronunciation. We have, it is true, no express in- 
formation to guide us as to the age of this decay. But we have 
already (p. 26 sq.) concluded from the nature of the vowel-writing, 
which has no distinctive sign for u or i, that even in the time of 
the formation of that system of writing, the practice of distinguish- 
ing u and I can no longer have exhibited much life, though it 
might still perhaps be said to exist. The same inference may be 
drawn from other indications. Nowhere in the language is a dif- 
ferent meaning of the word or form bound up with a different 
pronunciation of the vowel of the sixth class. On the other hand 
we come upon cases in which an originally short i or u was pro- 
longed into a long i or u, to preserve the sound, because it was 
of importance for the meaning. Forms too, in which the u is 
most essential in all Semitic tongues, like the Passive or the Im- 
perfect of the first Conjugation (Stem) and its Infinitive, have 
even in the oldest Ethiopic known to us either been completely 
given up, or have made way for new forms in which the missing 
sound of short u has had its place supplied by other sounds and 
devices. All this seems to justify the conclusion that even in very 
early times not merely was the short i already pronounced like e, 
but also, — which is still more remarkable, — the short u was on 
the point of fairly disappearing, and was altered into u or v 
wherever it could not be lengthened with the help of the tone, 
and even farther into e (*), so that in the end the two sounds lost 
themselves in the indeterminate e. It may be that in some 
words this e was once spoken rather like an i, and in others 
rather like a u( 2 ), but this distinction can no longer have been 
of importance, and at last it was quite given up. But there is at 
least one remnant of the original short u which has been pre- 
served in many cases, namely after the four u- containing conso- 
nants, so that e. g. |31.|5 still has the sound of ^Cfl'J querban in 
Ethiopic (v. on this point § 26). 

§ 18. (1) The fundamental vowel a has still a great predom- The 
inance in Ethiopic, and is very largely employed in word-for- vowei, 
mation both as a short and as a long vowel. The short a was cer- Short * 

( l ) Compare e. g. Hebr. DflK or 03 from attum, Mm. 

6 cf. ftft«fe<t: = uuL»). 


— 36 — § 18. 

tainly spoken at one time with, a pure and unmixed sound, and in 
most cases must have been preserved in all the greater purity for 
the reason that otherwise it would have been confused with the 
other two short vowels, and a leading means of formation would 
thus have been lost to the language. It occurs with great fre- 
quency in distinction from e to convey a special signification of a 
word (cf. e. g. I'fiC "servant" and «7«flG "business"). At the 
same time it shows a tendency even at an early period to take 
the duller sound of the less pure e ( a ) — less frequently in an open 
syllable, as for instance, with h*l9° and fcl9° "barley", but more 
frequently when it is attracted by two syllable-closing consonants, — 
so that in forms like £9°th "spear", a is often changed into e 
C9°(h (v. § 105). This transition into e became specially active 
under the influence of gutturals (§ 45). Besides, a is thickened 
into e when it is lengthened to make up for the doubling of a 
consonant (§56 ad fin.). Then too it often stands in foreign 
words for y, s, e. g. hSfrti 'hjaoug. Again, the softening of the 
pronunciation of a increased considerably in the course of the 
Middle Ages: In Ltjdolp's time it was generally pronounced «( 2 ), 
except when it formed a diphthong with a following Oh, or had to 
be spoken after one of the five Gutturals or ^ or 4>, m, A, &( s )> 
in which case it was kept purer through the guttural (0 h-a, not hit). 
Fortunately this decay did not make its way into the writing ; and 
therefore wherever a is written, it is better that we pronounce it a. 
Long a. The long a, on the other hand, continued even in popular 

speech to retain the pure sound of a. The fact that in many 
foreign words a stands for y, s, e. g. A/PCP*fl Liberius, should 
not lead us to infer that a was pronounced like e, but rather that 
the less pure e-sound was often replaced in Ethiopic by the purer 
sound of a( 4 ). Very often a springs out of a by Tone-lengthening 
and by the influence of a following guttural without a vowel 
(§ 46) or by the contraction of a + a (§ 39); but still more fre- 

( x ) Cf. the like phenomenon in other Semitic languages, e. g, in As- 
syrian: Zimmern, 'Zeitschr. f. AssyrS V, p. 396. V. also Konig, p. 59. 

( 2 ) "Sonus hvjus vocalis tarn obscurus est, ut parum a murmure absit, 
hand aliter ac si quis obscure loquens infantes terrere velit".— Ludolf. 

( 3 ) Cf. Trumpp, ZDMG XXVIII [in what follows quoted as Trumpp], 
p. 519, 

( 4 ) V., on the other hand, Konig, p. 62. 

§ 19. — 37 — 

quently it is original, and sustains the sense and meaning of a 
definite word-form (e. g. fcrhH*fl "nations", from rhTf-fl "nation"). 
Farther it often stands, as in Arabic, for the mixed sound o, par- 
ticularly in several words of early Semitic, like .^"A hlp( l ), HC TR, 
*JA9° tbty (v. infra § 105) ( 2 ); so also in foreign words "7C <-&, 
y£> a l t i't* {^oiaa^ot. Of native word-formations in Ethiopic the 
form of the 3 rd Conjugation (Stem) must be referred to here, ^J»flfi 
for ^ilh. compared withf-H/fe "congregation", and of a fewQuadri- 
literals, e. g. "7rtV for 'PrtV, in the Participle Passive «n*-ft«*>. 

§ 19. (2) The short, indeterminate e is of very frequent oc- short, in. 
currence. It makes its appearance as the. shortest and most nat e g. 
colourless of vowels: — (1) where a vowel or a slight vocal effort 
(Vocalanstoss, or Sh e va mobile) must be resorted to in order to 
facilitate pronunciation, e. g. £*7flC> hU }', (2) in the sinking of 
the fore- and after-tone, before or after a long-toned vowel, e. g. fffl/h 
"morning", JP*/* ,< Pd "altar", H't'^h* "resurrection", ^T?i "sinner", 
'feVft'A "foxes". As being the short form for u and % it springs 
out of these vowels, when they are shortened, e. g. *7fl*C "made", 
in the Femin. *7*flC"3h #°£T mayyet (and maif) for 00$.*?, and 
it is employed in word-formation in all cases in which i, u or tone- 
lengthened e, are found in the kindred tongues : t\9°i "he be- 
lieved" ^yf\, h'ftC "he was honoured" lif, ^-flC <!>>$&, £flCVl 
jLSlii, £T7C 4^J ^y., K^tf»" "you" jl B?, A*7 "law" pn( 3 ), 
fc-m "ear" jjfc, A-flft "clothing" ^C*). 

In several forms e is softened out of a (§ 18); more rarely 
it is shortened from an original e: — JiC "how?" n'SW, 7ii*ft^ 
"I may not" tja ]*>$. 

In foreign words it may stand for all short vowels, and even, 
— after shortening has occurred — , for long vowels of every kind: 
fAVGTYJpiov VP/^flUC, oivl6v fllJVJ, Mavaooyj 9°T& and <w>VA»> 

( x ) [Better to regard ^A as — Assyrian qalu, but Tip as = J«.j> = 
Assyrian gulu.] 

( 2 ) C/: Konig, p. 67. 

( 3 ) [But v. infra (§ 25), where a preferable derivation by Noldeke is 
referred to.] 

( 4 ) On a like weakening of a into «* in the dialect of the Banu Tamhn 
v. Rodiger, ZDMG XIV, p. 488; cf. Fleischer, 'Beitr.' St. 2, pp. 275, 317; 
Stade, 'Morffenl. Forseh,' 1 p. 212 [and Huber, l Meisir\ p. 18 s^.]. 

— 38 — § 19. 

Bsviajui'v ■fflr$ a %, cm&yyo; f|<P'> c 7, Xco&dp Yli'C Qeohoopog -ftp 
RGtl, Lucia Ml?, BccaX/ja both 0^A9° and ftldj &c. 

It would seem that the pronunciation of this vowel resembled 
for the most part our fugitive or obscure e, but sometimes it rather 
approximated an i, sometimes an o( x ). The older grammarians 
are not quite agreed about its pronunciation. Potken represents 
it by 6, — which, however, must be wrong, according to the evi- 
dence of Ludolf's tutor: Wemmers taught. that the sound was 
very short, fluctuating between e and b : Ludole rendered it by 
y in the first edition of his grammar, and by s and e in the second- 
as did Maeianus Victoritjs before him. It is very remark- 
able that after short i and u had quite disappeared at a very 
early stage, the same sounds appeared again from another quarter, 
as the pronunciation encountered farther change in the lapse of 
time. In point of fact when Oh and £ constituted a syllable by 
themselves at the beginning of a word, they were pronounced u 
and i by the later Abyssinians( 2 ), — thus, for instance, OhfcR? 
ulud, J&1»flC iff fiber. This pronunciation is now generally diffused, 
and seems to have come into vogue in comparatively early times ( 3 ) ; 
but still it cannot be original ( 4 ), and indeed it was always given 
up again whenever a somewhat closely connected preposition or 
conjunction was prefixed to the word, e. g. AflWKR"; tl£>ty9° ( 5 ). 
We shall accordingly transcribe Oh and JE. in all cases by we and 
ye. At the end also of a word, according to Trumpp, p. 519 sq. Oh 
and JE, are pronounced u and i, when a precedes them, or when 
u stands before J&, or when e precedes them, which e then must 
take the tone. When Oh follows a consonant without a vowel, it 
is spoken like u. Also in the middle of a word Oh and J&, preceded 

( : ) In MS. Berol., Cod. B, Petekji. II. Nachtr. 55 ffhfj is generally 
written (f\*Q*fL- manifestly on account of the f||. 

( 2 ) Ludolf, '(?ramm.' Lib. I, 5, — just as the Hebrews render ) "and", 
here and there by \ and the Syrians Yudh in the beginning of a word, by i. 
The Abyssinians, however, do not appear to be consistent in their pronun- 
ciation of these half-vowels : cf. Trumpp, p. 520. 

( 3 ) I conclude this from the fact that even in more ancient manuscripts 
a negative is here and there wrongly inserted before the 3 rd pers. m. of the 
Imperf. (e..g. Ji.J&'MIC for J&TflG) — an error which can be explained 
only on the supposition that JR was pronounced i. 

( 4 ) Haupt, 'Beitr. z. Ass.' I, p. 17, is of another opinion. 
( 6 ) "Where they neither said la-ulud nor laulud. 

§§ 20. 21. — 39 — 

by e, are pronounced e-u, e-i, in which cases however e has the 
tone, only when this is fundamental in the form. With a foregoing 
a, Oh and JE. regularly form the diphthongs au and ai. 

§ 20. (3) The long vowels I, u mainly appear (1) in forms * and &. 
from roots, of which one of the radicals is a vowel; (2) in the Pro- 
noun and in Formative syllables of pronominal origin; (3) in 
various Inner Nominal forms, mostly tone-lengthened out of an 
original short vowel: 10.C, "tR/fr, Mfr, ^fluM", "Itt-C, K/K*A 
among others. 

Farther I appears occasionally instead of a short i founded 
in the form, only for the purpose of preserving the ^-sound in 
greater purity, e. g. fl^V'CA "a fuller" (for «w»VTA)> o°h%& 
"house of prayer'' tXs^wwo, for the rest a foreign word. In some 

few cases it is thinned down from fuller sounds e, a, e. g. K. "not", 
from ptf, •>#, °% "what?" from n$, J"J»; but regularly it proceeds, 
in processes of formation, from e as the more simple sound, where 
e is shortened, e. g. T/H& "guilty" from "&7P, t/P*B "captivity" 
from %fD(D. Where l is shortened, it becomes e (§ 19). In many 
words it is shaded off into the somewhat longer e (§ 21). It is 
met with frequently in foreign words, not merely for long and 
short i, but also for v, fl.flf| "Byssus", h*C^4* K-Vpia/cog; for V} 
(in so far as this i was pronounced) •fi'h'i ryyccvov, Vft'flUC 
jJLvarrjpioVi and even for the diphthongs ai and o/, as a result of 
fusing these diphthongs into one sound, hjt'pfcj? kl&iOTtla, \\j£ 
"iCAf-A xoipoypvkXiotf). 

The vowel u is already fairly in course of transition to b 
(§ 21). In formative processes it makes its appearance, where an 
original 6, or an a that has arisen out of b (§ 18), is shortened: — 
"fcftrhih "mingling" from -frftdi, 4-hfl> "cohabitation" from ^hfl. 
Where u is shortened, it passes over into e (§ 19). In foreign 
words it corresponds to u, as well as to u, u, e. g. thfih (and 

Besides, i and u are hardened into their semi-vowels J&' and 
Oh (§ 40). 

§ 21. The vowels e, b are in their origin mixed sounds, e and o. 
sprung from ai and au by fusing the diphthong into a single 
sound. Their origin is still very clear in Ethiopic, for in by far 

( x ) Cf. Konig, p. tesqq. 

— 40 — § 21. 

the greatest number of cases they arise here from the blending of 
an i or a u with an a to which it becomes joined (§ 39 sq.); and, 
having this origin, they are susceptible of being analysed back 
into their constituent parts, and of passing thus into ay and aw 
(av) ( 1 ). Less frequently they arise from the lengthening of shorter 
vowels or from i and u by thickening and lengthening. 

In particular e may be lengthened into e through the in- 
fluence of a following soft Guttural, fr&h^ for g*ChP>, £fl»A* for 
JR*flD/V" (§ 46); and, without any sufficient grounds of this nature, 
e arises from e through the mere dwelling upon the pronunciation, 
e. g. 9°f& (Sir. 27, 20) for g°S\^ lop/cdg, fa$ "hip" for di^ 
In other cases e is thickened out of a or a; thus from a, and at 
the same time to take the place of doubling in the Imperfect of 
the Intensive conjugation (stem), f^do^9° yefesem for yef assent 
(§ 95, 2), and from a in a few cases, #"& "table" alongside of 
8*A> (i at L7i "South" ]oifl. In several words e has become estab- 
lished in place of an I fundamental to the form, as being a some- 
what fuller sound, e. g. /Jfl,C and /Jfl.G "pm, \tf.<\ and *»,#*\ 

"nothingness", fl«f?A "bean" ^j'Lj( 2 ). In foreign words it cor- 
responds most frequently to s, yj and et( 3 ) : r bPft° J ttl frsokoyog, 
M,?**} Xsysuv, "VikA MixayX, ft-flT**! TTiaTiKyjg, ft/flA;* 1 
As/3Xa#a, {\>$Ji>$il ^jsbsfciag; and sometimes to v, *fl<S,£v ByjpvXkog, 
"XC7 ftvpov, and to at, di% y A.yyouog. 

The sound b is produced with great regularity, in certain 
forms, out of u by compression; thus in the Feminine endings bt 
and b from ut and u (e. g. I'flC ItHjC^, &AA°, aotib^ &c), 
probably also in fD-ft-ftfl*" and in the Suffix pronoun lftfi»-; 
farther, very commonly in words of foreign formation : y£ ff 7T'lh 

floi&A -l-fl^'ark" g^Ls, Wi "oven" ^y/j |^«, flhC "sugar" 
^Xw, HJ&-F-T' "olive-plantation" ^yov, fl,JiA "realm of the dead" 
^oii bW, ?^GX "coffin" Jisof, #Ad "rock" JLi or £ £i. 
In foreign words it stands for o and co; the Greek termination log 

( x ) [Just as the Guna sounds are resolved in Sanskrit, te.] 
( ) It is a different thing when copyists confound e and i, — an occur- 
rence which is very common. 

(°) Cf. Konig, p. 68, who assumes for si, however, the pronunciation %, 
and then the compression of the I into e. 

§ 22. — 41 — 

accordingly sounds f-ft; or it corresponds to ov C?fl»A. ¥ov[3r/\, 
a °C$&9*h "Mercwrius", or to y $frCh KvTrpo^, or to av Tih^ 

When o and e are shortened, they pass into u and i (§ 20). 

8 22. All these vowels, once they appear in a word, are as Pronun- 

# _ ciation of 

a rule held firmly and tenaciously, and accompany the word with- fugitive e. 
out change throughout all its farther forms and augmentations. 
No trace is met with here of the manifold alterations of sound ex- 
hibited by the Hebrew of the Masora as a result of altered con- 
ditions in the Tone. In the matter of tenacity and constancy in 
the vowels of a word Ethiopic ranges itself rather with Arabic. 

Whether Ethiopic possesses, besides its seven vowels, ad- 
ditional fugitive vowels as they are called, half- vowels, or vowel- 
touches (Vocalanstosse), is a question, which may easily enough 
be put. But it is a question difficult to answer, partly because 
too little is known about the mode of pronunciation of words in 
ancient times, and partly because the question — what is a half- 
vowel?, — and — what is a short vowel? — is not so easily answered. 
It is well known that Arabic has a short vowel in all those cases 
in which Hebrew has merely a Sli e va (Vocalanstoss). Other lan- 
guages less rich in vowels, such as the Aramaic, tolerate groups 
of consonants also, and give utterance to a fugitive vowel-effort, 
only where incompatible consonants meet together. Upon the 
whole, Ethiopic is something like Hebrew in vowel resources: and 
indeed in its short indeterminate e in cases like yi<£{P , *)h, ¥^»? 
*7flC; KJl*f*1"fl<'5 it possesses a sound quite resembling the Hebrew 
8h e va mobile; and this shortest and most fugitive kind of e may 
always be compared with the 8h e va. Other cases, in which an 
entirely fugitive vowel of this kind has to be resorted to in order 
to help the pronunciation, will be described farther on. That the 
e was no longer pronounced here like a vowel, but rather like a 
mere half-vowel, seems to be evidenced by the fact that in the 
cases named, wherever it was applied just on account of the nature 
of the coinciding consonants, the later pronunciation fell into the 
way of wholly suppressing any intermediary sound, — as in kramt . 
(v. on this point § 34). Now between the complete disappearance 
of .the vowel in this position and the utterance of a full vowel, 
such as we have in Arabic, there must certainly intervene as an 
intermediate stage the uttering of what was a half-vowel and 

— 42 — § 23. 

nothing more. This question, however, is not important for the 
phonology or the morphology. It will he enough to notice when we 
should pronounce an e as a sound quite short and fugitive, as cases 


preiimin- § 23. The consonants found in Ethiopic have already been 

ary obsei- indicated in a general way in the account that has been given of 

vations. . 

the characters. With the exception of the dull j>sound, they are 
the same with those wdrieh constitute the stock of the Northern- 
Semitic Alphabet, increased by two new T Arabic letters. It might 
seem from this that as regards the consonants of the language 
there has not been much of a special nature developed in the 
Abyssinian abodes of the Semites. And yet a comparison of 
Ethiopic roots with those of the rest of the Semitic languages 
reveals that while Ethiopic has often retained softer and more 
slender sounds, or developed them out of harder ones, it exhibits 
much more frequently harder and duller sounds, in place of the 
softer sounds of the other tongues. Such preference for rougher 
sounds is specially declared in the transcription of foreign words. 
Of still more importance is the fact that Ethiopic has created 
several types of rougher sounds peculiar to itself. One example 
is presented in the dull p &, which in one or two roots, and 
also in foreign words takes the place of an original b or p. 
Farther, the Abyssinians have transformed into rough gurgling 
sounds the four Semitic gutturals "If 1 \\ 4> in a way peculiar 
to them, by fetching them more deeply from the throat, and 
joining with them an obscure w-sound, which in that very pro- 
cess loses its vowel character and stiffens into the consonantal 
sound. This rougher pronunciation of the four gutturals has, to 
be sure, in no respect become general, in the sense of supplanting 
their usual pronunciation : on the contrary, the latter has kept its 
ground in by far the greater number of roots ; but the rougher 
pronunciation is nevertheless very widely extended. While, how- 
ever, these phenomena reveal an impulse in the language towards 
the development of rougher sounds, such as well befits the moun- 
tainous nature of the country, another series, on the other hand, 
of peculiarities in the pronunciation of the consonants indicates a 

§ 23. — 43 — 

certain struggle to simplify the multiplicity of sounds, — (a feature 
we found also in the vowel-system) — accompanied with an ap- 
pearance of effeminacy and degeneracy. We find in fact that the 
three hardest of the five Gutturals (Aspirate-) had their pronun- 
ciation gradually softened: became like ft, *\ like gh, and the 
last tw T o together like 0- So too we find that among the Sibilants 
ip came to be like ft (s like s), and d like &(*) s. Thus the 
Abyssinians first gave up **i and 0, — sounds which had been 
developed in Arabia and been brought with them from that 
country, — just as they had in much earlier times given up the 
lisping transitional letters o (3 Jo- As regards the Sibilants in 
particular it comes about that Ethiopic prefers decided Mutes, 
and, still more strongly, decided Sibilants to the transitional 
letters, and it is precisely on that account that reverted to J\. 
Among the Gutturals Ethiopic could bring about again the coin- 
cidence of **i and gh all the more readily, after it had contrived 
the rougher *7» out of *\ ( • ). The giving up of s for s shows the 
same striving after simplification. On the other hand the gradual 
weakening of Q into ft and of rh and *\ into is a decidedly 
enfeebling process as well; and as the language had formerly 
made abundant use of these letters in its formation, the process 
led to many inconveniences, and can only have become general 
about the time the speech died out. It is so much the more 
remarkable, when we see Ethiopic striving, at other points, after 
the rougher sounds; but yet, along with the simplifying endeavours 
which have been mentioned, it finds an analogy in the phonetic 
development of other and even non-Semitic languages. In fact a 
certain easy-going pronunciation, wdiich gives up whatever causes 
any trouble, and keeps only the absolutely necessary and essential 
sounds, frequently prevails in popular dialects. In the other 
Abyssinian dialects, particularly in Amharic, all these phenomena 
are displayed, and even in a much more decided fashion. 

With these preliminary observations we proceed to describe 
the various Consonants, their phonetic value, their significance 
and their mutual interchange. We group them together according 

( x ) According to Haupt's statement ('Zeitschrift f. Assyr? II, p. 264), 
the Abyssinians pronounce as a Fricative its), while ft is a Fricative with 
a firm break. [Trujipp is also of this opinion : v. Trumpp p. 578. tr.] 

— 44 — § 24. 

to the organs of speech by which they are produced, and also 
according to the j)eculiarities which they exhibit in practice. 
Gutturals § 24. (1) Of Gutturals (Aspirate-) there are in all, five, 

(Aspirate- ^ ^ y ^ ^ Q£ these }\ and are the oldest (*) and the simplest 
sounds, and are present in other languages as well as in the 
Semitic: and gh are of comparatively later origin: ^\ is the 
youngest of all. \\ is properly just that gentle breathing which 
must precede every vowel when uttered separately, and must 
really follow also a long final vowel, — answering thus to the 
Spiritus lenis of the Greeks. V, having more strength and body 
in it, is our h, — the Greek Spiritus asper. is connected with 
j\ as a breathing of similar character, which of necessity requires 
a vowel before or after it, to become audible; but it is harder 
than j\ and is formed by a firmer compression of the throat-orifice. 
With are associated, first, rh, corresponding to , like a 
stronger ft (h) uttered more deeply from the throat, and next, 
*V ^ ( 2 ), produced by friction of the ujyper part of the throat, 
and therefore inclining rather to I:, cli or Mi (7/). K and are the 
weakest and softest Gutturals: in certain circumstances they may 
completely coalesce with a vowel immediately preceding them 
(cf. infra § 47). 

The (Aspirate-) Gutturals represent a double step-ladder of 
stronger and weaker breathings, one end of which borders, with 
K and 0, upon the vowels, and the other, with and "\, upon 
the consonants, and first upon the Palatal-Gutturals. This inter- 
mediate position of theirs between the vowels and the consonants 
explains also their wide extension in the Semitic languages. They 
make their appearance with considerable frequency in root-for- 
mation, when roots, of which one of the radicals is a vowel, en- 
deavour to acquire a third consonantal sound. In that case the 
weaker sounds, which were in the root a,t first, are condensed into 
the harder breathings, mainly through the influence of the other 
two radicals. In fact this is particularly clear in Ethiopic roots: 
and those which contain Gutturals are accordingly exchangeable 

(*) Ewald, 'Ausf. Lehrbtich der hebr. Sprache\ 6 th ed. p. 74. 
( 2 ) Ludolp has noticed that *\ corresponds to ^. — Now-a-days I) Al^l 
are spoken just like h; y. Trumpp p. 518. ^ 

§ 24. — 45 — 

with those in which vowels appear in the corresponding positions ( 1 ). 
On the other hand these breathings are also found originating 
from firmer consonants, especially from the Palatal-Gutturals and 
Mutes, by such consonants giving up their firm consonantal ele- 
ment and retaining only the breathing as the remains of it. Thus 
)\ often stands in Ethiopic as first radical in place of Kaf: KfliC 

"old Avoman" alongside of y^jS, while the pronunciation h'fl£ in 

Ethiopic bears rather a sjnritual (figurative) sense, \\&*\ "to be 

old", beside 'S, hAft "to gather", with jj.?' -J&\ farther in 

several Ethiopic words rh> *lf are very commonly exchanged for 
h, e. (j. rhOrt and hfljfl "to stir", £ftrh and <£tf«A "to be un- 
clean", V/h'Jrh and YrflXl "to shake", TijflG and 1i<}C "monument", 
rtA/flh "cassia"; »HlH« "river" belongs to f/WhH &&» 

"to lie in"— to hCf, thft(D "to tell a lie"— to nD otXS'Cu-U*)- 
More rarely rh or *\ corresponds to a Geml: dtf°i\ "snow" — to 

iX+z* (in contrast with which d\0°£? "ashes" belongs to jUX), 

^(Wtf- "vat, pit"— to 23, vluL, /hl-nC^ "navel" to H^> 
rh'J'flC'fl**. "scab" — to T\), uj.a-. Still more frequent is the 
substitution of the rougher gutturals for Qaf, e. g. *^R£ "to be 
short" -isp y&3 (y»a.2>), th&JP "to rake up" pp, 'psp (but in 

Arabic also), K&9° "beard" Jp|, <J?»«JjJ» "swamp" ^U^S, 0m J 
"to fumigate with incense" Iftp, in!?, JCs, Jos.. On the other 
hand the simplification of a sibilant into a mere guttural breath- 
ing is not so common in Ethiopic, though perhaps <h£ "to go", 
may be ranged with the Arabic nL*( 2 ), and l?VO "to be straight" 
with j|t ( 3 ) ; the language in other cases prefers to keep by ft and 
Oi, even where other tongues admit y in place of them. Farther, 
the Gutturals are subject also to active interchange with one 
another, just as in the rest of the Semitic tongues; and upon the 
whole it is impossible to fail to notice that here the harder letters 

( T ) It is universally recognised that the harder sounds of an original 
form pass into the softer, and vice versa, under the influence of a softer or 
a harder consonant in the root, e. g. rhHfl alongside of rhrtd (influenced 
by the Q). 

( 2 ) Ewald, p. 74. 

( 3 ) Vice versa, Q&&+ "to revile" is probably related to *)in. 

— 46 — § 24. 

seek to dislodge the softer. It is true that Ethiopic in many cases 
retains ft and even where they pass into harder sounds in other 
languages; as, for instance, ftflA "limb" into ^ (Jus&), h4*\l*? 
"ring" into Ijsn, dlil; 6.CV "to fear", . ^; £iM "to withdraw"' 

^H*], J^^; just as farther it has no V in the formative syllables 
of the Causatives, but an ft; yet the harder letter more fre- 
quently appears for the soft one of other languages, e. g.\ Ol'ti 

"to full", Jof and Jl^; 0*1C "town", probably for 13K (*) ; 0ft£' 
"a court", t\.of and Jua«, and so in several roots that begin with 
(§ 70 ad fin,); ^fA "stag", ^«, Jl»|; rlhiP? "guilt", m$. 
Jj\ (*.^=>); £'flrh "to make gain by usury", «n% &.iy and 

iJ^*ft "to drive" appears also in harder form as iJ^Vh; "ithW "to 

retire", jL^=> ; Arh<£. "to be troubled", uigJ; rhT^A "to perish'", 

lf?n, dJUc; 4rhflfl "to grow mouldy", ^£&; Q*\tD "to be jealous", 
^4^ ^g.=*; ft/*"VC'V "new-moons", ^&» *!°^ ("intf, ^-1). 
In a number of instances also answers to a n of other lan- 
guages: — 0*fl»? "injustice", DBrj; lffl>-0 "to meditate", rPfc?; wf^O 
"to be insatiable" («**..&) belongs in the last resort to the root 
W\ i&s**- On the other hand Ethiopic frequently has *h or *Tf 
for j? of the Qther tongues: CVfl "to be hungry", ijn, ^i>; iWl'lr 

"to dip in", jns, Jtttt, ilo; MiJ^ "cedar", jJLo; jOrh "to be 

on the watch", >*.Jj; flTrh "to scarify", *»oj; tfofo^ihrfr "cheek, 
jaw", ni'tfPi^D, ixj. Both modes of exchange show that different 
languages altered in different ways the softer gutturals into the 
harder. The keenness with which the stronger sounds in Ethiopic 
for some time sought to dislodge the weaker ones, may best be 
gathered from the fact that in this tongue 0, "\ and *h have 
pushed their way even into several pronominal particles (§ 62, lb), 
while in the other tongues this department at least has been kept 
free from them. Even the Greek Spiritus lenis and Spiritus asper 
are expressed not merely by ft and (ftfl^.fa.A.j ftA4-> %Cf£ 
?<?tl, ft&fc, K<\C?, V&kPtl), but also by 0, -\ and dx— so that, 
in names of Hebrew origin, Ethiopic in several cases again corn- 

( a ) Ewald p. 347, 

§ 24. — 47 — 

cides with the Hebrew pronunciation (fl-fl/VE, rhVJ,?, th, ( P'i, 

'%&\ "Irene") ( x ). 

Of course even when the language was endeavouring to de- 
velop harder gutturals, the softening of the harder ones was not 
impossible, although it was of comparatively rare occurrence: 
thus, for instance ftfili "to command, to rule" seems to have been 

formed at a very early time from 0HH "to be strong" W, yt, by 
the gradual smoothing down of the into h in the more fre- 
quently used sense of "to command". But in a later age, when 
the language had long been fully formed, a tendency in the pro- 
nunciation of the gutturals — the very reverse of what had hitherto 
prevailed, and arising from causes which are not yet properly 
cleared up — gained a very notable predominance (§ 23). The 
hard sounds were gradually softened; *T( was reduced to the level 
of rh, and both together to that of V, and to that of fr ( 2 ) ; and 
the entire way that had been traversed hitherto was retraced, 
until the starting-point was reached, at which the Semitic tongue had 
nothing but h. and 0. It is possible that, besides the influence 
of Amharic, the frequent intercourse, which took place with popu- 
lations speaking non-Semitic languages, helped forward this 
smoothing process in the hard sounds. The retrogression took 
effect at first in pronunciation only, and not in written character; 
but gradually the deterioration invaded the written character also ; 
and then, in many cases, \\ and on the one hand, rh and **i on 
the other, and less frequently th, *lf and — came to be exchanged 
for one another without the slightest distinction. The latest ma- 
nuscripts go much farther in this direction than the more ancient 
ones ( 3 ) ; and yet the deterioration never became so general as to 
permit the alternative use of the harder or the softer letters at 
pleasure in every single word. For example, the fr of the Cau- 
sative Conjugations (Stems), or that of the Pronouns hTffc, hA*> 
or that of the roots and words */ M K, A^h, "flftA., \\T\, *TfPK, 
h^li, MlP, Ml A &c, is never written in the better class of 
manuscripts; nor is the ever written J\ in A0A- 9°dO, t\f\0- 
OflP, fl^O, llOat, 0«|»fl, Of/h and so on. ^ and d\ are oftener 

O Of. K6ki&, pp. 64, 66. 

( 2 ) Just as in Samaritan and Mandaean. 

( 3 ) [V. the Introduction to the 'Kebra Nag. 1 p. XIV.] 

— 48 — - § 25. 

exchanged; but yet in certain words they are more lirmly retained, 
e. g. (tti*V £"VV> flXVh and so forth. Properly speaking, it is 
only in the latest manuscripts that we find fa or ^ written for U; 
and in certain words like hWi, *flXA, fltM> VdW it is not so 

written, even in them; hut, on the contrary f) is rather frequently 
employed for *h or "\ 0- Thus the deterioration in pronunciation 
could never have become quite universal; and the correct form 
has often held its ground still more tenaciously in writing. In 
poems, however, \\ rhymes with 0, and 0, rli and *\ rhyme with 
one another. 

§ 25. 2. (2) The firmer Gutturals {Palatal-), with which f 
is also reckoned, come next in order to the Aspirate-Gutturals. 
Of these there are three, the soft *}, — -always pronounced as g 
(hard), never as dj (clih) — , the hard \\ k, and the hollow-sounding 
4» q. The first two may with equal justice be called Palatals, 
seeing they are formed on the boundary between palate and 
throat; but the last of the three is decidedly more of a throat- 
sound or Guttural, being formed by a compression of the throat 
and a sharp breaking off of the stream of air {Explosive) ( 2 ) and 
having a peculiarly Semitic character. In foreign words the 
Ethiopians employ, as a rule, the hollow-sounding letter for A, 
e. g- 4»W, *H£Gh, 'hhmtmjftl, #£?#ft, and thereby again 
evidence their inclination for rougher pronunciation. It is only 
in a minority of cases that they render A" by h, as e. g. m Yi^t 
Kvgiiyov, or by *\ even, as in *}*>^Vfc ILayodfcyj. They employ \\ 
oftener for %( 3 ), as if h had to be more aspirated, in contrast 
with the pure explosive 4», e. ij. tfojtift, «thh,A, A«<J-*1, hfltl. ?, 
h"XA»i p 'J (though here and there also *V, as in tl*i,t cxwog), or 
for /, by hardening it after their manner, as in tlAOJi'J u gal- 
hanunt/\ So too frift is found for %\ — KYfihC ^d avvcc^dpia, hC 

In Ethiopic itself the harder letters alternate in a few words 
with the softer ones: <w>fth and fl)(Vl» "to bend (the bow)", rhVh 

Q) The more precise treatment of these questions belongs to the pro- 
vince of the Lexicon. Whoever wants to learn the language, must fami- 
liarize himself from the outset with these possible phonetic changes, both in 
using the Lexicon and in reading what has been written. 

( 2 ) Iseneerg, 'Gramm. Amh^ p. 6, and Wallin, ZDMG IX, p. 10 sqq. 

( 3 ) Cf, Konig, p. 64. 

§ 25. — 49 — 

and fh'J'H* "to be anxious", 0£h and 0^4* "to be friendly 
with", — in which cases h appears to he the original letter ; \\\\ 
and $£b -'raven". On the other hand h is now and then softened 

to *}, e. g. in R*\- and Afto-I- "street" (p^, jJ«); and even ty is 
found exchanged for 1 in I"? = ^^ "necklace". 

Changes still more marked are exhibited, when Ethiopia roots 
are compared with the corresponding roots of the other lan- 
guages i 1 ). Ethiopia has often the harder pronunciation: *3f"£C 

"capital (of a pillar)", "iSD, yif, wAi; &«l»ft "to be sleepy", y*&>; 

dfi } "cream", "£c, sla£; AU4* "to grow up, to become old", 

ribs, J^, <M*£ "to shut up", nn3, lOJJ, ycS; T*^ "to be warm", 

510, }», ^»; or ^W*rt "to be unclean", ^a^ and ^Ju ; ^A'feA 

"to roll away", W?j; but at least quite as frequently it preserves 
the softer pronunciation : in fact h for p, e. g. in fljfj "emptiness", 

ptt, ppl, .jb; fr^t "neck", £^( 2 );lldfc"duiig'\ Lr JiS; Ahffl 
"to become dull (of sight)", j5(; AhP "to wrangle", «.iiJ and UJ; 
hortf "to bear a surname or a by-name", ^yi'; W*V"Th as a second- 
ary form of ^T'h "sting", "point (of a spear)", nij$, Hi!*', *?hYl 
"groaning", pi«, Hitf, pfctt; HCil? "to calumniate", "to be jealous", 
^jyy, also 1 for D, e. #. U*bil "to perish", Tj^n, dUbe; i7£: "race", 

12:; 7»£ , ?»£ "to knock", tXfif; and 1 for p, 6. #. A«7 "law", 
ph (but according to Xoldeke = £3s "a proof"); ft*7£7 "to be 
lean", pv, ^-flfr "Egypt", ials; flT-C£- "leek", j^, e>£S"; ffT- 

"street", p«!f, ^jyl. 

But the effort made by Ethiopic to reach stronger sounds is 
clearly revealed in the thickening of the Aspirate -Gutturals of 
other tongues into these hollow guttural forms. Thus 1 for N in 

0) On the nature and pronunciation of «|» (ft, ff|) c f- Tkumpp, p. 518; 
Haupt, 'Beitr. z. Assyr. 1 I, p. 15; Edgar Allek, 'Proc. Am. Or. Soc.' 1888, 
p. CVIIIsgg.; on the relation of 4* to c, Praetorius, k Amli. Gram! 1 § 45. c; 

'Tigrinagramm: pp. 18, 100; ZDMG XLI, p. 686; v. also ibid. XXXVII, 
p. 449; and Reinisch, ' Bilinsprache' ', p. 12, No. 6. 

( 2 ) [But in Assyrian there is an answering word, '/asddu'.] 

— 50 — § 26. 

Qpgo «i e ft hand", ^Li; for n in K\m "to be gracious" ('friendly') 
and Rlf "to bloom", Lscv ; for n in lOT "colic", kjX ; J^T-mjR 
"ox-goad", Don, isls*; JI7SP" and hftfl "arrow" (Gadla Adam); 
for? in ft*7fl "to be satisfied", jnfcf, «a*o; rt«|T "ostrich", ^yL?; 
»^£l "to abandon", ctX^ L^tXi*); ftT-C "hair", alongside of 
/^flCfl'O) ; and with special frequency for d: — W*lC "to run swiftly", 
^lco; M7» "to mock", g£y pns; I. * "cloud", ^ ; I^V 
"to pollute", ^^x ; 1A "to be up betimes", !t\x ; llf "to sin", 

^Ic, HJJJ; T1R "to tremble with terror", yoi &c. In a similar 
manner h for n in ^.tf-^-fl "temple", ij£i( a );h'M"tip (extre- 
mity)", JIL; Vlh^lh "warm baths", *^>; hi* "in vain", 
0|n; frAA "to be giddy", JU., *?n Finally, «J» for n in ip£& 
"to rise (of the stars)", VT\\, 3^; "1^* "obscurity", rrtto, ^JoUbJo ; 
for c in fW»A "mule", jjb; 4^^4»^i "an insect (a moth)", from 

*£■ "to buzz": for c in tf»fll+ "to raise on high", I£5 (2£*)', 
^t "to build", jmm. 

§ 26. (3) But as if the rough Guttural- Aspirate *\ and the 
hollow Guttural «|» were still not enough, Ethiopia has increased 
the roughness both of these two, and of the other two Gutturals 
1 and h, by pronouncing them with an obscure u- or o-sound im- 
mediately following, and yet in such a way that that sound is not 
fully formed into a vowel, but is interrupted in its formation and 
is turned merely into a means of roughening the consonantal 
sound ( 3 ). These letters, like other consonants, must be supplied 
with a vowel, before they can be spoken: as to the formation of 
the vowels which come after them, see § 41. We may call them 
the U-containing Gutturals (*). This peculiarly hoarse pronunciation 

(*) V. Konig, p. 65 sq. 

( 2 ) [But this is a mere transcript of the Arabic word, ^ being the 
ordinary, recognised equivalent of h, in such transcribed forms.] 

( 3 ) The Latin lingua, quaero &c. exhibit a similar sound, though not 
so rough. 

( 4 ) On the nature and pronunciation of these letters cf. Trumpp, p. 520; 
Rokiq, p. 4l8ggf,; on their origin from the Oushitic, Keinisch, 'Die Bedauye- 

§ 26. — 51 — 

occurs only with the Palatal-Gutturals. "^ participates in it merely 
as the strongest of the Guttural- Aspirates, but does not assume 
it with anything like the frequency that the three other letters do. 
The cases which exhibit the development of the ^-containing pro- 
nunciation of the gutturals invite a short additional survey, and 
the following propositions are the result ( 1 ). 

(1) In the great majority of cases this rougher pronunciation 
is brought about by a ^-sound, which at one time was uttered 
after the guttural in the ground-form of the word, but which 
forthwith, — either because of having to give place to another 
vowel in the course of farther alteration of the word, or indepen- 
dently of such cause, — took refuge within the consonant, and 
clung to it irremovably as a roughening addition, (a) Thus, a u, 
o, or w in foreign words, making itself heard after *Tf, *|, h, 
or 4*, makes its way into the consonant: fctfll'feft'fc irsvryjfCQaTij; 

> t ° » 
T'^'i a proper-name ; 'feflm'Jfft.Tfl Constantine; ^ATJ?" pjJli" 

(Clysma, town near Mt. Sinai); ht^^ Ancyra, and a host of 
others, (b) In many Ethiopic words a u or o, grounded in the 
form, which has disappeared in the forms of other words unpro- 
vided with a guttural, has endeavoured to save itself by making 
its way into the guttural (§ 17), e. g. 4*Cfl"> "offering (gift)" 
)anj?; 7*0 "threshing-floor", \*\\\ T^JJt "stem (of a tree)", l#r, 
«Hi<F "costus" (v. infra § 105)-, fttf«C "firstling", -yto|; fc£v*Hs 

"those" (as well as hAfr'fc) from fcAYh; Yf"A/lh "kidney", &J& 
Frequently too a radical u or ffh has thus made its way into the 
guttural that precedes it: frl^ and W<IH "brother"-, ,h£ "hip", 

^%*5 ACT 5 * "ornament", from HClOf ft*?* "street", from 5l7tfJ 
(pltJO ; VHrf-A "a rock" (for h-AlrfA) from mo, (^ "to be hard". 
Some other words leave it optional to exchange the full w-sound 
for the rougher and shorter ue, e. g. J&Yf*^ and Yf-"} for g/ftS} 
and YKJ ; hVt-C "cities", and hVbC', 'fl^ff and -fl^ff "scraped 

Sprache 1 (Vienna 1893), vol. II, p. 26 sqq. Maltzan has also heard these 
sounds in the Mehri; v. ZDMG XXYII, p. 261 sq. 

(*) Tuch also deals with this subject in the first of the two Commen- 
tationes cited above, p. 14, Note ( a ). His results agree for the most part with 
my own. 

— 52 — § 26. 

together". In other words too, — particularly in those which were 
originally Passive Participles, but which have gradually become 
Substantives — , the u has been permanently modified in this way: 
ttiPC "raisin", for ghVC; V«f**T "point", for ■flpiO &c. Even when 
a u fell to be made audible in the ground-form, not immediately 
after the guttural, but after another radical which preceded or 
followed the guttural, it has been attracted to this last: Ih*P* 

"cedar-wood", from ^^L> through the softening of the b into w\ 

A>^ "abyss", j£l; »HM "jackal", hf®, XJlii; tn><F-Ofr "mar- 

row", Juoo, nb; as well as A^9° "bridle", from an original +\JL; 

R">*,£* and #"}£• "cedar", Jouo. (c) In a similar way this u has 
also invaded verbs and roots. Sometimes, when original roots 
(middle u) received farther development, the u found refuge in the 
guttural : •fe'pO "to loathe", tttp ; so too tfllfl) "to be slender" ; 0«fe£ 
"to wrap up", .U; 0*feV "to hedge in", from <jLo, p»; %&C "to be 
cold", n-ip, Tip; rt'fe'fe "to covet another's goods", ptt?; H'Ml'V* 

"to rot", • b, ^, Lis; flh»? "to go astray", mf, J$tf, m«tf; h«W 
"to judge (to establish)", )M3; fthho-f* "to give thanks", .J^and 
ou/ (with softening of the b into w); T^vh^i "to bend, to be 

distorted", ijfy^, where w has made its way into both the gut- 
turals, &c. In other cases the verbs have been derived from 
nouns which had a u in the formation: fi^ao "to hold in check"; 
^AH "to hew off"; «fef|ft "to receive a wound"; Vfe£ "to be one- 
eyed" Cupj); #<>£, ha°>& MLtli, faili-d, 7»?£f, *C><*>, 
Wilftpfi, 'fraofV'tf-O, • 1 it1\i\(D &c; compare also ft«l*-0 "to be 
serviceable", with ^uas. 

(2) In a few words and roots ua or ue is of onomatopoetic 
character, as in $d and Xtfa "raven", "crow"; ft} and *K3 [and 
Itf and 7*7* Kebra Nag.] "bittern"; 'feCW 1 *^ "frog"; T-C1 
"throat", "gorge"; tt>0£ "to murmur"; perhaps in >/»*0 

"eructavit", unless rather as derived from ji-yL, — and in "hlrftd 

( l ) [Better, however, to regard this word as a pluralis fractus = 

§ 26. — 53 — 

(3) In another series of words this roughening seems to have 
made its appearance because of the guttural having undergone a 
degree of softening from its original pronunciation, and to make 
amends, as it were, by a second hardening. Thus 1 appears to 
have come from h in ITP-A, "Htft, >&>&; 1 from in £f»ft, 
3tf*C; 1 from + in flf M*, MT-6; h from * in Arhh», h-rtf, 
Vf*V'ih ; an( i h from rh, *V in JF , tf"^*fl (*), tf"/hrt- A similar process 
may be noticed in another guise: thus, for instance, in ft^A, 
h*?"A"h & c -> the d has first been softened into ft, and the hard- 
ness has been subsequently restored by means of the it-sound 
combined with 7. 

(4) By and by, however, this w-containing pronunciation pro- 
ceeded to make its way into many words and roots, simply from 
a general preference in the language for such sounds, although 
we are not now in a position to indicate the special motives for 
its exercise, or, on the other hand, to show how the motives 
hitherto suggested have by no means brought about the same 
result in all the cases in which it was apparently possible. But 
the other phonetic relations of the word seem invariably to be 
taken into account in this matter. Roots altogether weak seek 
thereby to gain greater fulness of sound, e. g. : *J»P f "to flee" ; 
7 g *T w if% "to hasten" (*[s>) ; and in cases like Vf"rhrt this pronun- 
ciation is manifestly easier than Vl^hrt- It is particularly common 
and in high favour before a £ (about thirty times in Ethiopic words), 
but less so before Aspirates. Before A it occurs about fifteen times, 
before V about twenty times, before rt> I** some fifteen times, and 
before ft, about ten times. Though more rarely, it still does occur 
before the other letters, with the exception of radical (D and fl (but 
yet it is found in the reduplicated conjugation fl'Vvfl'V, wn il e before 
&. it appears only in Yf"4-C)- It never occurs, however, before any 
one of the other three gutturals, except of course when the w- con- 
taining guttural is itself doubled, and the two forms of the doubled 
letter are separated by a vowel, — in which case the rougher pronun- 
ciation is repeated. Farther, this pronunciation seems to have estab- 
lished itself in certain roots in order to distinguish them from others 
of a wholly different meaning, but which otherwise would have the 
same sound:— compare -WV^ [var. '¥&% Kebra Nag.] with 

0) [But v. p. 50, Note ( 2 ).] 

— 54 — § 27. 

"1A+; 1"feA*feA with K-><£A<I»A: fl«feA with n*A; Ah»f with 

Ahf • Finally, when two gutturals (though separated by another 
letter) occur in one word, the establishment of the ^-containing 
pronunciation in the one often brings about the same thing in the 
other: 'faA'fe, "Nh*fe; farther JtCVMrHh "door-hinge" (Fern, from 
RCYbfa 'that, in which the door moves backwards and forwards'). 

It must farther be noticed^), in conclusion, that many words 
and roots fluctuate between the ^-containing and the common 
pronunciation of the Guttural, or else do not employ the first 
throughout in every one of their several forms (compare *fe^0 and 
«K0; %£<L and «K£, and the roots «fejU, fl«fe^ and H?M»). 
Also, words which are in frequent use, like r fl\t"\s, JiAInf"! 2 ? 
endeavour by gradually shaking off that pronunciation to simplify 
themselves into Tfhis, h$\.\rP- 

§ 27. (4) The Dental-Lingual Mutes ft, -f-, m- Through 
the co-operation of the tongue and the teeth, there are formed — 
besides the Liquids, which we are not just now considering — the 
soft letter ft d, and the hard letter »f" t. Ranked with these, just 
as 4* is w ^h the Palatal- Gutturals, we find a hollow, explosive 
sound ni t, peculiar to Semitic languages, which is formed through 
the co-operation of the tongue and the palate, "by bringing the 
root of the tongue up to the back part of the hard palate" ( 2 ). 
Precisely as 4* and h are employed in the Guttural class for k 
and % respectively in foreign words, so in this class the Greek r 
is usually rendered by m, e.g. fc^fll/J, ATC, 9°^OUC, °V?&*, 
while the Greek # or t& is given by 'f*, e. g. A/WlT^? ^"tri^fti 

These three letters are pretty sharply distinguished inEthiopic 
roots; and *f* and fli are but rarely exchanged, as in J»f"V and 
VrtlV? >"3h0 and if*0( 4 ) with somewhat different meanings: so too 
'MI0 "to be manly" and fll'flO "to be steadfast" (*o)- I n the 
beginning of a word -f« is frequently softened into ft (§ 73). 

( x ) V. Tuch, 'Comment: I, p. 18—22. 

( 2 ) Cf. Trtjmpp, p. 518.— On the emphatic consonantal pronunciation 
in Ethiopic there are various notices and theories, which however do not 
accord with one another: cf. Moore, 'JProc. Am. Or. Soc: 1888, p. XXX sqq. 

( 3 ) \@f- Guidi, l Le traduzioni degli Evangelii in Arabo e in Miopia)' , 
Eoma, 1888, p. 34, Note.] 

(*) [V., however, 'Kebra Nag: 39, Note 29.J 

§ 27. — 55 — 

When compared however with the other Semitic languages, 
Ethiopic exhibits several changes in these letters. It has some- 
what rarely the softer ft for n, as in hftfr "to cover", ]fD, fins, 
*xf, ^jctfC); and for t9 in Vft+ "to build", Stoi; ft<w>J "to be ob- 
scured", )Oto, ^6] ft'OC "mountain" *m, .-flag; ftjPflfl "to 
quench, to blot out", {JM .Jo, y*wO(> ; *V^T "a little", iaxka. ; also 
^ for t9 in «M*A "to kill", "rap, Jjti* ( 2 ) ; $»;!«& "incense", rnitop, 
jLki'; 'frTrTrp "gnats", alongside of Jdo. More frequently it 
shows the stronger and harder letters in place of the softer; thus 

probably *f* for 1 in A r l m *f" "to investigate", Jc>; perhaps in 
hil't'i "gift", alongside of IftW; m for T in tf»mV "to measure", 

Tt», ^ 5 V+*T "point" ( 3 ), ^pi, kij; fllCM* "to adhere" (as by glue), 
p^^, iS-jJb; <DAfll "to alter, to exchange", Jju; tfflfll "to exact 
compulsory service of", *Qy, iaxc; Afll4» "to rend'" *©£»; fllVf 
"to make strict enquiry", bt> II; / P J ^» "strictness", fli'>4"f' "to 

be strict"; flif*|» "to explore carefully", associated with pn, /s4>, 
p«|, although ft+4* also occurs often, in the meaning, "to be 
small"; — the same letter is used for n in tf»fll«f» "to raise on 

high", «&o, ^Xx ; jPT*^ "sweetness", pj-|», and X^o ; A£fll 

"to mislead, to deceive", beside nftB ; m^O "to sound" ('to wind 
the horn'), ypfl. In many of these roots Ethiopic possesses the 
fll in common with Arabic, and in opposition to the Northern- 
Semitic tongues. 

Farther ft often answers to 6, and m to Jo and <&>, e. g. in 
KAi m< Pftf "to accuse", 13. ; mli0° "to act unfairly, faithlessly", 
jJJd, ^4; m/,0>- "Pleiades", ijj; h*?df "to acquire", |p; 
fll+fl "to sew", v_Jw> and i,_jff:? and i_>ULJ, although these 
Arabic lisping sounds pass over, in other instances, into full sibi- 
lants (§ 30). fn corresponds frequently to ^o: HTrh "to scarify", 

O C/: Assyr. naddnu l to give 1 , )T\1 (between two w's), Haupt, 'Sum. 

( 2 ) V. Haupt, I. c. p. 74. 

( 3 ) [Cf. supra, p. 52, Note ( : ).] 

• _ 56 — § 28. 

«-£*; fcm# "to gag", pw, ^-Lo; TCfl and 0Cfl "a molar tooth", 
j**^' m*70 "to adhere to", «jfiuo; m£C "vault", *a^. 

Finally, in contrast with other languages, a marked sub- 
stitution of Dental-Lingual Mutes in exchange for the correspond- 
ing Sibilants has to be noticed. Thus, they said Jtrhtl "to be 
lame, to limp" for dU*y, &9°il "whispering", for fa£; £<0 "to 
hide", "to lay aside", for )S3, ^i£>; farther ^Afl. "flax", prob- 
ably equivalent to oL&; Olrfr "bed", tsn.J?, j myv , yj-*.e; and, 
to conclude, fllCft "to cry" (along with RCX), L-o, .^j-o, rns; 
4»T4*rtl and 4 > jR"4»X "to grind, to bruise"; fll+C "soot", connected 
with JL1 and Jus ; T0P "to be in health", \J& = K"rhfl» On 
the converse side of this exchange v. § 30. 

§ 28. (5) Labial Mutes fl, &., ft, f- The rest of the Semitic 
languages have only two Mutes formed with the lips, viz. the soft 
fl and the hard <£.. With the Northern- Semites each of the two 
letters is given, sometimes with an aspirated, sometimes with a 
hard, unaspirated utterance. The Southern-Semites [and the same 
is to be said of the Babylonian-Assyrians] know nothing of the 
distinction observed in such two-fold pronunciation, but give to fl 
the sound of h (or even utter it still more softly, like a v), and 
pronounce £ with aspiration, not however as ph, but as f: indeed 
to an Arabian mouth at least the pronunciation of a p is not pos- 
sible^). The Abyssinians, however, have contrived to form this 
harder, unaspirated sound, that is to say, p ; but as if they too 
had been, at least at first, unable to utter a pure p, they have 
done so in a peculiar phonetic fashion. Either the p is strongly 
and suddenly puffed forth by a vigorous effort of the vocal organs, — 
constituting thus in the class of Labials an emphatic letter p ft( 2 ) — 

( x ) "Wallin p. 23. 

( 2 ) The best description of this letter is given by Isenberg, p.. 8, where, 
speaking of ft as "the explosive letter of this class" he says "the breath puffs 
off" from between the lips, before the vowel is heard". V. in this reference 
"Wallin p. 10: "in order to produce such an explosive sound,* one vocal organ 
must be pressed against another to form a closure, and by the sudden open- 
ing of the same the air enclosed behind it is expelled to articulate the ex- 
plosive letter". V. also Konig, p. 45 sq — Compare the emphatic utterance of 
£ among certain Jews, 'Journ. as? VI, 16, p. B17, and among the Syrians, 
* Jomrn. as) VI, 18, p. 476 sqq.\ N5u>eke, ZDMG XXXIV, p. 572. 

§ 28. — 57 — ■ 

corresponding to the emphatic 4* and a\ in the two foregoing classes ; 
or else it is given with a slight sibilation — p s f — as in the Greek 
ip. This view of T a * an y ra ^e seems to follow from the old name 
Psa\ but at the same time it must be observed that Ltjdou? and 
Isenbeeg- expressly denote the pronunciation of T D J that of our 
own p (*) : it must accordingly have had the sound of p in later 
times at least. The first of these two letters, — & — , was certainly- 
developed independently of Greek ( 2 ), for neither the character 
nor the name of the letter points to a Greek origin, and it is by 
no means in foreign w r ords merely that it makes its appearance, 
but in genuine Ethiopic words and roots. In such words it origi- 
nates as a rule out of a b made hard and hollow in sound: — %%, 

"to throw, to hit (to shoot)"— belongs to Zj&'i 4*A& "to. catch 

with the mouth something that has been thrown", to n^?3 (u>^o ) ; 

9 a *Y m 'h& "& quiver" (phareira), to JU*^.; $&*} "boot", to i^lluS'; 
Tikh "to pervert, to overturn", to .^JU*, ^an. Yet it may also 
spring from fi: — iO&OJ "to sever the limbs, to break",] 

H&» (jU) ; "Yiff} KatXafiaTYig, iULL-L. Of unknown derivation are 
the names 4*K&» "chamaeleon" ; Ttifjflrjk ('name of a disease'). 
In certain other words also, ?> seems to have assumed even in early 
times the form of a harder but less dull jp-sound; but it was not 
until a new character for p had been introduced by the Greeks, 
that this harder pronunciation could be expressed in writing : UTA 

"to full", Jut, Jo. ; and J^pT "ambuscade, snare", n|^, 35^, v»?t>. 
The Greek it is now expressed sometimes by fl, sometimes by <£,, 
and sometimes by & and T <w»TC"fcA«ft> 4»fl/^, fH"<£ * ,?Ctl, 

(*) Isenbeeg also calk it Pa merely, not Psa. 

( 2 ) Contrary to Lxmou?, The whole account of these letters given by 
Ltjdolf is unsatisfactory. He thinks that sr was at first rendered by f\ and 
<{., and that later an endeavour was made to domesticate the p-sound as &, 
from which there sprung however a 'novw 1 and 'mirabilis sonus 1 : — that, still 
later, people learned the correct pronunciation of «r and added the letter '*p, 
and often used it at that day. The words in which & and f appear are 
mistakenly regarded by him as pure foreign words. The only thing that is 
true in this representation is, that in later times f is more frequently em- 
ployed in foreign words; but often enough, even in later times, the other 
three labials are also used for jp, especially in the foreign words which were 
introduced through the intervention of Arabic. 

— 58 — §28. 

f|<p'} < 7 (moyyos, hi\4*&f{ onvpfoa, frkPCktl, fl^fcM and 
/l^?^) ft*i"F oIvutti. On the other hand £ is used for (j), but 
also ft and f when a full vowel does not precede: f|ft.C ofaipa; 
tlTVC od7r(j)sipog. 

The other two letters fl and £ frequently exhibit mutual 
interchange, when we compare Ethiopic with the other tongues. 
An Ethiopic fl is confronted by a B in the other languages, — in 
the following words, for instance: fl4>*0 "to be profitable" <^u A^ >; 
jPMfoU "bellows", ri!)B, MBi, ^U, pJoi "fldH 'a kind of antelope' 

(also "a small flute"), y^jxliO ; (DflH "to be drained, exhausted", 
probably oyj. In Vmfl "to drop", *)©§, and frn£ "to filter", 
both the letters have been kept, though with different meanings. 

2 corresponds to an Ethiopic £ in *flf£ "to be compact", ^J*^>, 
v^A^, oy^; *h«l»£ "to embrace", pnn, v^as*, ,jla.; WW. "to 
become dry", IT, vL^ai, CJdi 5 hd$6* "to cause offence", 2pl?, 
oLar ; A<(.R "to knead" (if not "to besmear"), alongside of ft»fi 
"to knead", corresponding to o^f and yd. 

But these Mutes border also upon the Semivowel 0) through 
fl; and, on this ground, changes not unfrequently occur in Ethiopic, 
just as in other languages, both within the language itself and 
when faced by other dialects: thus we have the expressions 0(Dfi 
"to be weak-limbed", and fl-flfl "to be weak" ; 4»"Jmft and ^'imO) 
(SBj?) "to prick, to perforate". <D corresponds to a 2, u iu th(i(D 
"to utter lies", 3D, u jil 1A<D "to cover with", ^ls> ; <DAO>A 

"to be irresolute", JuJb ; fl to a . in ^CV'fl "tip, sting", Sy J>. 
These exchanges appear also in proper names: f|A4»'Jf"fl #2/Z- 
vanius; A/PCf-fl and A«flGP"A Liberius. 

An exchange of like nature makes its appearance between 
the Mutes and the Nasal of this class ( a ): QArh "to extricate", 
*JU; flCl "to be bald", nn» (cf. a^oa); *hCfl& "to wallow in the 

( x ) [The meaning of this word is quite uncertain. And it may be 
proper to say here generally, that not a few of the comparisons, ventured 
upon by Dillmann in this chapter, are very doubtful, if some of them be 
not demonstrably erroneous.] 

( 3 ) An analogous phenomenon is met with in the Minao-Sabaic dia- 
lect; ▼. ZDMG XXIX, p. 606«2.; XXX, p. 7Q4sq. 

§§ 29. 30. — 59 — 

mire", Juola. ; itffl "to forge (metals)", *^j ; $9°C "tiger" becomes 
in Amharic V"(IC- Conversely, O^ao "to be passionate" answers 
to ^^t; and iPjP°£ "to approve of", "to delight in", goes back 

in the end to *^a>, j*j& (y+&)- 

§ 29. If we glance once more over the three classes of no distino- 
Mutes, we must observe that the distinction between an aspirated n i 6fs & hfi * 
(or rather assibilated) and an unaspirated pronunciation no more twe ® n a * 
found admission into Ethiopia than it did into Arabic. We have (or Asnm- 
seen, it is true, that \i often answers to x, and <f* to &, and may anVlaTpi- 
conjecture accordingly that in foreign words h, •f' and perhaps also rated P r °- 

. nunciation 

other hard and soft letters, may have been spoken with an aspi- f Mutes. 
ration. But in the case of native words no such inference follows. 
As regards the hollow-sounding letters on the other hand; it is 
established that they can never stand for foreign Aspirates, unless 
the aspiration be falling away at the same time. 

Reciprocal exchanges between Mutes of different classes are 
exceedingly rare, and appear to be confined exclusively to the 
earliest formative stage of the language. Relatively the most com- 
mon is the exchange between + or h and £; (dM\ "to add to" is 
*)p; ((j*«j); i'Cd. "to be left over", liLj', rnn; rh£4f» "shore", 

UuJL; kil&.. A very ancient exchange of »f* and h appears in 
the Pronouns of the 1 st and 2 nd pers. (§ 65). 

§ 30. (6) The Sibilants, — five in all, — belong to the class sibilants, 
of Dental-Lingual letters. Among them H answers to &, as the 
clear and soft letter {z of the French and English) ; the harder 
A (the firm s) to -i* ; ft, the emphatic Explosive Sibilant, to fli. 
And these three leading letters, at least, Ethiopic has always care- 
fully distinguished. When comparison is made with Arabic, H is 
not only \, but also 3 (as even the character H has come from 
the Minao-Sabaic character for & — § 11 (*)), unless it is rather o 
that slips back into £ (§ 27); and ft is not merely ,jo( 2 ), but also 
takes the place of Jo (with the like limitation, § 27). Alongside 
of these three letters all the Semites have developed another 
sister-letter to ft, somewhat rougher and more sibilant, namely 

O Of. also Hommel, ZDMG XL VI, p. 536. 

( 2 ) [Later, however, when ft had become affricata, \jQ was represented 
by ft; v. Littmann, 'Zeitschr. f. Assyr." 1 XIV, p. 84, Note 1.] 

— 60 — § 30. 

£ (tf, ,&), and this is also met with in Ethiopic as u>C). The 
Southern-Semites alone produced ^ d over and ahove, by bending 
back the ^o to the Mutes, — which d the Ethiopians likewise took 
with them to Abyssinia in the form 0. So far that letter does not 
properly belong to this class: For the reason why it has been 
placed here, v. infra. 

In Greek words H corresponds oftenest to t, (H9°? 'C^AwV? 
fl&ht Zeno)\ ft is also used for it, e. g. Art.* 1 ? Zosima. ft or 
IP answers to s, though here and there ft or may be so used, 
and in that case such letter frequently coincides in a remarkable 
way, in words of Hebrew origin, with the Hebrew (ftrf"^* flfljt'h). 
ft is also often employed by the Ethiopians for the Greek r/, e. g.: 
A*}ftT Xsvtiov ; hTrflnj? Antiochia : oftener however we find *pf 
and ^f, e. g.\ MT^tift Antiochns; ft1.$/M"M "indidio". 

Outside of their own class these five letters border on the 
Mutes of the Dental-Labial Class. The perception of this rela- 
tionship of theirs has been kept up in Ethiopic in an exceedingly 
lively way, by such a Mute passing into a Sibilant, when one 

( 1 ) Ludolf had mistaken the correspondence of ft with,D, tflD, iuy, 
and IP with t#, at, .&, by inverting the relationship; but Hupfeld p. 5, 
has already drawn attention to the real state of the case, and Tuch in the 
second of the "Commentationes", cited on p. 14, has given farther proof of 
this. I regard the matter as settled thereby, and merely refer to these two 
treatises. "What chiefly led Ltjdolf astray was his failure to notice the peculiar 
shifting of sound which prevailed among the North- and South- Semites 
between $, y^, fef, D, and ,£. Often enough, in fact, s in Arabic cor- 
responds to the North-Semitic s, and 8 to the § of the North-Semites ; while 

Ethiopic in these cases generally followed Arabic, e. g. ]^f, .j-u/, ft"} 

"tooth"; tfng, u-Jo, 4»£rt; vnti, ***, ft9°0, Bto|, ^^fc, Wft, 
Ktw, Uj, */*■&; fcni, ^LsuJI, V?ip; fens, J^tZhCf and so on 

(Tuch p. 5). But otherwise, when this process of letter-shifting is not in 
operation, ft generally answers not merely to ,«« but also to D and fc?, whence 
it is clear again that ft is not equivalent to $, e. g. "Tlft^, wa^s*, 1DH. — 
Owing to this mistake, the orthography of the Sibilants, which is followed in 
Ludolf'b Lexicon cannot be accepted as correct without being farther tested: 
it needs repeatedly to be put right. On the gradation of the Semitic Sibi- 
lants in general, cf. Hattpt, ZDMG XXXIV, p. 759 sqq. [and D. H. Mullee, 
l ¥erh. YIL Or.~Congr„ Semit. Sect. 1 p. 229 sqq.].- 

§ 31. — 61 — 

of the former, unattended by a vowel, comes upon one of the 
latter (§ 54). In roots and words also an interchange of Mutes 
and Sibilants may often be observed. For the manner in which 
this was effected in the case of the Demonstr. Pron. v. § 62. It 
has already been pointed out (§ 27) that Mutes occasionally ap- 
pear in Ethiopic in place of the Sibilants of other tongues. But 
the converse is much more frequent. In those cases in which 
Aramaic has a Mute, Arabic a lisping Mute, and Hebrew a Sibi- 
lant, Ethiopic has a Sibilant too( x ), e. g. Ivs^, >J>, *\W ftC, *»&-►, 

>_o r SBh, mrtfl; wua?, ^?6, rnj. IH1A; J^joj, ^15, nit, HW1; 
;.&j, ^ts, m Vft£; e*4» c^' V* = V®> ROi; and in this way 

for the most part it gives Sibilants for the Arabic lisping Mutes, 

— namely for ^generally w, e.g. rhi**C "straw", 'iXzL (<$JLs>.)\ 
*lf*"lW "to sprinkle", Uj, kj, ntt; also ft, e. #. rh^fl "to plough", 
Kzjys*, tlhn; for j either If, e. (7. Hrh4* "to peel off husk, bark or 
skin", (J^t>, ^s^£ (for other examples v. supra), or ft, e. g., 

Otity "something variegated", .• Jlc ; "?^ift?i "a young male" 

(sheep, goat &c), cJJL, ^J^, 'H*; or ft, e. g. 0ft-4» "bough", 

■ xtXc; avfttUD "to fade", J06, J6; and for id, ft (v. supra). 

But farther, in not a few cases, it has the Sibilant even where 
ordinary Arabic shows no transitional sound, and generally in fact 
the first and commonest Sibilant ft, as for instance for 1, in ftfth 
"until" (from *ij> § 64); ft%,£ "to pierce through", nj?V, £M "to. 
glow", ^1), (in Derivatives); Ifl "to be up early", ItXc.; and for 

n, in ft*^. } "South", )&F\, ^Zj- ftfaft "to break off, to end", 
1"DD, v^jCw, and tDj?^, Jaiu*, : then, tD or is often passes into the 
hollow-sounding sibilant ft (0): *7*flftT, JoaS "Egypt"; flftOJ "to fall 

asleep", Ik?; 0ft£ "to put on one's cloak", *)i*y, . t »tir VTTT, and 
in rare instances *j or 0, e. #. flftfl>-d "prodigy", like cjo. 

§ 31. But these Sibilants also fluctuate a good deal among Muctua- 
themselves ; and in no class of letters are exchanges between the j°^ r ! nd 
individual letters so prevalent as in this ( 2 ). We are still keeping change of 
out of sight here the special relation which holds between w and 

(*) Tuch p. 8sqq. 

( 2 ) In this feature Ethiopic quite resembles Arabic. 

— 62 — § 31. 

ft on the one hand, and between ft and on the other (which 
will be considered farther on), and are attending merely to the 
three stages H; ft, w\ ft, 0. (a) We frequently come upon the 
softest letter H as an alternative form for ft {w) or ft, or else taking 
its place: rhflfl"to think, to suppose" and rhlifl; Afl£ "to shatter" 
and nftd in a»m(\C', tnt^aoQ "a line" and awH9°C, 9*110 
"beer" and jP*f|G; for other cases v. § 57; and similarly the root 
00p£ "to bind" (IBS, cX«-o) appears besides, with a slightly dif- 
ferent meaning, as H<wȣ. Cases are more common, in which 
Ethiopic has only H for the s or s of other tongues: e. g. for s 
and 3 Hflm "to smite", aagf; 1110-0 "to meditate", n^; |f}<70 

"to tattle", jmbu* and ^-*; H*fl*i "a skin, hide", Ju^5 W£C 
"border", Ji; ITU. "to be thick", s^oc^; 7»'H>'H "mat", 
xl&i; aoflaofi "to stroke, to rub", mt, jbjo, ^jo, y>y,; more 
rarely for s: H'W- "something yellow", LiLo; (Uli "Morning-star", 
related to ^U, J^u; Aj^'H "poison", f&n, (jd*s»., y*^- (b) The 
medial letter rt? i* 1 often answers to the softer t, <> of the other 

tongues:— ^/"K "to grow old", nV), 1^, ^, ^j */"}!*» "to 
sprinkle", nja, fyj, Lij; HJflfr "to determine, to fix limits", ^v.; 
Irhflrh "to agitate, to move backwards and forwards", jnt, nm, 

^ ^ a *• 

-y y^y ; MA "to depart", ?}«, JJj; ftC9° "the flood", agree- 
ing with the Arabic ^J&, but contrasting with the Hebrew a*yr 
(cf. also the instances given in § 30, where ft corresponds to a 6, 
4>, or 1); But in other cases ft or w has been retained where 
other languages already have x or ^d: — iA>rh«f> "to laugh", d^, 
pns and pnfc; rh<0*» "to sweep up", pap, JJis.; d./^th "to re- 
joice", n$S, ***£»; Kft<<.C "jaundice",^ (v. H<££. supra); ft&jBO 
"to hope", nBS; «f*-J»A "wound", <J^ ; ^£o; htdftftft "to 

glitter", y^j ; ya/«oj; and in other Words within Ethiopic itself 
it exchanges with 0: — ftip^, and d^rh "breadth", *Juo, fiSS; 
Cthft "to be moist", and QthO "to sweat", prn, (jd^s, and ^y 
(c) But certainly still more common is the appearance in Ethiopic 
of the hardest letter ft or for softer ones present in other 
languages. For several cases, in which ft answers to b and <>» 
v. §30. It corresponds to &\ in words like ft*/h?° "beard", JJ?t[?]; 

§ 31. — 63 — 

ft?fl) and ft«|p (§ 25), \j*y AK'*^ "lizard", ^y ; A£R (A»fl) 

"to knead", yj; VftVh "to be pure", *ii, with 1\\, &. Still more 
frequently it stands overagainst a ^ or j£: — JVfcft "to prick", 
"to stab", a^j, pin, (j^tj; ftTAfl "ulcer, wound", axJL,, but 

«^A-j; ftAd^ "rocks", "caverns", s6d, ^^Ll and giLo; ftfli* 
"to swim", ^s^**; ft'F'C alongside of /*'dC^h "hair", answering 
to -tffcy, ouo; ft*7fl "to be satisfied (satur)", «^co, 5?nt^; ftfl*-0 
"to summon", s?|i#, _Lo; hi 6.00%. "to leap", compared with 
Bfyig; ft Aft "to hate", Lxo, K3fc; fl«I*-ft "to rake together (the 

lire)", Bfj3£, vi*^o; JtVOI "to smell", D^p, p.£[?]- In Ethiopic itself 
ft also appears as an alternative for ft in rth»")h and ft*?* "street" 
(pltJOC); and in § 73 reference is made to an example of even the 
ft of the Causative Conjugations being deadened into ft. Similarly 
too has often originated from Jjj and y*,: — *fe0^ (*feft^) "to 

confine, to conspire", i^jj, w«ai'; 0PJT" "left hand", +L&; 0<w»£ 
"to fasten", nap, ^; %<D<D "to take prisoner", rotf, La**,; d% 

"worm", Bfy, &ci; ?$, "moth", DD, ynj-L; >?7*d "a rugged road", 

From the survey that has just been made of the multiform 
phonetic interchange between the letters composing this class, it 
becomes clear as regards the relation of ft to w and of ft to 0( 2 ), 
that ft and ft are the chief letters of the second and third stages. 
They predominate throughout the language, and w and appear 
much less frequently. Where the letter i*» does make its appear- 
ance, it answers generally to a j£, or v£> ; yet even in that case it 
is often supplanted by the simpler ft: — compare flCfl "to drink", 
^y&\ A4»A " to weigh", Juui, JJu, bp&\ ft^d "to rend", infc, 
U*fc; A>(1 "to grow grey", aty, ^Li; an( l so to ° AAflfl "to be- 
come mouldy", ^^ (o^*«); A-d "tinder"; c^ui; farther flj&flll, 
*MC> *f»rtm> 4*ft^j flrt^ and many others, which either in- 
variably, or nearly so, are written with ft. As the speech more 

O This is more doubtful in ftf°Q and }\fyf°f\. 

( 2 ) According to Konig, p. 47, ft and are roughened utterances of 
what were originally Explosives, ts, d?. 

— 64 — §31. 

and more took this direction, the letter s gained such predominance 
that s gradually disappeared, and s was used instead C). In poetry 
A and ip rhyme together; and when Amharic began to be reduced 
to writing, consciousness of the original phonetic value of the 
character w had been lost so completely, that a new character ft* 
was invented to express the Amharic S. Unfortunately this de- 
teriorated pronunciation had such an effect on the writers of 
manuscripts, even in the case of the older manuscripts, that A 
and IP were exchanged at the fancy of the scribe, and at the 
present moment we are in doubt about which is the more correct 
method of writing certain words, particularly those of compara- 
tively rare occurrence. But yet there were several words, which 
this capricious confounding of the two letters was never able to 
affect, either because of w still preserving a somewhat different 
pronunciation from A? or because of the power of tradition, in 
the matter of writing, proving too strong for caprice. Roots, like 
V/^ft, i^UA* "10°, V*7i*», lllPi*, (D/^h and others, are never 
found written with A in the better class of manuscripts; and 
conversely, roots, like A-flA, VPA, <*>AA, "7AV, £A? , 4»£A, 
'QhfL, fl9°0, A< n, f , A*flO, A&& and others, — are never written 
with w. But farther, the Abyssinians soon lost the original pro- 
nunciation of as a mute, as well as of i*», and suffered it to 
revert to the sound of ft, out of which it had sprung. Hundreds of 
years ago ft and had come to have exactly the same pronun- 
ciation; and they rhyme together in poetry. Meanwhile we can 
no longer discover from the appearance of in the individual 
words concerned, at what time this reversion of the pronunciation 
may have commenced. We still meet with a good many roots 
(v. supra), in which Ethiopic has in place of a simpler sibilant 
in other tongues; but on the other hand we meet with not a few, 
in which already ^o takes invariably the form of ft, e. g., ft£fl> 

V;^; ftflfl, vIm*; ftT, «kj^6; &4J, ^^; ?&o, £*<*• when 

too and ft gave quite different meanings to several roots, which 
otherwise had the same sound, the confusion of the two characters 
in writing was never so marked. It is only in one or two words 

(*) Cf. Schradeb, 'Monatsber. d. K. Prtuss. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin 1 
1877, p. 79*2'2., and Hauft, 'Sum. Fam.-Ges?, p. 68.. 

§ 32. — 65 — 

that such confusion occurs with any frequency. It is curious to 
observe how Ethiopic sought gradually to revert to the original 
condition of the sounds of Semitic speech, — the letters *V 0, w and 
being undoubtedly of comparatively late origin, — by ceasing, little 
by little, to distinguish between *i and gh, and h, and and ft. 

§ 32. (7) The Liquid and Softer letters, viz. the Nasals ao 
and V, the Linguals ^ and A, and the Semivowels (D and p — : 

Of the Nasals the labial ao is the more definite and there- 
fore the firmer; the dental V is the more general, and as it 
borders on the Linguals it exchanges with them. In their mutual 
relations, however, the one Nasal not infrequently passes over into 
the other. 

It has already been shown (§ 28) how ao exchanges with 
the labial Mutes. It exchanges in the same way with the Semi- 
vowel O): — on the one hand instead of m>(\\\ "to draw the bow", 
<dA4* is also used; on the other, an initial ID is hardened into ao 
in m»*JC "honey"; *i»j; <n>0& "to counsel", yv\ Joey J^ 5 IV, 
TSP ; and in the more Amharic <w»fl> "to weigh" (Ge c ez wffi, § 31), 
.v. (*). It is not often that the more definite ao arises out of the 
general Nasal >: — in \\an(D "to commit fornication" (another form 

being TiJtf"), nil, bj, and in Raxf* "beard", |£j[?], ^i'6, n cer- 
tainly appears in all the other Semitic tongues ; in ft«f»JF"P0 "to 
till the ground thoroughly", ao seems to have come from n under 
the influence of fl\. On the other hand with comparative frequency 
m becomes n (§ 57). 

The other Nasal, V is more liquid and fugitive. Thus it may 
disappear entirely, particularly in the end of a word (§ 58), or 
enter with ease into a short syllable which has the tone, to 
strengthen it (§ 58), or replace the first sound in any double-con- 
sonant whatever (§ 58). It also comes readily out of jP° before a 
dental or lingual Mute, whether in native or in foreign words (§ 57). 
Thus too it frequently replaces in roots the more definite ao\ 
+flim "to fail", "to withdraw", ^ IV and V; R.V<D "to smell", 

B1?D,.jU2&P]; ft Wh "bald", ^iiio, nsfe>, but also iLat, ^JLll; 

*Mrft "to leap", (ja+a and <jaJLs. On the other hand V and the 
liquid lingual A pass, dialectically, the one into the other: dtM 

( x ) More frequently has fD become OO in Aiftharic; Isbnbbr&, p. 


— ■ 66 — - § 32. 

"to spread (housings) over", J^y, R'Yi "to get off, to escape", 

^0J> J^^' J^)5 rt^AA "chain", n^tf, JuJL; and &1JIA. 

"a cymbal", D^#2f, JL^JLoO; conversely ft Aft "to hate", *Ofc>, 

Ll& ( 2 ). The exchange between \ and £ does not so readily occur ; 
and when it does occur, it may be regarded as brought about by 
the intervention of A; thus, no doubt, in Oflfi "to fumigate", 
(together with 4*;*%) from nDJ?, yXS, Jgc, and perhaps in ft<w»TnV 

"to repay", 13&>, Ju£ and *X«& (<?/. also ^7i"> "to stagger", Jf Jf)» 
and *H<7{J° "rain", D*Tt (c/*. also rtGU°); [contrast, however, As- 
syrian zananu, zunnu\ 

Of the two Liquid Linguals £ certainly inclines rather to 
the Aspirate-Gutturals ; and although here it does not, — as partly 
it does in Hebrew, — share at all in the other peculiarities of the 
Gutturals, yet it often brings about the gurgling w-containing pro- 
nunciation in the Palatal-Gutturals which precede it (§ 26), in 
which tendency it is followed by A (v. ibid.). In their mutual re- 
lations, £ and A frequently pass into one another, but only in 
root-formation. In fact at the end of a word, A is a more fa- 
vourite letter in Ethiopic than ^, thus — W0i\. "to paint" ('to 

fashion'), jyo (n», iSj, J£«; fl+A "to punish", ;ja», 1Y$3; 
ftflA "member", "limb", y&> ; rhAA "to burn", along with th££ 
"to be hot", !&., V|)1> lU> J^>; *feX*A "foliage", jjoj*. and 
Judik XI ( 8 ). In the interior of a word this exchange is found in 
rt<CAJ? "hammer", from the root -us, ViB; *flCft"J "lentils", 
^j^uJo : the harder 7G1<£ is found as a secondary form of galgala 
in Syriac also. A shares with J in the weakness of being capable 

( x ) Perhaps also Dent, the name of the 19 th letter of the Alphabet, 
from Dalt. 

( 2 ) On the exchange of am and al (through the intervention of an) in 
the Arabic of Yemen, v. Mufassal 2 , p. laf, 1. 8; on the modern Arabic pop- 

ular pronunciation .Ljo I (emhareh) "yesterday" (for »LJf) v. Trumpp, 

'Sitzber. d. philos. philol.'u. h. CI. d. Jc. b. Ak. d. Wiss: 1877" Part II, p. 119. 

( 3 ) Thus too in foreign words, but mostly following the lead of the 
Septuagint, A exchanges with r and », e.g., tf»CflVA for tn»Cm*C, (?(liA> 

fc<M»A» ttf*a»A, >? A &c. 

§ 33. — 67 — 

of a complete disappearance in the end of a word (§ 58), just as 
it exhibits the faculty also of bringing over to its own sound a 
"foregoing m or n (§ 54). That r besides may pass into s — 
seems to follow from *%ft "it is better", alongside of "%C "good", 

JX: compare also ftjPflfl, y^x^ and *jo<>( 1 ). 

Finally, the two Semivowels (D and f are, along with tt, 
the softest and most liquid of all the letters, and they are con- 
stantly changed for the corresponding vowels (v. infra § 4Qsqq.] 
cf. also on Oh and £ supra, p. 38 sq.). On the other hand they 
are much more definitely marked off from one another than in the 
other Semitic languages, and they maintain themselves ^tenaciously 
when they have once taken root, — without to, for instance, passing 
into f , through the influence of an i, or f into (D, influenced by 
a u. It has already been shown, how fl) is softened out of other 
labials, or hardened into them (v. §§ 28 and 32). As first letter 
of a root, it often corresponds to n of other languages (§ 68) ; but 
this phenomenon is not to be explained as a softening of n into y 
or w, but as a variety of the root-form. As a Palatal, f borders 
upon 1 and ft; at least JtYlisjF* "made an orphan" appears 

to be connected with dl"l\ Compare also 0P9° with *Li. 



§ 33. The two kinds of letters, which have hitherto been ex- Constitu- 
hibited separately, appear in speech only in union with one syllable, 
another. Neither a single vowel nor a single consonant can by 
itself form a word or constituent part of speech : it is not until 
they are uttered in combination that words or portions of words 
are produced. In this combined utterance it is always the vowel 
which gathers to itself one or several consonants and binds them 

( x ) Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.\ p. 66, has drawn attention to this fact. Mean- 
while, }KA "to be small" has its own connection with <m£Qj, .mftj, and 

i o. The word tfn"7G and flh^VC? jLoJb is derived from ro/i&piw. 

— 68 — § 34. 

into one whole. A simple phonetic whole, of this nature, held to- 
gether by one vowel, constitutes the Syllable. Every syllable must 
have one vowel; but no syllable can have more than one, unless 
it be two vowels which coalesce in a single vowel-sound or diph- 
thong. One syllable even may by itself have the full force of a 
word, and thus constitute a word, like "fl "this", ,^»A "word"; 
and Language has a host of monosyllables. By far the greatest 
number of words, however, contain several of these simple pho- 
netic groups, one of which farther holds the rest round itself as a 
centre and bears the Tone of the word. Different languages show 
different dispositions and capabilities in the nature of these simple 
phonetic groups, according as they severally admit of a larger or 
a smaller number of consonants being gathered about the one 
vowel. Semitic languages, generally, do not tolerate the piling 
up of consonants in one syllable, for they are rich in vowels. Yet 
there are degrees of difference among them in this respect. Arabic 
has developed this Semitic tendency with most thoroughness; the 
Northern-Semitic languages are less rich in vowels ; while Ethiopic, 
in this matter, as in many others, stands midway between these 
extremes. In particular it resembles Arabic in allowing a short 
vowel to stand in an open syllable, — that is, in a syllable which 
ends in a vowel, — independently of its being supported by the 
Tone; and on the other hand, like the Northern-Semitic languages, 
it admits long vowels in closed syllables, — that is, syllables which 
end with a consonant, — and it even allows a word to conclude with 
a double consonant. Generally, however, open syllables outnumber 
closed syllables. Farther, Ethiopic evinces a peculiar leaning to 
the Northern-Semitic tongues, through its very short e-sound, 
which often takes the place of a full Arabic vowel. The rules of 
the syllable in detail are as follows C). 

§ 34. (1) Every syllable must begin with a Consonant, A 
vowel can never commence a word or syllable, for according to 
the Semitic conception of phonetic relations, every vowel, however 
audible in itself, must at least be preceded by a breathing, more 
or less vigorous. Accordingly in Ethiopic too, all roots which at 
first began with a vowel have had their initial vowel turned to the 

(*) Compare with the following representations Konig, pp. Hsqq., 
92 eg., 104, 118, 139 s?., and 143 sqq. 

§ 34. — 69 — 

consistency of a consonant. The same thing is shown in foreign 
words, whenever they have to be transcribed in Ethiopic: frA4- 
dX(f>oc ; td&Pll Irenaeos ; /hit? 'Amviag ; d'(\6*<P. c Epp<xiog ; fcflA. 

or <0PA» Ex. 30, 13 (o being resolved into au = ua = wa) dfioXog; 
flHVfA oceanus; flW^Thfi Gen. 28, 19; J&ch/J 'IoyWa. It 
was only the later pronunciation that contrived a pure u or i in 
the beginning of the word in cases like OhfcR, J&TiK- (§ 19). 
So when, according to the other rules of formation, two vowels 
would come together in the middle of a word and thereby bring 
two syllables into existence (§ 33) in that form, this is not ad- 
mitted of, and such a hiatus is avoided by contraction or blending 
into a double or mixed sound (§ 39), or by the interpolation of a 
separating letter (§ 41), or by the hardening of a vowel into its 
semivowel (§ 40); and thus the phonetic conditions are reduced 
to the rule which has been enunciated. It is the same in foreign 
words, e. g. Theodora is either transcribed phRfa or *fcJP£^. 

No syllable begins originally with a double consonant] and 
in those cases in which the consonant introducing the vowel of 
the syllable is preceded by a consonant unprovided naturally with 
a vowel, this consonant is uttered with the shortest vowel e, e. g. 
*7flC g e -bar. But such e is of a fugitive character, being little else 
than a half- vowel or vOwel-toueh; and this is one of the cases in 
which the so-called vowel of the sixth order resembles the Hebrew 
sh e va mobile (§ 22). In the later pronunciation of Ethiopic, how- 
ever, when the nature of the consonants which came together per- 
mitted it, — when, for instance, a liquid followed a mute, or a 
mute a sibilant, — even that vowel-touch was no longer heard and 
Wffi" was pronounced fnot; >ftii& blcf ; h^jF*^ kramt; and farther 
even ft Ah. Me for kel-'e (§ 47) ( x ) : So in foreign words h<$n«l 
sfeng for sefeng, anoyyog; ftCfl-f-ft Chrestos. Not more than 
one consonant, however, can be prefixed in this way to the con- 
sonant which introduces the vowel of the syllable. When, there- 
fore, by the rules of formation several vowel-less consonants come 
together before it, an auxiliary vowel must be applied to make it 
possible to pronounce them. This vowel is generally e, no longer 
so fugitive as in the foregoing case, but a complete short vowel, 
e. g. £«7flC yeg-bar; ^9°^ te-mert 

(*) Ltjdolf, 'Gramm.' I, 5. 

— 70 — §35. 

Meanwhile foreign words, commencing with three consonants, 
would often he much disfigured by the insertion of an auxiliary 
vowel in the group ; and in this case a device, current in the other 
Semitic languages also, was adopted, namely the prefixing of a 
short vowel introduced by ft, to the whole group, e. g., hhti&'i 
esk e ren, scrinium. In fact this device for facilitating the pro- 
nunciation of vowel-less letters in the beginning of a word is fre- 
quently employed, even where only one vowel-less consonant pre- 
cedes the consonant which introduces the vowel of the syllable. 
In native words of Ethiopic formation the vowel prefixed is mostly 
e, ft0°i "out of, from", from jP°J, )D; ftfttfoO) "for", "because"; 
ftflYl* ( m w i sn or entreaty) "O that!"; VfUfc-lh "vicissitude", from 
(Id? ; h"MJh "Lord", for "lflji ; perhaps hA;Mr "under-garment" 
and ftJFVh,fl»« "ancestor"; (on ft">*7/J "foreigner", v. § 137 ad 
fin.). In Ethiopic words of earlier formation the vowel a is also 

used, ftX"flfl*ih "finger", *L>c\. In foreign words a appears more 
frequently than e, particularly in those which have reached Abys- 
sinia through the Arabic: ftftm/£.f Jl Stephanas; h\l(l+ %Tff'll 
with the older tytuT'TtWh Clemens; MCit\ frpovog; hMhl 
°XWa\ ftft^Jt anvpfba; JMIC^A Procla] h'(\£\}tlA npd&g 

§ 35. (2) The syllable may terminate either in a vowel or 
a consonant. If it terminates in a vowel, the vowel may be either 
long or short: TJ ze; "^fl hdba; AJ&ao fassama\ $a» qbma; "lm« 
metu. If it closes with a consonant, the vowel of the syllable 
may be short, as in 1flGYl« gabarhu\ iflCYl" " gabarkemmu, 
or long, whether it has the tone, as is usually the case — ftjJ°AVl 
amUk; ftm*-")^ emuntuC); fJPh nomha; ^*jP°Ah tamlek — or 
has not the tone, e. g. a % t ?\\a**' metkemmu\ £«t/pfl* , J p > £<CJf 
<pao~ &c. 

A syllable may end even in two consonants, but only in the 
termination of a word. Oases like ft*>^Mft« "that" (fern.) are no 

C 1 ) In the later pronunciation this ft is again rejected: the pronun- 
ciation is 8tna, sku, and so too ftfth "till" (which has had a different origin) 
ska, Lpdolf I, 5. 

( a ) [But v. Prabtokius, 'Aethiop. Gramm.\ p. 23, where— following 
TaoKPr, p. 548— he puts the tone on the last syllable:— emuntu. tb.] 

§ 36. — 71 — 

exceptions, for, even granted that it was pronounced Snt-Jcu, and 
not rather 6nt e kuC), this word must be regarded as a compound of 
two words, and must be estimated in the same way as f°Tf't^h 
"what?"; a*'h"ll 3a '\r\ "the kingdom also" &c. It is mainly in 
feminine Nominal stems formed by the closely attached t, that a 
double consonant occurs in the end of a word. The yowel of such 
a syllable, owing to its being more compressed by the two closing 
consonants, must of necessity be short ; and thus if it was originally 
a long vowel, it must be shortened: <£TG^ fe$rt\ ^h?°UC"h 
temhert; h'Ph'fl^ kawokebt; RDC^ sahart; K<h4»A^" ahqelt. 
It is only when the first of the two final consonants is a Semi- 
vowel or an Aspirate-Guttural, that the vowel of the syllable may 
be long (v. § 36). There are, besides, other cases, in which a 
word ends in two vowel-less consonants (v. § 38). 





§ 36. In Ethiopic, as well as in all other Semitic languages, shortening 
the vowels are the letters most subject to alteration, as forming y ow °j^ 
the more mobile and subtle division of the sounds of speech. Lengthen- 

mg of Short 

And yet this change among them is far from being carried out vowels, 
here as extensively as in Hebrew (§ 22) : it is only in a few di- 
rections that a comparatively frequent exchange of vowels prevails. 


The most important phenomena in this reference are the 
Shortening of Long Vowels and the Lengthening of Short Vowels. 
It is true that, in accordance with § 35, Ethiopic may admit both 
long and short vowels in open as well as in closed syllables, and 

( x ) [Trtxmpp, p. 547, transcribes this word in the form enteku; Prae- 
torius, 'Aethiop. Gramm? p. 28, follows Trumpp, writing the word thus: — 
Znffltu. tr.] 

~- 72 — § 36. 

that too, whether they have or have not the tone, the result being 
that exchange between long and short Towels is by no means carried 
so far in this language as it is in others. But still there are 
several cases in which this change occurs. In a syllable ending 
in two consonants a long vowel is not admitted (§ 35). Thus when 
a second vowel-less consonant (*) is appended to an ordinary closed 
syllable, a must be shortened to a, and u and I to e. Accordingly 
p»^<p "dealer" forms in the Fern. i*»? 1» (for »»tf «f ^- § 54)) ; iMA, 
ftfflX, in the Fern. f»Aftf", (i" D 'i : t\ the very common form «7fl«C 
becomes in the Fern. "7-flC^ gebert\ and it is only from CVhft 
"unclean", and the like, that Ctfrft^ even is read in place of 
Ctf*ft^ (§ 42 ) ( 2 )"> K*7H.K and A^4» in the Fern, have the forms 
V7TlM" and AU<Hh> A syllable of this kind may retain a, only 
when the first of the two concluding consonants is an Aspirate: 
in such a case, if it has a short a, the vowel must be lengthened, 
e. g. VP*H", 'k'iHM' (§ 46); but any long vowels, other than a, 
must be shortened even before Aspirates, e. g. 'fl0-fl Fern. •flflfH*; 
and yet here and there one meets also with K*7H.X^h and even 
with A/M" (from A«4*> inasmuch as «f» occasionally shares in the 
peculiarities of the Aspirates). Farther, when the first of the two 
concluding consonants is a semi-vowel, the long vowel may be 
retained: — thus not only does one say W^^T, •WfchAJ^h — for 
here JR, has the sound of i,— but also <h£nHh, ft9**<h»0Hh where 
the Oh inclines at least to u (§ 39). Apart from the very common 
case which has been described, the shortening of a long vowel in 
the formation only occurs regularly, when the tone-less i of the 
Fem.-persons of the verb is brought into the middle of the word, 
through the attachment of a suffix. Shortening happens also under 
the influence of a f or a CD, which draws to itself a y or a w out 
of a foregoing or following I or u, and leaves the vowel reduced 
to a short e (§ 52) ; or it may happen in consequence of the em- 
phasis- of the word, an d, or an a which has come from 6, being 
in certain cases simplified into u, and an e into I (§ 60). Cases 

O A short S originally ending the Noun (whereon v. § 88) is not 
taken into acoount here. 

( a ) An exception is formed also by *}0«£l*jh l Kufale\ p. 142, 1. 3.— 
On forms like Jilflfhfc M hniih. + X v - if, f ra > § I51 > 4 - t As regards 
Cl^lHh' wheja it doe* occur, it is probably an instance merely of caoo- 
graphy for Ctf"fl^h "* an inferior MS.] 

§ 37. — 73 — 

fall to be noticed here also, in which u occasionally becomes ue r 
just as "HYl« and ftAft* zeku, elku, with the addition of is, are, by 
reason of this new load in the end of the word, shortened to Tftf«ts 
and ftAYM= and even to flYl'P and h&ti'P (v. § 26).— It is only 
under the influence of an Aspirate coming after it, that a short 
vowel is lengthened in the formation with a measure of regularity, 
and even then the rule is restricted to a and e (§ 46). For other 
cases, in which short dor ef becomes a, I, or u, or even £ becomes 
e, — see above, §§ 18, 20, 21. Besides, when we make a compar- 
ison with other Semitic languages, we are obliged to recognise in 
the a, t, and u of certain Word-forms, vowels which were originally 
short, and which, merely through the tone, have been gradually 
turned into long vowels (v. infra). 

The weakening and reducing of vowels occur occasionally in weakening 
a few words, in particular in the weakening of a into e (§ 18), Xcing of 
the reduction of u to o, and of I on the one hand and a on the Vowel8 - 
other to e (§ 21), and the simplification of b to a.(§ 18). A regular 
phenomenon in Formation is the reduction of a to e before Aspi- 
rates (§ 45), as well as the reduction, and at the same time the 
lengthening, of a into e, the lengthening being by way of compen- 
sation for a double consonant (§ 56). 

S 37. Individual vowels may fall away, but only when they Treatment 
meet with other vowels (§ 41). On the other hand this fate is ^^ ' 
very often experienced by Short e as a result of change in the c ^^ f 
conditions of the syllable. In many forms it is not maintained conditions, 
either by the tone or by a closed syllable, and already sounds 
very short and little else than a half-vowel; and thus upon due 
occasion it disappears completely. The following cases fall to be 
noticed here in detail: — (a) A short e in an open syllable without 
the tone, which is preceded by another open syllable having a 
long or short vowel, can seldom maintain itself, at least according 
to the later pronunciation : it brings about the attachment of its 
own introductory consonant to the preceding syllable and then 
disappears: thus £"M14* (originally yegaberu) is given as yegabru; 
$*Kfti4* (orig. yesehefu) as yesehfu; £(lCtt* yebarku: &&JK& * 
yefesmu-, 9 o R , £*0hj?J niedrawyan; and so in the semi-passive 
expression of the verb, instead of original ?*fl£ gdbera, »M»fl£ 
tagdbera, the pronunciation is rather gdbra nrtditagabra. But the 
e which constitutes the so-called Binding-vowel of the pronom- 

— 74 — § 38 

inal suffixes is retained, whether with or without the tone, even 
in the later pronunciation, thus: KyVW amlakena; ^Atl q&leka. 
Again, this shorter pronunciation is not employed, if the open 
syllable which precedes, the syllable containing e is a particle ex- 
ternally prefixed, such as a preposition or conjunction, e.g.: — 
flfljhp. ba-setai (not bastai) ; A^^9° la-tequm (not latqum) ; but 
it appears in special and permanent compounds, like 2i < 7ll«fc'flffbG 
egziabher, TlhiJ zektu. (b) A short e in a closed syllable, which 
is preceded by an open syllable, is maintained more firmly, — so 
that JB.1*flG> ^""Ah, *J*7C ar e rendered yegaber, ydmdlek, neger. 
It is the same with J^'VA danagel and K*PA£* awaled; and 
only a slovenly pronunciation would give these words as awald 
and yamalk. But when a formative syllable, beginning with a 
vowel, is applied to such a closed syllable containing e, the final 
consonant of the latter is taken over to the formative syllable, 
and the e, — left with its introductory consonant, — disappears, while 
the last-named consonant attaches itself to the foregoing syllable: 
J&'l'fl4«> ^^Ah? "1*7*5 negri ; &V7A danagla (although at first 
certainly danagela) ; £/71, S&Vh degen, but degnu. 
Treatment § 38. A similar loss of a short and fugitive e has been ex- 

atthe°end perienced by Ethiopic at the end of Nominal stems. It maybe 
of Nominal p rove( j pretty clearly, from the formation of individual Nominal 
stems, singular and plural, as well as from some other indications, 
leaving in fact no room for doubt, that at one time Ethiopic had 
the ground-form of Nominal stems, as distinguished from the 
Construct state and the Accusative, ending in a fugitive e( l ), so 
that at one time, for instance, 1»flC "servant" was pronounced 

(*) Just as a noun in Arabic ends in u in the Nominative and in i in 
the Genitive. In Ethiopic these two cases had not yet been distinguished. 
The above theory, — which has been contested by Trumpp, p. 532, but has 
been supported by Konig, p. 76 sq., — I have endeavoured to establish in my 
Essay ('Observations on the Grammar of Ge e ez and on the ancient History 
of Abyssinia'): 'Bemerkungen [zur Grammatik des Geez und zur alten Ge- 
8chichte Abessiniens: Sitzber. d. K. Pr. Ah. d. Wiss. zu Berlin 1 1890, p. 38^. 
On the Arabic literary language, which knows nothing of nouns ending in a 
consonant, cf. Fleischer, 'Beitrage 1 , St. 2. p. 281 sqq.-, St. 5. p. 130 sg^., and on 

the form of the Himyaric local name jLftii, "Wustenfeld, l al BakrV II, 

p. 468; 'JaquV III, p. 576; cf. O&shausen, 'Monatsber. d. K. Preuss. Ah. d. 
WSm. zu Berlin 1881', p. 690. 

§ 38. — 75 — 

gabr e , and &V*7£V danagel*. This termination in a vowel must, 
however, have worn itself off in very early times, — a thing which 
in the case of most of the Nominal stems might well have hap- 
pened without increasing the difficulty of pronunciation, parti- 
cularly when the second-last consonant had a vowel of its own, 
however short, like Vl£", 0<J-Tf, W7A and others. Even when 
the second-last consonant had no vowel, the vowel-termination of 
the word would be discarded without difficulty, if the two con- 
sonants, thus deprived of vowels, were of such a kind that they 
could be readily attached to each other, — if, for instance, the last 
consonant were a Mute or a Sibilant, as in a*>C% Wh, "I9°£?i 
hG/*% or if the second-last were a soft Aspirate as in llft-fl &c. 
In such cases, owing to the new pronunciation, a host of words 
arose, ending in a double consonant (v. § 35), and given* thus, 
marg, rams &c. But in other cases, the loss of final e left as a 
result groups of consonants not so easily attached to each other, 
like l-flC, li^Tr, *feft*A 0$9° &c. If, nevertheless, final e was 
given up in such instances, as — according to descriptions of 
Ethiopic pronunciation — seems to have been the case, then of 
necessity a fugitive e must have been brought in after the second- 
last consonant, — thus, gab e r, Mfnf) &c. There are, however, a 
number of Nominal forms, in which final e did not allow itself to 
be so easily dislodged, but probably continued to be spoken even 
in later times. In the first place, when a word ended in a u-con- 
taining guttural, the e connected with that u was bound to main- 
tain its position more tenaciously: for instance, ">*A4 M '> hd^O* 
were certainly not pronounced bare huelq anda c wa<?( 2 ), but huelque, 
cfn&que, so that in pronunciation alone there is no difference 
between Mtfh and frfa "brother" ( 3 ). In the second place, when 
the concluding consonant of the Nominal forms concerned here 
is a semivowel, as in fl£"fD«, /^COf*, £"iOh, 6*h?>, hfhCO', 
fl'Pflfl*", ao*>^gh, ©A^flH, I^AjK., the final e must always be 

O Accordingly words, which originally resembled Arabic words like 

\iLLo, came rather to resemble Hebrew words after the type of "^O. 

( 2 ) If even the single word fJ■J'f "^ ,, was pronounced &nguag, as 
Ludole says; for it is also written PTr*h*T 

( 3 ) How Konig (pp. 76, 140) could dispute this position, it is impos- 
sible to perceive. 

— 76 — § 38. 

retained, to prevent the resolution of the semivowel into the 
vowel, thus bddw e , Mrw e , qahw e , ray 6 , ahrew e , and sawasw 6 , ma- 
Mtw e , waldtw 6 , gamcty e , for original sawasew 6 &c, the fugitive e 
of the second-last syllable being given up, and its introductory 
consonant being attached to the preceding open syllable (v. supra). 
At least (D is always maintained in this way as a semivowel, un- 
less preceded by a. f is less stable ; and in certain words and 
forms,— which will be specially indicated farther on, in the account 
of Nominal formation, — it passes into I, e. g. : tf»hA£ and twltd,', 
i. e. makaley 6 becomes either makdly e or makaley = makali, just 
as, for instance, the form mentioned above, <&«}i£, may easily be 
pronounced rai in place of ray 6 . But in other Nominal forms 
also, like iJAfl*" (from UA*0>*K th?<D; aifaOh, final e is main- 
tained in the very same way, and the transition of the semivowel 
into a vowel is prevented (v., farther, on this matter § 51 sq. ; cf. 
also some of the names of the letters discussed in § 9). Thirdly, 
the retention of final e is generally necessary, when the last con- 
sonant is one of the five Aspirates, — particularly in forms like 
h*l?6, V4*U, 4»'fl?i) tf"flrh> where the aspirate is inaudible without 
a vowel before or after it, and where the pronunciation naqe' &c. 
is likewise difficult. In such forms the preferable pronunciation is 
naq <e , ndqh e , qetf e , kuesh e , resembling the Accusative i«jf*U an d the 
Feminine ttyUfy. But even forms like 2»T?i> Jtfl*7d, — although 
the pronunciation hate', ahage% has a foundation in the formation, 
— should rather be pronounced liat e , abag (e with retention of the 
original final sound, by reason of the attractive force of the a 
upon the consonant which follows it and the consequent complete 
disappearance of the fugitive e which came after that consonant* 
In fact, in all the Nominal forms ending in Aspirates, in which a 
vowel, different from a, a or e, comes immediately before the 
Aspirate, like i<g/]h, Iflrlti, this final e, it seems, must be heard, 
if the Aspirate is not to lose all its force (as in the Amharic pro- 
nunciation of Ethiopic): — thus we say nawih e , geW e £). 

The scanty observations made by the earlier grammarians 
on the pronunciation of Ethiopic among the natives in their day, 
are far from being sufficient to enable us to settle all its details 
with exactness. The leading rules, meanwhile, are the result of 

( l ) Ju»t as little can one say in Hebrew H^ or frt^. 

§ 39. — 77 — 

observing the modes of formation and the historical development 
of the pronunciation in general. The fact that no longer was 
anything heard of final e in the Noun, in those very recent times 
when the pronunciation of Aspirates and Vowels was in full process 
of decay, does not justify the conclusion that it never existed; and 
we shall do well to re-introduce it even, in the course of learning 
Ethiopic, if we recognise that it has a historical foundation. The 
entire development of the later pronunciation tended to impoverish, 
and not to enrich, the language in the matter of vowels, as may 
be gathered both from §§ 37, 38, and from the similar case noted 
in § 34. 


§ 39. The general rule, that no syllable can begin with a Contraction 
vowel (§ 34), implies that if two vowels come directly upon one coalescing, 
another in the formative process, they cannot stand side by side 
as two separate sounds : the hiatus thus constituted must be reme- 
died somehow. The means for this purpose at the command of 
the language are the following. 

(1) Contraction and Coalescing. Two vowel-sounds meeting 
together pass readily, in certain circumstances, into one sound, 
simple or composite, so that they form only one syllable. 

(a) If two like vowels, long or short, come directly upon one 
another, then the pairs % + i, -u. + u are not indeed contracted 
into t and u, but one vowel in such a pair has to be hardened 
into a semivowel (§ 52) : on the other hand the pair a + a is very 
frequently and regularly contracted into a, e. g. in *h*PG^ + at 
(Plur.), rh*PC^h 61H.&* + a (of the Cstr. st.), dfli>; l^id + a 
(for ha Suff.), "Ml^; d/^t-A-awi, fl/*%q». Two independent 
words even, viz. h«w> "if' and ftft "not", blend into fr*Tht>* 
Similarly, e + a and 6 + a, — for example in the Accusative form 
of Nominal stems ending in e and o, — become e and b, while, in 
other cases of this kind, e and o are resolved into their component 
parts, or else are separated from the following dissimilar vowel 
by a disjoining letter. 

(b) When unlike vowels meet together, then if they are such 
as to be capable of blending into one combined sound, they pass 
into such a sound. An i is in this way easily attached to a fore- 
going a, u or o, e. g. ffrRd "he shall make known"; .Qfi# "the 

— • 78 — § 39. 

weeping"; 1\6fr£ "cattle"; +W "camp"; fcYl-£"bad", AM&0 

"the second"; If£ 'name of a letter of the alphabet'; and yet in 
this case the combination must continue rather external in cha- 
racter, and ai or ay, for instance, is not allowed to become e ( a ). 
On the other hand u is much less easily attached to a or e, and 
accordingly it is better to render it hard, after both of them, as 
a semivowel, aw, ew: — $0hC& ydwred "(that) he bring down"; 
1£»0* neqaw e "tone"; m^O*" tardw e "Pleiades"; %Gh sew e 
"salt"; "h9°th»<D* emhew e "ancestor". Ludolf, it is true, says 
that in his time %,&• was pronounced seu ( 3 ), and Europa is now 
written hAf^Gy*-* but no conclusion for the original pronunciation 
follows therefrom. In more ancient times a eu, for instance in 
svayyiXioi/, Eulogia, Eustathius, was expressed quite differently; 
and in the formation of certain Nominal stems it is farther shown 
very clearly how little aw can ever be contracted into au and o. 
On the other hand a + i and a + u regularly coalesce into ai and 
au, or in many cases blend still farther directly into e and b. In 
this matter too it is characteristic of Ethiopic that it differs from 
Arabic and approaches Hebrew. The mixed sound e or 6 appears 
throughout in the Perfect of Triliteral verbs mediae infirmae, like 
"1,00 and $tro (unless special phonetic conditions had of necessity 
to introduce the diphthongal pronunciation, § 94), also in all the 
forms of those Quadriliteral Verbs which have i or u as second 
radical, such as A»Af , •f'ilih, — in Nominal stems from roots tertiae 
<D and f , which end in the Feminine t, — and in the Suffix pro- 
noun of the 3 rd pers. sing. masc. attached to the Accusative of 
the Noun. The diphthong, on the other hand, is maintained most 
regularly in several forms from roots primae vocalis, like hOhVfi, 
*N&*flVl> fc£flA &c., — in the Subjunctive of verbs tertiae ?, — 
and in the plural forms ending in Oh^ and J&^- of Nominal stems, 
e. g. frOflHK*), 0flJBfl*i manifestly because the «,-sound is of 
essential importance in these forms ( 5 ), — and, lastly, in the interior 

(*) These forms, however, ought properly to be given as bekay e , ekHy e , 
tdayen* or tadyen (§ 38). • 

( 2 ) To be sure, the form IP^ for W^f*^ is met with. 

( 8 ) [Cf. Teumpp, p. 519«2.] 

(*) Yet ?/Hh If * 

( 5 y At the same time distinguishing them from the forms of the Fem- 
inine Singular. 

§40. — 79 — 

of the word, in all those forms in which a diphthong ai or au 
has sprung from an original dye or awe just through briefer pro- 
nunciation (§ 37), e.g. £tf»£m-, £4>OH0»-. But in all other 
Nominal formations and in the conjugation of verbs tertiae in- 
firmae, and of those which end in u in the Subjunctive, as well as 
in some few individual words, the speech fluctuates between the diph- 
thong and the mixed sound, varying with roots, with the age, with 
authors, with copyists; and the very same word frequently appears 
under both modes of pronunciation. A comprehensive survey, 
however, proves that as time went on, the mixed form of pronun- 
ciation steadily gained ground, and only a few departments of the 
language remained unaffected by it. In foreign words also, au 
and ai are generally, expressed by o and e (J), although the reverse 
process is also met with, in the substitution of au for the o Of the 
foreign word, as in fa*-"! farce. Besides, the mixed sound e 
or o may arise not merely from ai or au, but also and frequently 
from ia or ua (v. infra § 40). When i is preceded by e, it can 
only dissolve into the diphthong ei, e.g. JhJ&fD^" heiwati 1 ), al- 
though this is of rare occurrence. When u follows e, it must be 
changed into w (v. § 43sqq.). 

§ 40. (2) Hardening of the Vowel into a Semivowel. This Hardening 
process can take place only with those vowels which have cor- into semi- 
responding semivowels, that is with i and u, or with the mixed vowels voweL 
e and b, by resolving them into their elements. In the beginning 
of a word i and u must always be hardened in this way, seeing 
that no word can begin with a vowel (§ 34), e. g., Ohtfp (we-etu) 
for uetu\ J&ft"fc {ye-eti) for ieti. All roots therefore which ori- 
ginally began with i or u have been hardened into roots primae 
f and flj. And since u cannot have the sound of a vowel after 
a or e (§ 39), it must always be hardened, when it closes a syl- 
lable after those vowels: — fC^CX? ydwred\ g,ah"lQ* yewge'u. 
The same thing happens after I, e. g. ■i'OJD*- So too i is har- 
dened after *, and u after u (v. § 39 and infra, § 52). In the 
interior of a word I und u must become J& and Qh whenever 
either of them happens to come between two syllables, of which 
the last begins with a vowel of any kind, though the first may be 

( x ) In Cod. B. of Sirach (Petbrm. II, 'NachtrJ 55) t h m £>tD : t is from 
time to time written instead of ghj&ffl'f'. 

— 80 — § 40. 

either an open or a closed syllable. Thus before the vowel e: 
J&«fl»£Tj fu>^0hf° yemdyet, yeqdwem, from yema-i-et, yeqa-u-em; 
+<}£'} ta'ayenC)] fl>*h£Ti^ from 0>Mi/H; FOB* Urw e out of 
Uru- e \ before a, e. g. TCP from "7*5; ^A<Dfc from ^/V-; before 
a, £flA£ from £flA.; J&H.?°*P from £&<">«, Al^ahf} from 
A^^flJ; before £, ^flAP. from ^"flft.; <w»^^* for wa-w-zi; before 
«, £flA£ from j&flA., ^Ilfffl. from J&H.00-; before 5, p,&hf-a»- 
from £<2,Ji«; J&-hA5 p <» " from £-f«A«; before e, e. g. Wf*. This 
hardening is necessary before all vowels except a( 2 ): On the other 
hand in particular forms, it is true, i or u before a passes of ne- 
cessity into ya or wa. However, in several other forms the a-sound 
may press into these, and thus coalesce with them into a mixed 
sound, ia and ua becoming ai and au and farther e and o. Most 
regularly the Nominal termination corresponding to the Arabic 

jb_ is in this way shortened into et and e, e. g. ^Jth^h "help" ; 

•y^A» "parable" ( 3 ) ; and the Accusative and Construct state of 
many nouns in % have e instead of ya, e. g. »flJtA«, *flhA>- In the 
same way the binding-letter e between several nouns and the suffix 
pronouns has come from ia (§ 167), e. g.^hUM- In other formations 
also, ya and wa are exchanged at pleasure for e and o, thus 
4»^f 3" and 4*3^ "service" ; ^^hfll^" and ^■f^ "desire" ; while 
others again admit of the contracted form only, like ¥f "If "way" ; 
ftA°*h "prayer"; 9°(^ "evening" &c. 

In like manner the mixed letters o and e, although in certain 
cases they absorb a following a (§ 39), must as a rule be resolved 
into aw and ay before a vowel placed immediately after them, of 
whatever sort it be, e. g, £/hf« "(that) he live" (— J&jhfflH), 
^ftiVB, J&AfOl., J&AfP &c; 7fl "side", i n plural IfMty. On 
the other hand an e, originating in ia, is readily resolved into ya, 
■e> g- 9°t\h> + at, p»4Arf-. 

Meanwhile I, u and e do not necessarily pass into pure y, 
w and ay, but may keep their place before y and w.-~ thus in- 

( x ) These words may farther of course, by shorter pronunciation, in 
accordance with § 36, be turned into yemait, yeqaum, tddirt. 

( 2 ) V., however, infra § 49sqq. 

( 3 ) This law, accepted also by Schradek, 'De linguae Aethiopicae in- 
dole &c? (Gott. 1860), p. 11, is disputed by Konig, p. 112 sq., without my 
being able to agree with his own explanation. Of. also Praetori^s, 'Aethiop. 
•Ghramm: p. 22. 

§ 41. — 81 — 

stead of 7flCh?T, l(iCYl0°*P is also met with, from IftCh^; 
or KtBjCP" Deut. 22, 1. This occurs most frequently and most 
regularly with nouns in e, when they form an external plural, as 
in #1 "flower", ffV^ih VMk "judgment", tf-}fc£3", and when 
to the suffix pronoun \ another is attached beginning with a 
vowel, e. g. Uflfc^ "give her to me", from Oflfc and a (= y): V. 
farther § 52. — We call this the "Semi-hardening". 

In foreign words which contain two vowels, the one immedi- 
ately following the other, the hiatus is obviated, wherever possible, 
by a like complete or partial hardening of one of them, as in "^0^9° 
Mapidjm; AW Lyclia; hffrtl 'fyjoyf ; AflHl^Jhp-ft Leontius. 

§ 41. (3) Interpolation of a Separating Consonant. This 1 f terpoia- 
means of avoiding the hiatus is upon the whole seldom employed ( x ). separating 
The readiest method in such a case (as in a similar one, § 34) is ConBOnant - 
to insert an ft or some still stronger Aspirate, e. g. i*} "behold!" 
formed from V and an appended a; yet an Aspirate as a separating let- 
ter is hardly met with except in foreign words, e. g. ;f*ft/*.ftf«f| Theo- 
dosius, and even rtA»<*»?° ^iXoodju.. In true Ethiopic forms, how- 
ever, the Aspirate (which in other cases also — §48 — may pass 
into a Semivowel) inclines to become at once a Semivowel; and 
the more indeterminate Gh is in greater favour in this usage than 
the pointed fi,. This insertion of a separating fl>-( 2 ) is most usual 
in Inner Plural forms : fl/hflHG^ "lands" from HduC ; h.P<D*'} : k 
"eldership"( 3 ) from A^T- The Adjective-ending dm appears also 
to have come from di in this way, e. g. «W712 alongside of •MPTJ&j 
and to the particle ^ "behold !" the suffix pronouns are attached 
partly by means of HI, e. g. VP, partly and still more frequently 
by means of f , e. g. V^> ltf*** *, § 160. On the other hand, cases 
like K% "flower" , PL Rip"!; are to be explained according to 
§ 40. The insertion of a separating Semivowel comes also into use 
in transcribing foreign words into Ethiopic: *fc£ > ,ft , ^« Theodora, 
a secondary form of £*K&&* ; 'bPtP'Vi "Theology", a secondary 
form of 'fcft»«9«7 or •£/*•«?? &c.( 4 ). 

O Of. Konig, p. 126 sqq. 

( a ) Of. Ewald, 'Gramm. Arab.' § 50, and 'Hebr. Sprachlehre' § 28, d. 

( 3 ) IT- § 140, a, where it is explained that this word, — properly a plural, 
meaning 'seniors', — has become a collective form, which is used as an official 
denomination, tb.] 

(*) KSnhj differs from me, p. 129. — ©'Abbadie, 'Catal. rai8.\ p. 12?J 

— 82 — §42. 

Displacing (4) The displacing of one vowel by another also occurs but 

foneVow- r i Naturally this can only affect short vowels. The fugitive 

el by an- * ' , , , . -, „ 

other. e at the end of Nouns disappears before the Binding-vowel e 
or t of the suffix pronoun, e. g. mC l-nCtf, fCOh, /"CflHl. 

In the Subjunctive formation of roots mediae vocalis an e or a is 

absorbed by u and i, e. g. f^iiy for jeqitem or yequam; fi> a f/f 

for yemiet: for other similar cases v. § 49 ad Jin., § 51 and § 53. 

Also, in the accusative of the Noun, e. g. in 0>G4v & before the 

suffix pronoun f (§ 154) is dislodged by e (*) : <DG4»? warqeya. 

For several other cases, in which u, w or i, y disappear completely, 

v. § 52. In the transcription of foreign words into Ethiopic, the 

absorption of one of two vowels which come directly together is 

of more frequent occurrence: for examples v. supra, and in § 20. 

Meeting of §42. The meeting of the u of u-containing Gutturals with 

^contain- certain vowels deserves special notice. This u, in fact, by becoming 

ing Guttur- hardened into a kind of consonant , may easily permit of an unlike 

aUwithcer- . , . i • 

tamvoweis. vowel being heard after it, without its own proper character being, 
thereby impaired: the principal vowel may be heard in qua, que, 
qui, qua, or que, clearly distinguished from the w-sound. When- 
ever then , in the course of framing words and forms , one of the 
five named vowels should properly appear after a w-containing 
Guttural, this may take place without farther difficulty; and these 
vowels are treated in such a case with the very same regularity as 
if they followed the ordinary consonants. Thus we form , for in- 
stance, 'VA'fe "he has numbered"; 'VoA^t "they have numbered" 
(Fern.); ^h^A^s "thou numberest" (Fern.); J&^A^ "be num- 
bers"; *Y*i\$& "enumeration". At the same time it is evident that 
such a guttural can never be completely mute, but a fugitive e 
must always be heard after it, to make its own it-sound audible,, 
even in cases where the corresponding forms of ordinary roots have 
a vowel-less consonant. This e is found both in the end of th& 
word, e. g. in Jfi^Af* yehueleque (of the form fr&JKf yefesem) r 
— as well as in the Noun § 38 — , and in the interior of the word, 
as in JtT^C deguer; rh'P'A hdguel; VHrf"/h kudkueh. Only in a 
few words is the it-sound readily given up completely in such a 

'Giographie' I , p. 12 (Preface), shows how at this day in Abyssinia Qh and 
JS, are pronounced between two vowels, in words like J\faQ, I^C^lJtiy 

§ 43. — 83 — 

case : Tfjfi-fc and hAft* (§ 26) ; OtT^f- and O^M "lizard" ( x ). 
On the other hand whenever such ^-containing gutturals have, 
to take up a it or an o, the w-sound of the guttural regularly 
coalesces with this u or o, so that hualaqu-u, hualaqu-omu are 
given as -VA45, frti$0° u , and from 7»7*ft we have T^f-Ji, after the 
form *7flhC &c. As soon, however, as such a u falls to he hardened 
into a semivowel, by reason of the application of affixes beginning 
with a vowel, the tt-containing pronunciation of the guttural re- 
appears, e. g. *Y»A^ with the pron. suff. becomes *V»A l fr ,, P< ,D * 

Still , the vowels of these w-containing gutturals are always 
somewhat heavier and weightier than the corresponding vowels of 
simple consonants. This explains why , in such words , originally 
short vowels are readily lengthened, so that, for instance, the verb 
h%C "to be one-eyed" is even met with in one case written \ft&. 
Farther, u approaches ue pretty closely, and 6, ua; -and therefore 
an original ue or ua passes easily into u or o , e. g. «f»*fl« A into 
*A-A; CW-ft^ mtojCYWl*; AMh "street" into flinch; +A«fe4"-P 
into •Hl'M^P; 'faA'fe into 'YMt.C). In like manner original u 
or 6 passes into ue or ua, e. g. \^i "be (thou)" into Yf*1 &c. (§ 26); 
hh$££ into YxM&CC &c. In the more accurate manuscripts an 
interchange of this nature is not observable. 



§ 43. Among the Consonants, the Aspirates and Semivowels close reia- 
stand nearest the Yowels ; and this relationship of theirs to the el * n ° nd ° w " 
Vowels brings about manifold vowel-changes. Aspirates. 

The Aspirates stand in a peculiarly close relation to the vow- 
els, from the circumstance that on the one hand the vowel, 
— generally a — , always involves a breathing, which is distinctly 
audible even when the vowel begins or ends a word independently, 
and that on the other hand the breathing cannot be heard, except 
i,t have a vowel before or after it. This reciprocal relation of vow- 

(*) In the case of other words, this often rests upon errors of copyists. 
( 2 ) [Thus throughout in the old Cod. P of the Kebra Nag. ; v. the 

— 84 — § 43. 

els and aspirates settles their power to effect changes in one 
another. In languages rich in vowels, like Arabic, or poor in vowels 
like Syriac, such an influence has asserted itself less decidedly, 
but in Ethiopic and in Hebrew it has become most thoroughgoing 
and multifarious. Besides, certain phenomena, which are met with 
in Hebrew in the case of the softer and weaker aspirates only, 
have become comparatively common in Ethiopic, — even with 
gutturals which were formerly stronger — , in consequence of 
the gradual softening which at an early date crept into the pro- 
nunciation of the harder aspirates (§ 24). 

(1) The Aspirate must always have a Voivel directly next 
it, whether before or after it. Accordingly, neither in the beginning 
of a word, when an Aspirate makes its appearance merely as a 
consonant prefixed to a full syllable, nor in the termination of the 
Noun, when a guttural follows a vowel-less consonant, could the 
shorter pronunciation described in §§ 34 and 38 occur; but on the 
contrary /hR. or 'IRC had always to be pronounced hese, hesdr, and 
}*lt>ft "a fountain" and the like, naq' e . Even with Nominal stems 
which end in aspirates, it is better to retain a final e there too, when 
any other vowel than a, a or e immediately precedes the Aspirate, 
as has been already pointed out (§ 38). On the other hand, in the 
middle of a word an Aspirate standing by itself in an open syllable 
with short e, if it is preceded by an open syllable with a short vowelO), 
surrenders its e-sound quite as readily as other corisonants, in the 
case described in § 37 ad fin., and attaches itself to the foregoing 
syllable, e. g. J&OHAitf" ye-weh-su from ^CD-Ailf ye-wb-hez ; while 
it seems better, after long vowels, with the exception of a, to pre- 
serve the Aspirate with e as an independent syllable, e. g. $>%,bl\ 
ye-se-e-rani. Since farther an Aspirate, particularly ft or 0, at 
least with certain vowels, is of easier utterance before a vowel than 
after it, the vowel in one or two cases seems to be shifted from 
its position before the Aspirate and placed after it. This appears 
to be most obligatory, when an open syllable is followed by a 
closed one ending in ft or and to be pronounced with short e, 
e. g. £>7*flft properly ye-ga-be\ but certainly better pronounced 
yegab-e\ so with friifd] on the other hand, to be sure, 0, th and 
•\ admit more readily of an e coming before them even in this case, 

( x ) This vowel, in accordance with § 45, is I. 

§ 44. — 85 — 

as in £W/h, &&C0- Nominal stems, like <feYTfh, &<PAdr 

gJPCV &o. are, independently of this, to be pronounced by prefe- 
rence quanaz-e &c. according to § 38. But whether also in cases 
like J&fr-'V the pronunciation should be yenuh only, and not rather 
yenit e h , we must leave undecided, through lack of information oh 
the point; but perhaps it should be noticed, that in several for- 
mations of this class the pronunciation with u is avoided, and the 
one with a is substituted: J&"7?i — § 53. 

§ 44. (2) Aspirates have a marked preference for the a-soundO- ^"j^*™ 
This preference, however, is made good by them in two quite rates for the 
opposite ways: — they either bring about an a-sound next them 
instead of a different one founded in the form, or else, if for other 
reasons they cannot bring about such an a-sound, they drive off 
the a of a foregoing open syllable, just to avoid being attracted 
by it. The first case does not occur so often ; the second is more 

(a) An a-sound appears most generally before the Aspirates, 
when an Aspirate, which has to be pronounced with a, is preceded 
by another consonant as a prefixed syllable and therefore one 
properly to be spoken with short e; in this case a takes its place 
in the prefix also , in room of e. Thus we say *w>ffiGj 0°th& &c. 
instead of 9°ihC, 9°d\d\ Wthfy "laughter" for /^rh^ (even aoQ^r 
for 9 O't t "wrath", although is properly to be given as a double 
consonant); hth&'C for hthW-C f04»-fl for £04>-fl; and, in 
this way, the personal prefixes of the Imperfect or the Subjunctive 
of Verbs, which have an Aspirate as first radical, have always a 
instead of e (if the Aspirate has a) ; but when A, „not" is placed 
before the Personal prefix /&, the fi, may more easily hold its 
ground instead of f , because the sound, ye, is supported by the 
foregoing % e. g. &.£0<Hl and Ajf 0$*fl. However, the rule which 
is enunciated here about replacing e by a came into full prevalence 
only at a comparatively recent date. In the older manuscripts and 
the impressions which follow them, forms ( a ) like JFMiC? £AflHr> 
f^t%9°Tr &c. are still very common, while it is always possible 
that even in earlier times an a-sound was given in speech, although 

O Cf. Konig, p. 148 sqq. 

( 2 ) And just because these occur most frequently in the oldest records, 
they can by no means be regarded,— with Ludolf, II, 7, 7, — as copyists' errors. 

— 86 — § 45. 

not in writing ( x ). But if the Aspirate has a different vowel from a, 
a syllable prefixed to it keeps its e, e. g. £*Y,j&f|, K'i'bi 9°th+C 
&c. The preference of the Aspirate for a instead of e is shown 
in a different way in the formation of the Subjunctive in Stem I, 
from roots which have an Aspirate as middle or final radical (§ 92). 
It is only in rare instances that under the influence of an Aspirate 
a foregoing vowel, stronger than e, passes into a or a, — as when 
one gives for example the word in frequent use for "day", in the 
form a°0&.'\r, rather than ^OA^h? its original pronunciation. 
In a similar manner this influence is shown in the Subj. of several 
roots mediae vocalis , and we say therefore JrV7K , £flfr, as con- 
trasted with $St9°) £»$*9° &c. ; and on account of the Aspirate we 
also say VP*! "high" , instead of VCV- Occasionally too an ori- 
ginal a, — which is softened into e in similar w r ords when unprovi- 
ded with an Aspirate,— is retained on account of the Aspirate, 
e. g. U»flTh "gift" (§ 106) in contrast with T^, and fttfC^ "pot" 
a side-form to K"UC^h- 
, . „ 8 45. (b) When an Aspirate has a different vowel from a or 

of a of open _ 

Syllable a,— then a, occurring in an open syllable immediately preceding it, 
Aspirated i g almost invariably reduced to e, because the Aspirate would be- 
2 in certain come strongly attracted to the foregoing a, and be obliged to 
surrender to it a part of its force (t. infra §46 s<?.)( 2 ). By re- 
ducing the a to e, however, the language obviates this attraction 
and thereby secures the distinct pronunciation of the Aspirate. 
Reduction of a to e is most binding, when the Aspirate following 
has itself an e; but even when it has a different vowel, such re- 
duction almost invariably takes place. Thus from roots mediae 
gutturalis Nouns of the type Ifl.C are formed like AV14* "old" ; 
Cfh/fl "broad" (but Fern, 1<M1) ; and of the type 1fl«G, like 
W£" "Sunday"; also Infinitives, of the type Ifl^C, lULg^ &c, 
like &"]rf „to escape safe"; f^diJS^ "to pity"; f'^IC "to be 
taught" &c. ; and even the Imperfect , of the type frlUC, ¥l*(lG 
,&c, from such roots always takes, in the very same way, the form 
&9°thC ye-me-her; £JP°&A ye-me-hel; $9°ft\C ya-me-her; £.V)0« 


(*) Compare the relation between a Hebrew 8h e va simplex and com- 

( 2 ) Of. KSsiq, p. 135 sq., who has noticed also a few rare exceptions 
(|>i 186). 

§46. — 87 — 

yek-u for ye-ke-ii (§ 37), instead of £tl0- or J&tldlP-; and only 
when the Aspirate has to be uttered as a double letter, can a be 
retained, e. g. in &twtfC, Subjunctive from fb^VC although even 
for such a Subjunctive one prefers to say £*9°thC ye-mehher. Even 
in the forms of the Perfect of these roots , of the type l-fl^ and 
"f"1*fM — which originally had the sound gdbera, tagabera, but later 
became gabra, tagabra according to § 37 — the a of the first radi- 
cal must necessarily be softened into e, partly because the second 
radical at one time formed a syllable of its own, and partly to pre- 
vent the lengthening of the a following the first radical into a (by 
§ 46), thus <D-/h£, CKf (for ID Aft, Ox?), and -TOftf, +CM 
(for ■f"7^hi*» and -f^fr?). In the same way trhV "we" is given, 
instead of the original VrhV? to avoid the obligation of saying V/M 
according to § 46. Roots with an Aspirate as third radical, in all 
forms in which the second radical should be given with a as an 
open syllable, turn this a into e, — thus, in the Perfect of all the 
Stems:— J/^fc, fl-fM, sabbeha, flArfi, hlfh, l\J./*Vh &e. It 
is the same with the Subjunctive , Imperative and Imperfect of 
certain Stems, like £7/*% (for £7i*»h«); VA. (for 1i»hJ', 
*J""Hr/**/i. (for 'h'ihViPAO &c, and in Nominal forms of the type 
0°«H\6 and h«lft6, e. g. aot^du "purifier"; <w>74»VL and 
YxityH* "awakener". The e of the second radical, which has ori- 
ginated in this way, may however completely disappear, according 
to § 37, if an open syllable precedes, so that the pronunciation 
seems to be V**Ai natfa, : \r : t mW i J** h+ tetnas\ "i/^K, ne&iC). 

§ 46. (3) An Aspirate may lengthen a Vowel which precedes ^T 8 * 1 ^ 
it in the same syllable, by giving up to the vowel some portion vowei pre 
of its own breathing, weakening itself however in the process. p^at/iathe 
In Hebrew , where the same phenomenon occurs( 2 ) , it is only same B * u 
the softer Aspirates which exercise this influence; but in Ethio- 
pic the five Aspirates all do so in an equal degree, for even 

(*) Hupfeld, it is true, is of opinion, p. 12, that fl{P0 and ODftti were 
pronounced samd and masa, and even Jtfl'f'fllD'rh astabawa, with entire 
suppression of the Aspirate; but this is refuted by the written language, for 
such forms as ODf{ and ODftfx are never met with in writing. Speaking 
generally, Hupfeld's entire account of the relation of Aspirates and Vowels 
is a mistaken one, because it starts from the erroneous assumption that the 
Amharic pronunciation of these letters approaches the original. 

( 2 ) Ewald, l Hebr. SprachV § 54 sq. 

— 88 — §46. 

the three harder ones became softer and softer as time went on 

(v. § 24)0). 

(a) This influence becomes operative most regularly when the 
vowel of the syllable is a, both in those cases in which the Aspirate 
closes the syllable, as in £9°Xh for £9»Xh, "hft&nfo f °r 
VhCw/h; hnfoB* for ft<n>jh0), A«?dti- for A0»A1fr ; ItttHl- 
for n<fe<m«; n"WM» for n^*n*>-; "TfthA for 0»fti)A, and in 
those cases in which this Aspirate is followed by another consonant 
either originally vowel-less or which has become so, as a result of 
later pronunciation, as in |«n»TflA^ "knife"; m'PA/M* "piece 
of money"; RAft^ "enemies"; AhC "a (skin) bottle"; *1h& 
"mockery"( 2 ). Words in which this lengthening of the a is some- 
times avoided are very few in number, such as 1VV "full moon" ; 
Mil "pledge" ; t°it\tl(D "to be crafty", which occurs oftener than 
'>*ithtUD. But still it should be noticed, that in the oldest manu- 
scripts and printed works this rule was only in rare cases consis- 
tently observed, and <*>fth A, £?°fcft and so forth, for, instance, 
were at one time written just as often or even oftener, — from which 
we may perhaps rightly conclude that this phonetic rule was not 
developed until later times. They went a good deal farther in 
Amharic , and in such cases completely suppressed the Aspirate, 
whether hard or soft, e. g. il9° "bull", instead of the Ethiopic 

Of course this rule is not to be applied in the combining of 
words. For example , we can never say flfttl£ for flfth£ ba-'e- 
Mye "through wickedness". And farther, the short ft of the Cau- 
sative Stems and of the Collective forms of the Noun is treated in 
^exactly the same way, and as a mere external attachment, e. g. ftd^<£. 
"he rested"; ft^A4* "he made an end of"; ftJMWl "nations"; 
ft/Mf'A^ "fields";— for which forms we never find h6/,d, &c.; 

( x ) Cf. Konig, p. 131 sq. 

( 2 ) The pronunciation of those words which end in Fem. t presents no 
kind of difficulty in this case; and even the others, like *f thty, may easily 
be pronounced as monosyllables, if the hard Aspirate is given with a soft 
utterance: but if the older pronunciation of the Aspirate is adhered to, they 
must be given like 8ah-q*. 

., ( 3 ) The examples cited by K6nig, p. 132 sq. to support the contention 
that even a (Juttural, which is not without a vowel, may lengthen foregoing 
&, rest upon corrupt readings from Herm. and 4 Ezra, 

,§46. — 89 — 

but other Nominal prefixes, like ao and •& when set before Aspi- 
rates, certainly follow the general rule. In the same way the 
lengthening of the a is better to remain ill abeyance before double 
Aspirates, e. g. ooVC't* mahherot. In Reflexive Stems of the type 
'tl'Qd ^ occasionally happens, it is true, that the first radical has 
its a lengthened before the Aspirate which has become vowel-less, 
e. g. *H\rh/V' 5 but, as a rule, both in this case and in others in 
which it is desired to avoid lengthening the a, this a is rather soft- 
ened into e, just as in 'fr a lthw instead of -M/hl**, § 45. 

But now if a vowel-less Aspirate , which has brought about 
the lengthening of the a of its syllable, assumes a vowel in the 
process of formation and inflection, and is thus separated from its 
original syllable, then the a ceases to be lengthened, and it is, if 
possible, softened into e, e.g. £9°Jtf|S "(that) he come", but 
^9°Kh* "they shall come" for j^JPftft- Only, in the Subjunctive 
and Imperative of certain roots I. or II. infhrmae, the long a is 
retained even in inflection, because it serves at the same time to 
compensate for a radical which has been thrown out, e. g. in J&f ftr 
J&?h«; flft, flft, &c. (§ 53). It is retained in the same way, as be- 
longing to the stem, all through the inflection of nouns of the types 
^«l?t "want", ?<Pl) "meekness" (§ 143 sq.). 

(&) But even when the vowel of the syllable is e, it may be 
lengthened by a vowel-less Aspirate coming after it. In several 
words in very frequent use, this lengthening of the e into e has been 
given expression to in writing, even from remote times. The feeble 
root Chf "to see" invariably forms the Imperfect $>&>h+, by the 
original f>Chf> (for J&£?i£, by § 45) ye-re-e-i becoming ye-r?-i= 
ye-re-i, because the i drives off the e preceding it, and X influences 
the foregoing syllable. In a manner quite analogous J&dJ/V.C) is met 
with, from the root CflP "to herd (a flock)", § 92. In the same way 
£fl»A- "they said" was produced from J&-fltJA- ye-Mh-lu, through 
the lengthening of the e and the elimination of the Aspirate in 
accordance with § 47. In other cases, it is true, this lengthening of 
the e under the influence of the Aspirate is not expressed in written 
form, but yet it is evident that it must be adopted in pronunciation; 
for words like Ch? > though perhaps spoken once like iTKI, were 

( x ) A. like form, ftfylfi* from f|XV "to be unable" ^-ia cited by Ludolf 
in 'Lex:, col. 172. 

— 90 — § 47. 

at a later time certainly contracted always into re'ya or re'ya; 
and the case is similar with m-ft-fc; J&ftli; ^ft'flft^ tes-le't; 
^^CO^T tefreht. Farther, the corresponding groups of letters con- 
taining harder Aspirates were in later times assuredly uttered in 
the same way constantly, e. g. ft^G*^, ^Qfthrt 1 afreht, tefSeht; 
thus too 9°6C* weV for meV e ; "IdH* g$z\ — so that one may 
appropriately transcribe these words, as meer, geez^). Even in 
cases like £9°foC for fraofoC (§ 45); jP^Ch; ^A^h (§ 102), 
it is matter of question whether they were not in later times given 
in speech in a contracted form, as yemehr, mehrka, tatehtka, in- 
stead of yemeher, meherka, tatehetka. 

§ 47. 4. An Aspirate may disappear altogether, after it has 
given up its force to a Vowel. This took place with considerable 
regularity in several cases, at the end of a word which terminated 
in an Aspirate, preceded by a lengthened by the Aspirate, as in fl°f 
"parting-gift" for <p*lh, RVg^W "hair of the head"; ftrA(fl) 
"table (of stone)" &c. ; but with other words it occurs in but a few 
manuscripts. In the middle of the word the suppression of the 
Aspirate usually occurs, when certain inflectional syllables, or other 
additions, come before or after it. Quite regularly does this happen 
in the Imperfect and Subjunctive formations of Verbal Stems 
commencing with ft, ft*}, hil't, — by the personal prefixes £, ^, 
ft , t before the ft becoming first of all f, ^, ft, "f (§ 44), and 
then coalescing with the following a of ft into f, £*, ft, V> while 
the Aspirate is thrown out( 2 ) ; but in other forms from such stems 
the Aspirate is discharged without leaving a trace, as in <fl>1 , < nu fe( 3 ) *, 
""ft'MUA, 9°tl : t"b(\h- Similarly the h of the Suffix Pronouns 
0"» y> If" *, V"i is often thrown out, § 151. Other instances of 
throwing out an Aspirate are more accidental and rare, but even 
in these instances, as well as in those just mentioned, it is chiefly 

i 1 ) For farther conjectures v. Haupt, 'The Assyrian E—voweV in 
'Amer. Journ. of PMloV, Vol. VIII, p. 281. 

( 2 ) On the other hand, forms like ftftjP°G "I know"; ftfttfD*} "lam 
to believe" are not farther contracted: ft'i'H, Cant. 7,9, Ps. 17,41 is merely 
a bad reading for ftft*l*H. 

( 3 ) [That is to say, the Participle, or Participial Noun, which is formed 
from «H» and ft<P<704> (H, 1 of {ROOty) becomes OD*W°ty or 0'*T tni 4Z, 
the initial ft of the Conjugational form disappearing, tr.] 

§48. — 91 — 

ft and which exhibit this fugitive tendency. When the ft of the 
Vocative is appended to a noun, the Aspirate is given up : — h.1H,h 
from MHjh + ft ; 'tihtU*, from -nftfl/h + ft, § 142. £h A yekel 
is always said and written for £1)11 A yekehel; £-flA 2/e&e? for 
JR»nUA ?/e&efteZ; £flA yefcaZ for ,(VfH/A ; flA &a? for -fHJA, fcftA 
for ftflfM and so on (v. also ^fUA* §46): — Afc4» "presbyter" 
is usually contracted into A/l* j and <*7*jJ "seer" came from troCh*- 
Probably too ftCVJ& "wheat" came from tldCt^ ("hairy", cf. 

The later pronunciation however, and also the corresponding 
manuscripts, carry this process farther. A word like frAfti was 
even pronounced Me; and flftT"f* and Hft*}flA, although compounded 
of two words each, had the a and ft thrown out and were pro- 
nounced benta and zeribala : also tf»AVl is found here and there for 
0°&hto "messenger", and ftCJl^ for ftCftfl^ "heads"( 2 ). The 
older times knew nothing as yet of these corruptions of speech and 
writing. But even in older manuscripts, when in any word an 
Aspirate, with flora in an open syllable, follows a closed syllable, 
the a-sound is displaced and set before the Aspirate, e. g. h?dH. 
for ftTJH.. This occurs most frequently in Numerals, among 
which, particularly in later manuscripts, AOd't and *f»fld*|2 are 
often met with for original fl-fW'fc and 'frtlO'P, § 158. In these 
cases too the tendency is again indicated, to make the Aspirate 
dwindle away more and more( 3 ). 

§ 48. 5. A final peculiarity of the Aspirates is this, that they Aspirates 
■commonly draw the Word-Tone to themselves, when they are given word-Tone. 
with -a- following them^). This phenomenon is explained by the 
fact that an Aspirate communicates a share of its own force to 
the vowel a which is the most nearly related to it, and thus makes the 
vowel stronger (§ 46). Thus the Reflexive and Causative-Reflexive 
Stems , which otherwise take the tone on the third-last syllable, 
are — when they belong to roots mediae gutturalis — pronounced 
by preference as follows: — 'frh'^fl ta-ahaza\ htli m 9°th£ 
ustamhara; ftft-hGhf astar'aya. Farther, forms like /^CO^ 

On the other hand, the ft is kept on in ft^ftl^fttfO+ftll, § 39. 
( 2 J [Cf. also spellings like 06? = ftCh? , and ftft«W» = ftf|?°0 

Kebra Nag. p. XVII.] 

( 3 ) Cf. also Platt, ' The Ethiopic Didascalid 1 (London 1834), p. 17, 3, Note. 
(*) Cf. Eonig, p. 140 sq. 

— • 92 — § 48. 

are not pronounced Ser^at in the usual paroxytone fashion, but 
Ser'atC). In consequence of this more emphatic pronunciation of 
a after an Aspirate , later scribes began to write long a in such 
cases, although it had absolutely no foundation in the formation, 

e. 9- +A*JA; i*f D C'iOf', f 'JC*?; and, vice versa, a long a, founded 
in the form, was occasionally written as a short a, as people had 
become accustomed to pronounce even short a long, when it came 
after an Aspirate ; cf. e. g. Kh9°C for ftftjPC- This led at last 
to confusion in the manuscripts, by long a and short a — especially 
when accompanying ft and d — being rendered entirely at pleasure 
either by ft, or by ft, 'K 2 ). A farther deterioration in the mode 
of writing, in another but similar case, appeared later in less 
accurate manuscripts : the Personal Prefixes of the Imperfect (and 
Subjunctive), which in the Causative Stems are f, ;f", ft, *?, are 
written $ , •f* , ft , V by later scribes , when the first radical is an 
Aspirate, because they clearly thought that an a before an Aspi- 
rate is somewhat prolonged, without any farther notification being 
required, and that there is accordingly no difference in pronun- 
ciation between £0C*P and f OOP- 

passing q The softest Aspirate ft passes into a Semivowel in certain 

o a Semi- 
vowel, cases. This takes place more frequently in Arabic and Syriac; 

but in Ethiopic the phenomenon, — apart from certain root-for- 
mations, — is limited to a single case: When ft, "not" is pre- 
fixed to a l 8t pers. sing. Imperf. or Subjunct. , or to a Causative 
or Reflexive Stem beginning with ft, the ft passes regularly into 

f, except with verbs primae gutturalis in the Imperfect of the First 
Stem:( s )— Aj&TnC-AjM-flC; h>?h9°C=KhhrC, ft coming 
after ft, always becomes f then, by the fading Aspirate lengthening 
the vowel— ft^*7fl<:= ft«ft«7fl<: , ft^n^AO - KhlW&O; 
fiKPhfC = flft^ftft^CC*)- In some rare cases this phonetic 
transmutation occasions obscurity. For the rest cf. § 41. 


into aSemi- 

O Ludolt, 'Gramm." 1 I, 7. 

( 2 ) This shifting-about takes place most frequently in the case of the 
ft of the 1 st pers. of the Imperf. and Subjunct. of the Causative Stems. In 
eertain MSS. ft is almost always read in this case. 

( 3 ) Cf. Konig, p. 125 sq. 

( 4 ) It is but very rarely indeed that original ft or ft is retained after 
ft,, as e. 3. m ft.ft3v& Numb. 21,35; hJkU"(i Deut. 2,5, 19; ft«ft i H#flft 
Deut. 2,27. 

§ 49. — 93 — 

On the Doubling of Aspirates v. § 56. 

Of the other consonants only «j» and £ share, now and again, 
in the peculiarities of the Aspirates , e. g. in the matter of their 
predilection for the a-sound, § 105 sq. , and in other respects (cf. 
§ 96 on (liVX 1 ). 


§ 49. It has already been pointed out (§ 40) that the Vowels f f * r a d n e ^ ng as 
i and u (and also ai, au, e and b) are often hardened into their ist Eadi- 
corresponding Semivowels, when they meet with other vowels. The stmivoweis. 
general rules, which were then laid down as governing the appear- 
ance of such hardening, must however undergo various limitations 
and special modifications, according to the immediate peculiarities 
of the several kinds of roots. Besides, special phonetic changes 
make their appearance , when an i meets with i or y, or a u with 
u or w. And lastly, u at least or w is liable in certain cases to 
be removed altogether( 2 ). 

1. Hardening of i and u into Semivowels, (a) All roots, which 
at one time commenced with i or u, must of necessity, according 
to §§ 34 and 40, have hardened these vowels into y and w. They 
are therefore pronounced in the ground-form as roots with initial f 
and ID, and this pronunciation is maintained whenever a vowel has 
to be uttered after the first radical, e. g. f£*0; f*flft; J&fHfc; 
<D A &; ID'toRC). As soon, however, as these letters come into 
the interior of a word and terminate syllables, in consequence of 
formative prefixes being placed before them, they seek to resume 
their vowel-character. If in that case a precedes them, they form 
with it a diphthong (§ 39) which is written a£, aOhi — Jt0>"A& 
aulada ; }»J&£:0 ; -HD-VP "barter" ; i-lD-i^ "a game" ; <w>ID-A-5.3" 
"midwife"; frfD-frfl "(ear-) rings"; and although this diphthong 
does not indeed pass into a mixed sound in the formation of the 
Verb, it does so quite usually in Nominal Stems of the types 'p^th 

( x ) Cf. also Konig, pp. 134 sq. and 151. 

( 2 ) Cf. Konig, p. 108 sqq. 

( 3 ) It has been pointed out already (§ 19) that in later times J5» and Oh, 
when they had to be pronounced with g in open syllable, were again given 
directly as i and w;— thus, ibus, viud. 


— 94 — § 50. 

"antiphone"; fl°rtC^ "a saw", and now and then in Participial 
forms like q°£h "heir" (alongside of 0DJD"A^h, given above). 
After a, i may easily have a vowel-sound, e. g. p£*£6 yaide\ but 
u must be hardened, e. g. fahfYi yawSe'. After the short, dis- 
similar e, u may become a Semivowel, if it closes the syllable, e. g. 
fAlh^Kh' yewge% (not yuge'u), but yet ew is not in favour, and 
as a rule it is simplified in Verbal formation by throwing out the u 
(w), § 53. In Nominal formation, on the other hand, the u gener- 
ally pushes out a foregoing e; and in this way forms are con- 
tinually appearing, like m^AE", fl°vhTf;— more rarely we have 
^fl^A alongside of flo-'JA before the Aspirate; also ^flHlA^ 
and irJflA^C 1 ) ; ^fl^AJS" and -fcAJt. I after e is, in this case, of 
necessity contracted into i. 

§ 50. (b) Eoots , which have i or u as second radical, cling 
of i and u most tenaciously to the vowel-pronunciation, — so closely, in fact, 
foais. a tnat even when according to general phonetic rules hardening 
ought to ensue, they often throw out the vowel that follows i or u, 
in preference to hardening the i or u. But of course it is only the 
short vowels a, e which can be dislodged in this way, and these 
only when they are less essential to the formation. Thus in the 
Perfect of the Simple Stem and Stems derived from it, the a or e, 
which should appear after the second radical, is removed, e. g. in 
'P'fr for ma-ue-ta ; °%ai. for ma-ia-ta or ma-ie-ta( 2 ). It is the 
same with the Subjunctive and Imperative of these Stems , e. g. 
£,0o.:\~ for yem-u e t or yem-uH; J&'TJ.'P for yem-iH or yem-i a t 
(but in these cases ua is sometimes contracted into the single sound 
o, by § 40:— £„hC "(that) he go", v. § 93); and it is only when 
the third radical also is a vowel (Semivowel) that the second must 
of necessity be hardened into a Semivowel, thus — &<Df ; ^fllf 
(cf. § 94 ad fin.)- £C(D& yerwai; gh£(D haiwa (for hay e wa); 
J&<hf AK In like manner, when a short vowel comes into the for- 
mation after the first radical, the words from these roots preserve 
the vowel-pronunciation of the second radical (1) by making it coalesce 
with a foregoing a into a diphthong or a mixed vowel, e. g., of 

O Manifestly both pronunciations, tew And tu, are possible here; for, 
had they always said tu, it would have been always written in that way. 

( ) That the diphthong must always in these cases pass into the mixed 
sound ( 5 or e) is taught by § 39. 

§ 51. — 95 — 

the type 7-flC, — <P*t "death" ; "&T "price"; or th&& "shore"; 
0flh£* "circuit" , "circle" (and often in this way as a diphthong 
after an Aspirate, seeing that a has a somewhat stronger sound 
after the Aspirate § 48), and (2) by removing a foregoing e, unless 
it is essential to the formation, e. g. «feJP» "revenge" (type-'V'flC) J. 
>-1 "length"; *L¥Jr "robbery"; &>& "course". On the other 
hand we necessarily say, in formations from roots which are at 
the same time tertiae infirmae th&W'lr Miwat; Tfl^P^* tewyat 
(rarely *h,<D"J* &c); v. supra. But even these roots must permit 
the hardening of their vowel-radical in the following cases: — l Bt , 
when the second radical is doubled: — ftfl>*0 sawwe'a; «ifA 
Myyala; *|»p guayya; no&JShh mafdwwes; 2 nd , when it is followed 
by a long vowel, or even by a short one, provided it is essential 
to the formation:— 6(BC "blindness"; tf?A "stag"; 1<P9° "sTeep"; 
Miff? "companions", from fl^f; 0°&T "turned"; aoq>fr "to die" 
(Inf.) — (On 1 after i, and u after u, v. § 52) ; 3 rd , when the radical 
in question comes to stand between two vowels, of which the first 
is a long one, e. g. ■ffrmK ; -Hifft ; "KO'd "sacrificer" ; ao^ahC 
"carrying-poles" ; ■f' < 5 r £'} (properly ta'dyen, but according to § 40 
tctairi), or between two vowels, of which the first is indeed a short 
one, but of which the second is essential to the form and therefore 
irremovable: — ^aoto*^; £«w»£T properly yema-wet, yema-yet, 
but according to §40 ye-maut, yemait (yet never J&fl°^h( 1 ); f> %'?)- ) 
4 th , when it is followed by two vowel-less consonants, seeing that 
by § 35 sq. no long vowel can stand in a doubly closed syllable, 
—thus Wj&'J^ U-yent\ ^THD-^ tez-weft\ htlf*^ "swords" 
(and yet we have htUtl^ as well as MlJ&fl^h because Sibilant 
and Mute are very closely attached to one another). 

8 51. (c) Ethiopic roots which from the first have had i or u Hardening 

111 Till* W1 ^ M ** 

as their last radical, exhibit a marked tendency towards hardened 3r a Ka di- 
pronunciation : they farther hold tenaciously to their termination, cals- 
and do not readily allow it to glide into other vowels. For this 
reason, roots ending in i and u are very carefully discriminated 
from one another, and do not pass into one another in the course 
of formation , as happens in other languages. The vowel-pronun- 
ciation of the last radical, in forms from such roots, appears only 
when that radical has no vowel after it or at most a short and 

(i) [V., however, Kebra Nag.^b7 (VP^Jh).] 

— 96 — § 51, 

easily removable e, and no long vowel before it (§40); but yet 
there is this exception, — that i is given with a vowel-sound even 
after long a (§ 39). This rule is everywhere applied in the for- 
mation and inflection of the Verb, thus ^AflJ; Chf ; £flf 5 but 
-f-AflHl talauka, and -f«/t»h; ChM; CiifM rassdika. A foregoing 
short e generally coalesces with u and 1, thus £>fA>; £<S,A. (rarely 
JS-i-AOH; £&ft£; ef. H-nfOh Lev. 20,6; ^^fll- Ex. 27,20; 
p^Oh Ex. 27, 21— otherwise in 38,13— ( l ); also %Oh(fh y.infra 
§ 99, I). Farther, in Nominal formation this rule holds good al- 
ways, when the noun does not end in i or u, e. g. in A 0**7 "under- 
i3tanding"( 2 ) and d^V "equality", of the type < 7*flC9; frlftjt 
"prophecy"; ^Z*"^^ "incarnation", of the type ^-flG 1 ^; cn>\i£fr 
"spade"; aottfrfy "temptation", of the type ^^-nC^; MHO*^ 
na'dut, "hunters"; -lAjR-^ haldit, "singers"; tf»CVh "herd"; 
^w»ftb^ "window", of the type tfw^flC^; and so throughout in 
all Feminines which are formed by a closely attached, vowel-less 
3", e. g. h\%rtr "a girl betrothed"— sponsa, flA*^ "apostate" /*., 
from A0-J& and bfrOh (§ 36) ; OD&& "fruitful" f., from ant£Qf>,. 
When the ISToun, however, ends with the last radical, different nouns 
follow different courses , according as they retain or give up the 
fugitive e, in which (§ 38) the pure Nominal stem once terminated. 
In such formations final u may have a vowel-sound only after a, 
by forming with the latter either a diphthong or a mixed sound: 
— aoQOh "Spring"; 7*»£<D« "roots"; hROh "fathers"; tffl 
"dew"; in "side" (of the body): "70fl "lock of a door": in all 
other cases the terminal e is retained, and the vowel u is hardened 
into wi—fofah heydMf'.foYfia* me¥aw e ', -frfcOh tallw e \ /»COh 
Mrw e ; ft£Oh^bddw e ; ao^ah mdhdtw e , for mdkdUvf (§ 37); 
0o&frOh maddllew 6 ; aoytfah masdggew € \ ao^fiidh mdtlew 6 ; 
now and then too u is thrown off when it comes after long a (§ 53). 
On the other hand, i has a leaning to the vowel-pronunciation, 
and maintains itself as i after long a and u (§ 39) : — ih?&; •flJl£; 
T^&; 9*CW; -nAr£( 8 ). It forms with a a diphthong, or a 
mixed vowel: flfl£; #2; A<k; <*>/*"£; and as a rule it forms, 
with foregoing e, long*, e.g. aot£C&, aowCfr— probably not 

O [Cy. also Kebra Nag., p. XVIL] 

( 2 ) Yet here too ew is tolerated, e.g. ACTO*"? "adornment", cf. § 49. 

( 3 ) Although here too beffiy 6 , lekay* &c. may be given. 

§52. — 97 — 

mafrey e and maSarrey 6 , but mafri and matiarri, since we find these 
forms quite as often written aoQ& and *n>i*v£; so also fl/hC£ 
"pearl" = fl/JwS bahri or bahreye. Thus in the Noun, i is neces- 
sarily hardened into £ and e added to it, only when it is preceded 
by a vowel-less consonant, as in faThf* ra'ye, of the type f»flG; 
and it may be given at pleasure as a vowel or as ye , when the 
introductory consonant of the syllable should properly have a short 
e, while the preceding syllable ends in a long vowel, e. g. an\\&$* 
"talents", either makali/ 3 (§37) or makdli, as it may be even 
written tf»f|A«' It is the same with a*h'f' t ¥&$» "accuser" , ancl 
0°h'f' f ¥\ "actor"; and in like manner A/h£ "beautiful" is to be 
pronounced lahif or latef). 

Both in the Verb and Noun however, u and i must invariably 
be hardened, whenever any firmer vowel than the fugitive e has to 
be uttered after them (§ 40). If in Ludolf's time words like £}|D, 
bOOi were spoken as fdnnaua, esaua, we are not at liberty to 
regard that pronunciation as original or deserving of imitation. 

§ 52. 2. If a formative vowel I or u meets with a radical % Badicai i 
or u, it never coalesces originally into one sound (I or w), but the ing ^th 
radical i ov u must be hardened into fc or UK whether before or * orn)at i re 

■^ m Vowel % or 

after the formative vowel( 3 ): — y% and wu, when produced in this «. 
way, generally remain unchanged, e.g. p.^fiiOK, ^flAP., "Mft> 
/ M GOT«- But roots mediae infirmae, which in other respects also 
have peculiar phonetic conditions (§ 50), aim at a shorter pronun- 
ciation in such cases, by shortening the long vowel and doubling 
the semivowel instead (making yi = yii = yyi, mdwu^wuu==* 
wwu), so that the result, in accordance with § 19, is yye or wwe( 3 ). 
Consequently, Infinitives and Adjectives of the type ffl^C from 
roots middle i may, it is true, run like i*>fk0° "to place", uofkT 
"to turn", «f>$.rh "red" — and these forms are still found in 
abundance in the older manuscripts (*), — but usually they are written 
iPj&jP , tf»£i», *t>£,fo. These forms then are first of all to be 
pronounced Sayyem, mayyet, qayyeh; but they may be farther 

(*) Of. with these deduetiong the somewhat diverging ones in Konig, 
111 sgq. 

(^ Otherwise with K6nio, p. 152 sqq. 

( 8 ) Of. Ewald, 'Gramm. Arab: §§ 387, 108. 

( 4 ) [Cf. also m&4*> Kebra Nag. p. X.VII, si*6 6.] 

— 98 — . § 52. 

simplified into Him, mait, qaihQ). In the same way Passive Parti- 
ciples of the type *7fl*Gr f rom roots middle u, are very often met with, 
having the pronunciation JPin^ mewut; f^Qkg* dewuy (dewmf), 
and so in the PI. 9°fD*2'Tr &c. ; but JP°oH m and CC^K are found 
instead, particularly in later manuscripts, the pronunciation being 
first mewwet, but afterwards, in abbreviated form, mewwt and 
mitt, with the plural both 9°fp*jh7r mewwHan and tn**^ } mutan. 
And yet it should be noticed that in the Singular certainly the style 
i^Hh <«8r does not occur, and even in the Plural it is rare. On 
the other hand the forms £ > in l J&, CfOJf* are preferred, from roots 
whose third radical also is weak; but in the Plural we have J^pi 
(as well as RGKfH) from deivweydn. But when the group ly or uw 
is produced by the meeting of these sounds, it can be tolerated 
only when its elements are shared between two syllables, as e, g. 
in Vfl«£*lh (along with which we have V*!!^^) "prophets". Besides, 
these sounds — which are somewhat difficult to utter — are simplified 
by % and u being partly hardened, whereby ly and uw become eytf 
and eww ( 2 ) (§ 19). Iy alone has kept its place, and that too in 
but one single type, viz. in Adjectives of the form 1fl,G> as if the 
formative sound i had been of greater importance for them. It is thus 
that words like 0flj&, JflJK. &c. originated, — which were certainly 
spoken at one time, like < abiy e , nobly 6 . In later times, however, 
when the fugitive e was given up, ^ably, nably were contracted 
directly into ( aM, nabl. Thus too we have the Fern. iflj&^" nabit; 
and although in most cases the f» is still constantly written, yet, 
in one or two detached words of this form, used rather in a Sub- 
stantive sense, it is regularly thrown out, as in Hifl. "security" 
(legal term) ; and mA. "goat"; iflj&^h is written also VfH/t— Thus 
I and l finally coalesced into I, — a phenomenon, which does not 
otherwise readily occur. In the other formations, however, the 
facilitated style prevailed completely. Accordingly, the Passive 
Participles of roots with final u (with a few deviations in detached 
manuscripts) run thus:— C1<P* reheww 6 , A"flfl>" lebeww e ( 3 ); Plur. 

O Like ouuo from-ouJo for vioJo. 

( 2 ) Cfi Ewald, 'Gramm. Arab. 1 §108. 

( 3 ) We never find CrTh an< * Aft* given for these; and therefore Hotmli> 
is wrong in teaching, p. 16, that they were spoken as rehU and lebu. And 
farther, the pronunciation UAfl>~ as hdluto &c, recommended by Ltoolf, 

§ 53. — 99 — 

CW, A-fl^ rehewwan &c; Fern. sing. C&t, AfHh for 

rehiwwt &c. (§ 51). In the same way forms are still met with, here 
and there, for the Infinitive of the type 1fl.C from roots ending 
in i, like ChS*i — which is to be read re'iy e ; but these are to be 
regarded as entirely obsolete. The usual form certainly is given 
in 0A£, ffifr Cft£ (never flA«, fl-fc, GftJ, which words are 
accordingly to be pronounced baleyy 6 , saUyy?, re'eyy e . At the 
same time, of course, the pronunciation may become more con- 
tracted in special cases, e. g. re'yy e for re J eyy e \ and flAP"" * 
baleyyomu, fl^hP""** sateyydmu, may become, at least when care- 
lessly employed, balyomu, satyomu. The same aversion to the sounds 
ly and uw, even when they are shared between two syllables, is 
indicated in some other phenomena, quite outside of the formations 
from roots with a vowel as middle or last radical. The connect- 
ing vowel % of the Construct state usually passes into e before the 
suffix pronoun f (v. § 153 sq.). Forms are still no doubt met 
with, like h^AVl*? amlaklya, but, as a rule, they run like KyVlfi? 
amlakeya (*). Even £>}ft, "helper" may, with the suff. f , become 
£%h¥ radd'eya. For the same reason, forms like "iClGh* "^ 
f lWlh*!HP are doubtless possible (§ 40 ad Jin.) ; but even in these 
cases the complete hardening of the ft is more common than the 
semi-hardening, thus lQdn9°1P &c. 

§ 53. 3. Rejection of a u (and an i)( 2 ). Of the two Semi- Ruction 
vowels in Ethiopic, w ranks as the more indeterminate, and at the 
same time as the one which stands nearest the softest Aspirate ft. 
And just as it may for this reason (§ 41) be interpolated to sepa- 
rate two colliding vowels, especially when the first is an a-sound, 
so on the other hand, a radical w , hardened out of u, may at need 
give way to an a- or e-sound. This happens most frequently 
when u at the end of a syllable after e or a would have to be 
hardened into w and to form the group of sounds, ew, aw, which 
is so little in favour. In the Subjunctive of the Simple Stem from 
roots with initial u, the group J&<0*, ^<D* &c, is thus, as a rule, 

is certainly inaccurate, for otherwise it would be impossible to understand, 
why people did not keep to the original way of writing it, viz UA*<P". 
According to Trtjmpp, p. 534, it is pronounced hel&u (= original hel&w). In 
the end of a word the doubling is no longer heard. 

( x ) But v. Konig, p. 153 [and cf. Kebra Nag., p. XVI, sub 2.] 

( 2 ) Cf. with, what follow*, Koma, p. 105 eqq, 


— 100 — § 53 

simplified into J&, *3h &c. (although it has kept itself unchanged 
in isolated cases of Verbs, e. g. f^ahpfx), thus £<££■ from <D<££; 
¥*f& fr° m ^Oj^"^. While according to § 49 ew may easily be- 
come u in Nominal formations, the e of the Personal prefixes is 
in this case held to be so essential in the Verb that a w-sound 
is never admitted; and whereas in Hebrew, — where ^ likewise 
stands for ibv, — the w which falls away is at least replaced by a 
long vowel, it falls away in Ethiopic just as in Arabic without 
leaving a trace, so that even in the Imperative and in the Nominal 
forms derived from the Imperf. (Subj.) the root makes its appear- 
ance, deprived of its first letter. In the very same way in Nominal 
stems from roots with (D as last radical, if they have long a before 
the last radical, the u, hardened into w is frequently rejected^), 
in order to avoid the by no means favoured group, aw. In words 
with an Adjective meaning, like ft foS{ or £0% "white", PL ft'JJtfl*", 
this course is rarely followed, but it is common in Abstracts, the 
most of which do not admit a plural, e.g. /^'"flesh"; ^V "way"; 
&p "favour" &c. (§ 107), and it is almost constant in the type *f-f|4« 
"hope"; Fk> (and -ffc;3») "relationship"; -f«£"4 "pleasure" &c. 
(§ 111), though on the other hand we have ^hJ%^»{Pfl»- Esth. 9, 22, 
as well as ^h^'lfa '. In like manner it is sometimes thrown out 
before the closely attached t of the Fern., though not quite without 
compensation, e. g. QOhf^ "lamentation" (V^OflhflD); &>C i i : fr 
"bride" (V^Om)] th"!^ "mother-in-law" &c. (§ 128) ( 2 ). More 
rarely it may happen that in the beginning of a syllable which is 
preceded by one that is closed, u is thrown out before an a or a, 
which for any reason may be irremovable ( 8 ). Thus from roots 
mediae CD, instead of the heavy-sounding Causative Stem h'P't; 
a simpler one is formed with lighter sounds, like h^oo for }\tymav ; 
Km4> from fn4»(*), particularly from those roots which have an 
Aspirate as third radical, e. g. ht^ for M"Y( 6 ) (§ 45), for h'ifD'h 
(v. farther on this point § 96). In this case also the u or w disap- 

C) Just as in the Arabio *»Lj»w. 

( 2 ) It is a totally different case from this, when in the much used 
archaio words ft«f|, ftfr &c. the last radical disappears; cf. § 105, a.f. 

( 3 ) As often happens in Arabic, Ewau>, l Gr. Arab: § 109, and in 
Hebrew, Ewald, § 35, a. 

(*) Of. KSkig, p. 116, 

( 6 ) [Which itself is still met with: v. Kelra, Naff., p. XXTIH «.] 

§ 54. — 101 — 

pears without leaving a trace; — yet cf. § 96, 1. In Nominal forma- 
tion this is rare ; yet an example is found in rhfl^ "lie" from diftfD, 
for ghlUD^C). A few roots mediae <D, which have an Aspirate as 
third radical, transform o in the Subjunctive into a and thus give 
up the vowel-radical; but this a continues then at least without 
change (§ 46):— JE-HK, £<% for £flh, £?oft (v. § 93). A like 
process is shown in cases like ,^»A * "word" for #A( 2 ) 5 in accord- 
ance with § 18. 

I or y is much more stable than u or w. The most important 
case, in which radical I disappears, or rather unites with another % 
has been already described (§ 52. p. 98), e. g. a\fa. Otherwise the 
rejection of i or y occurs very seldom indeed( 3 ). Of^&ft "the 
tenth part" seems to have come from Oflnf*^, like Qtlh^ 
from OO^pahtf. We meet with -flfl^ "cattle" for -fld^JR, for 
the sake of the rhyme (*). /*">^ "urine" ( /«TO, seems to have 
come from a Masculine form "£•>, of which the * had to be 
shortened into e, by § 36, in the doubly closed syllable. 

The interchange of w and y, which is so common in other 
Semitic tongues, is exceedingly rare in Ethiopic. True, there are, 
it seems, many roots originally commencing with i, which have 
passed into roots having an initial (D (§ 68); but after the robots 
had once been thoroughly formed, those which had u and those 
which had i as the first, second, third, or fourth radical, remained 
sharply distinguished thenceforth, and passed no more into one 
another in the course of formation. Accordingly, cases like the plural 
aofabf, from odQ^ for aoQ'iah^ are few and far between ( 5 ). 

It has already been explained (§ 48), that the Aspirate h, 
occurring after an I, passes occasionally into f . 

§ 54. The Consonants form the more stable, unchangeable Doubling of 
part of the sounds of the language. In general they maintain, Co ^ 80n "» t 
all through the process of Word-formation, the appearance and of Asaimi- 

■ lation. 

0) Oftener in Arabic, Ewald, k Gr. Arab.'' § 410. 

( 2 ) Cf. Ewald, 'Gr. Arab.' §§ 73 and 387. [Better to regard ^»A — JLi* 

= Assyr. qalu and 4»A = J«i = Assyr. qulu, as has been already pointed 
out supra, p. 37, Note ( a ).] 

( 3 ) Cf. Konig, p. 107. ( 4 ) Ludolp, 'Lex. Aeth.\ col. 247. 
( 5 ) Cf. also Konig, p. 107. 

_ 102 — § 54. 

order attaching to them when handed over in the fully formed 
root. The only thorough-going alteration, which the radicals are 
subjected to in formative processes, is their Doubling, — one of the 
leading formative devices in the field of Semitic speech. Mean- 
while, and apart from this, groups of sounds may be produced by 
the formative process, which are somewhat difficult to utter, and 
which therefore almost necessarily involve transitions of sound 
among the Consonants. Farther, in certain phonetic conditions, 
individual consonants, especially the softer ones, may gradually 
become enfeebled, and either disappear entirely or be turned into 
vowels. And just as consonants may in certain circumstances 
pass into vowels, so vowels again may avail themselves of the help 
of consonants, and add to their own strength by bringing them 
into the word. 

1. The Doubling of a Consonant is sometimes given in 
the root itself, inasmuch as the language possesses a number of 
roots in which one of the letters is pronounced as a doubled letter: 
— a more precise account of this phenomenon falls to be given in 
discoursing of roots. Sometimes again, doubling serves as an ex- 
pedient in word-formation : an account of this is also deferred to 
a subsequent part of the work. Finally, Doubling of a Consonant 
is sometimes produced by another Consonant becoming assimilated 
to it, and this is the case which calls for detailed description here. 

(a) When in any word then Consonants meet together, 
which in consequence of this encounter are difficult to utter, one 
of the devices employed by the language to introduce an easier 
pronunciation is the transferring of one of the two letters to the 
other, or the doubling of one Consonant, as a result of the other 
being made to resemble it (Assimilation). Such assimilation of 
two letters occurs frequently in the formation of roots. In parti- 
cular the softer letters , e. g. Aspirates or liquids, readily pass 
over to a stronger consonant, e. g. <n>flA mabbala "to wield power", 
from tfO'flOA; AAA "to withdraw" sassala, from A AAA &c. (v. 
infra § 71) ( 1 ), Otherwise, this phenomenon is limited to a few 

(*) Just like tfDflA; Praetorius, 'Beitr. z. Assyr. 1 I, p. 30 sqq. would 

also understand QaoQ, 0£p , -H)|f. In the words *^,fll, fl^ff, fhJlt 

*^fll> 5\»V<D) fk»d\ he sees (ibid. p. 28 sqq.) a compensatory lengthening, 
for the disappearance of a doubling produced by the assimilation of f\, (J &c. 

§ 54. — 103 — 

definite cases. When two Consonants come upon one another, 
without being separated by a vowel, the one passes over to the 
other in certain cases. 1. When, in the course of conjugation C), 
the Guttural *| or «|> as radical meets with the h of the personal- 
ending, the latter passes over to the foregoing radical( 2 ) : Odl 
'aragga, for 0£*7h; ffO* seheqqu, for tfUfcYl*. If, however, the 
preceding Guttural belongs to the ^-containing class (§ 26), assimi- 
lation is not in favour, just because a kind of vowel then separates 
the two letters, e.g. Arhtf-Yh; HTKMl«; 'Y»A4^h<" ># - Only now 
and then does assimilation take place, e. g. ArhVl". for Athtfll; 
i"Y»A4s, for i«'V»A < Mfr Ps. 87,4. 2. The ^ of the formative sylla- 
bles of the Feminine and of the Reflexive Stem is assimilated to 
the radical m and &: — £&A" yeddalo, for J&^&A"; f»m"°^, for 
J&3vih*»+; w f T, for ipfHh <P/h£-, for <PAJt^; 0»<da& for 
*»mA£tfh ^0>-AJ£, for ^(D-AJ^-^; *?°7£\for fl°7Jt^ It is only 
in the words ( 3 ) ftrh-fc "one" (/".), for Krh£"fc, and fl)A^ "daughter", 
for fl)A£*^h( 4 )> that the radical has given way to the formative letter 
(just as in fintf for ffinK). Inasmuch, however, as the Dental Mutes 
and the Sibilants belong to the same organ of speech, it is not at 
all remarkable that the combination of letters ts, ds &c, which is 
regarded as inadmissible in other languages, should be made easier 
of pronunciation by the Mute passing over to the Sibilant( 5 ). Ac- 
cordingly -J" or £■ before a Sibilant passes over to the latter ; and 
in fact the ^jh of the Reflexive Stem regularly does so, with every 
Sibilant : "hw(D<?, for ft^iPaiT ; £A,£ai., for JK,^ fi.^.O). ; ?.\iMC for 
JB^ltflC; Wrh¥,for £3 a ft(h9;3 s 00 D & for^HhfltfDft'. £■ passes 
into ft in A A*, for A£*A* and in ft A for A£"A, although both let- 
ters belong to the root. Apart from these cases the transition of 
one consonant to another is exceedingly rare. A Nasal has been 

( 1 ) This case rarely appears anywhere else. It is true that the same thing 
apparently is met with in appending a Suffix Pron. of the 2nd pers. to a Noun 
which ends in a Guttural, but in point of fact the two letters in that case are 
always kept from touching, by means of the binding- vowel, and no assi- 
milation is possible. On similar appearances in the appending of enclitic 
particles to the Verb, v. infra, §§ 169 and 152. 

( 2 ) Gf. Konig, p. 97 sq. 

( 3 ) fl*"ft*h seems not to be derived from flHA'P'K but fr° m fl*"AT> 
by f becoming Vj^. [Cf. however, Assyr. istu (ultu).] 

(*) V. Konig, p. 97. 

( 5 ) Other languages evade the difficulty by the transposition st, sd. 

— 104 


of Conso- 
nant, to 
make up for 

assimilated to an Z in M "but", "however", from ft? (h«f», J,|) 

and t{ ($, |6)C). 

§ 55. (b) The device of shortening a long vowel and restoring 
the length by doubling the following Consonant, is very rarely made 
use of, except in the case described in § 52. It appears, however, 
in \iao* Mmmu (Suff. Pron. of the 2 nd pers. pi.) , the first vowel 

of which was originally long, — although it answers to *5 in Arabic, 
— and accordingly the doubling of the m would seem to have been 
introduced to strengthen the short vowel in the open syllable. On 
the other hand in ftA- ellu "these", "hti ella "who", "which" (pi.), 
the doubling appears to have a different origin (v. § 146). 

(c) Whatever may have been the origin of the doubling of 
any Consonant, the doubled Consonant in Ethiopic is written only 
in single form. And the script has adhered so faithfully to this 
principle , that whenever two identical consonants meet together, 
without a separating vowel between them, whether in forming or 
in compounding words, only one consonant is written down, e. g. 
Ji-fcA*, for JBA-Mrih; KM, for tfirtY, hf»<*»fc, for hA0»Mt-; 
jr»aH-,for0°iiHHh M»frt-, for ftfttfrt-; h9°^, forh9°*9°P; 

Plltih, for ;HWW.; <PAJ^, fern, of «P/]h£- for flVJtfHh even 
(DOh !, for OHD'OH'}; (on the other hand h<F<\\\X\ amlakeka; 

fAD'Yt sawanena; fu>}£?J%* yenadedu &c.)( a ). Even in foreign words 
there is no deviation from this mode of writing, e. g. &S\ Lydda\ 
ISO, "Rabbi"; ftTfrf! Symmachus. Variations occur only in 
those cases in which the consonant itself varies from a pronunciation 
which employs a vowel, to one which discards it. In particular there 
are cases (§ 37) in which a consonant that should otherwise be 
uttered with a fugitive e in an open syllable, and which follows an 
open syllable , gives up its e without difficulty , and, having thus 
become vowel-less, attaches itself to the preceding syllable. If such 
consonant is the first element of a consonantal double-letter, — which 
is often the case in formations from roots med. gem., — both 

(*) [But see Note to § 168, 6.]. The cases of this sort which have been 
collected by Eonig, p. 98, with the exception of ft'flrh»<- for K^'flrh.^* 
in the Ruppell Inscriptions 1,28; 2,51 (cf. D. H. Mulleb, ZDMG XXX, 
p. 704 [and l Epigr. Denkm.\ p. 52]) f are doubtful. [V. however Eebra Nag., 

p. XVII, sub 10:-fcfl,*=?»? o n»'f and -W,+^fl I fl,*.] 

( 2 ) Cf.Komo, p. 94*0?. 

§ 56. — 105 — 

modes of writing are allowable. It is true that V& and +rtft are 
usually written for }£•& and 'frfig;?., seeing that here the vowel- 
less pronunciation of -the middle letter has thoroughly penetrated 
the form, and so too with -f^O tame'-a, for r t9°dO', hut 
the other mode of writing occurs also. In the very same way J&V-^r 
?W, 1r M *.> 1r/*'$ p &c. are frequently written for £*£■/?., ^V-flfl, 
1/*"?Li *V/**/ M $ p - Now seeing that no written sign has at any 
time been contrived (§ 16) to indicate this doubling, it is only from 
knowledge of the Word-form itself that we can tell when a Con- 
sonant has to be read as a double one ; and this constitutes a sen- 
sible defect in Ethiopic writing, for the beginner in the language. 
It is still worse that we should in this way be destitute of any 
ancient external evidence ( x ) as to those cases in which a consonant 
is to be uttered as a double one, and that we should therefore 
be left without guidance, if not in regard to individual types, at all 
events in regard to individual words, which may belong to the one 
type or the other. 

§ 56. (d) Giving up the Doubling. 1. The doubling of a Con- 
sonant is audible only when it is followed by a vowel: It cannot 
be heard at the end of words which do not conclude with a vowel. 
Originally, it is true, there were no words in Ethiopic which ended 
with a consonant requiring to be doubled and yet unprovided with 
a following vowel, for the Nominal stems, which alone are concern- 
ed here, ended at one time in e, so that A*fl> e. g., was pronounced 
lebb e (§ 38). But this e was given up at an early stage, and then 
of course cases emerged in abundance, in which a concluding double 
letter could only make itself heard as a single one , e. g. A"fl l$b > 
«h*7 heg, — although in such words the double letter was at once 
heard, as soon as it was followed by a vowel, as in Aft lebba, A*7h 

2. In the middle of a word the doubling, particularly of 
Semivowels and Aspirates, may in certain circumstances more easily 

(*) The later pronunciation, as it was heard by Ludolf, is by no means 
invariably the correct one. Ludolf also propounded several decidedly erroneous 
views on this point, seemingly founded on his peculiar grammatical opinions, 
as will be farther proved.— According to Trumpp, p. 522, N. 1, the doubling of 
Consonants (with the exception of the Aspirates) is still heard to some extent 
in Ge'ez in the middle of a word, but is invariably given up at the end of it. 
Cf. also Konio, p. 117 sq. 

— 106 — §56. 

disappear. On the Semivowels 0) cf. supra, p. 97 sq., § 52 : cases like 
aofrT matt, properly mayyet, belong to this section, as well as o^^k, 
for f°tD*^ m 'i mewwHan. In other cases we have the same thing ; for 
instance f rh<I>*ft. (from f rh<W*X*) yahawwesu may no doubt become, 
when somewhat carelessly pronounced, yahaivsu, yahausu. Gutturals 
too occasionally cast away the embarrassing doubling. Thus it comes 
about, that an a which has the tone, and which comes before a 
doubled Aspirate followed by short e in a closed syllable, as in £tfi»UC 
yemahher "(that) he teach", is thickened into e, as in p,9°VC,— an 
indication that the doubling is no longer clearly heard (§ 45), — and 
that this yemehher is farther reduced to yemehr (§ 46). Farther, 
a certain dislike to the doubling of Aspirates can alone explain 
why some verbs, having a middle Aspirate, should in the Causative 
of the Intensive Stem,— in all those forms in which a doubling of 
the second radical would have to be audible (Perf., Subj., Imperf., 
I n f.) ,__liave recourse to the Causative of the Simple Stem, e. g. 
MvM"; hfoOh as well as KAOA (cf. § 96). In the same way 
a still larger number of verbs middle Aspirate prefer to adopt, in 
the Perfect (and to some extent in the Infinitive) of the Reflexive 
Stem, the form -Hfth-f", tatehta, instead of the form -M-A-h 
that is to say, the form of Reflexive 1, in preference to that of 
Reflexive 2 ; — or at least they admit of both forms side by side 
(v. § 97). But we cannot follow up this question of the doubling 
of Aspirates farther than these few hints, seeing that the means 
of gaining acquaintance with the old pronunciation are wanting, 
occasional 3 - I n tne cas es mentioned hitherto, the doubling disappears without 
compensa- anv compensation for its loss, but in other cases it is made up for 
Lots of the in one way or other. There is the case, — isolated, so far as yet 
Doubling. knowri) — of the doubling of a radical (in a double-lettered root) 
being thrown back on the first radical, in the word •f'jP'fl, "h^Vflh 
for ^9°b0, 'frtwldh &c. (§ 97). Of almost equally rare occur- 
rence is the device of compensating for the doubling, by lengthening 
the preceding vowel ( 2 ), e. g. °%$% "delusion", for 9°?% meyyane; 

J^X "ambush", HST, i«fl£H==w3; and in foreign words, e. g. 

( x ) Cf. Ewald, 'Hebr. 8pr.\ § 64 a. 

( 2 ) Common in Hebrew and still more frequent in Syriac. Cf. also 
Konig, p. 416. [It will perhaps be wise to receive with a measure of caution 
the instances which follow in this paragraph, as some of them seem rather 
forced and doubtful, te.] 


§ 57. — 107 — 

cwCiSfril MarcellusC). Oftener the first element of a double 
letter is softened into a Semivowel, which then coalesces with a 
foregoing a into a mixed vowel, as happens in several Multiliteral 
roots (v. § 78). Only, in the Imperfects of all the Intensive Stems, 
in consequence of lengthening the immediately preceding vowel a 
into a, the doubling of the middle radical is regularly given up, 
and in compensation an fc-sound is blended with the a, e. g. fi&Jfcf 
yefesem, from £<J.ft*9° yefdssem (§ 95). A third method of replacing 
the doubling, and one of very frequent occurrence, consists in 
interpolating a Liquid: cf. § 72. 

§ 57. 2. To facilitate the pronunciation of difficult letter- Ex&hange 
groups, there are still other expedients at the command of the nMlt8 . 
language, besides the Assimilation of two Consonants, — inparticular, Tr f ns P°- 
(1) exchanging them for others, and (2) transposing them. 

Exchanging one Consonant for another is, upon the whole, 
of rare occurrence ( 2 ). A If, meeting directly with -J* may easily 
assume the sound of ft, and in fact, — although it is retained, 
as a rule, e. g. in fl>*hJR'M^h "rivers", — it has passed into ft in 
several words in very common use. This is the case invariably in 
'Vflft'h "bread", for *i»fl'|rt", and sometimes in hP'hll't "lords", 
for — or as a companion -form to — hPhU'l'* Probably also 
a *p has been weakened into -J" after ft in the common word 
fl*"ft")K 3 )' 9°i when it meets directly with Labial Mutes, frequently 
passes into the Dental Nasal : — ft*Jfl£i "because of", for h?°fl£V; 
VHIA "except", for ft0°flA (although one always says h9°4\th.C, 

{3pyj, Gen. 14,24; 18,1; and a like result happens more than once 
when it comes upon a Dental Mute : T*"}^ "stem", from lol; ft'JJJA* 
oejulZakig] and so too, no doubt, in ao'i^* "twins", for aof°^* 
from Dfcfi( c ). In Ethiopic the transposition of Consonants does 
not appear in Word-formation, for ts does not become st, but 
ss, — v. § 54 ( 6 ). But certainly Ethiopic roots, when compared 

( x ) Verbs, like t\££, fl^h, I do not regard as Intensive Stems (in 
the way of , «p3), but rank them rather with Stem 3. 

( 2 ) Cf. Kokig, p. 100 sq. ( 3 ) [But cf. supra, p. 103, Note ( 3 ).] 

(*) [V. however supra, p. 104, Note ( x ).] 

( 5 ) fiftft^fnft f° r aaira\a%og is explained by the Greek uncial writing 
(A having been read as A). 


— 108 — § 58- 

with the corresponding ones in the related tongues, present many 
examples of the transposition of letters, e. g. fO't'h^h't "shoulder", 
for <7»y)'I-q".'Th (TO) ; KC^ft^rt, for JtJP^A^A from aoCM, 
tfBte; ao<?&6, from Ja&; h'ilM (= MlAAl) for MlAlA; 

A0A la-a-la, for 0A0A; rh+£ pan, viJL^; jHfl, W&> ^ 
In particular it is the more liquid letters and the Aspirates, which 
tend in Ethiopic root-formation to glide from one position to 
another: — Examples for A:— VUli, r6D, Jl$j«; ftrThA nnV?; 

0>Afll, J Jo; rh4»A, pfti, *?pn, JuiiL; A?°X"> yJLo and (jo-U: — 
for C— <»<:£■ "breadth", via; ^i^-ncn&, nia, 6^; */M, g^i 

(j^i): — for *>: — rhVft, i^a^? )DH; — for Aspirates besides:— 
tlth, l«Bf, V U; ?Ml, "lead", }}«, ^|; ^M| "groaning", pi«, p«i; 
<Crh4» ? "3JBn, vilij; AAA, >^J; rhAA, Jcs\*w. In one or two roots 
all the letters are shifted together: — 9°H\£, Dm, iv^O); AO+» 
nV|, J^; perhaps too in V7G "foot", from A*7C( 2 ), ^1' <J^/' 
f°C1f p^y -^ or details in these cases reference may be made 

to the Lexicon. 

Inter ; § 58. 3. Interpolation, or Rejection, of individual Consonants, 

Bejectionofcmt? Softening of Consonants into Vowels. In the first place a 

Constants. snor ^ vowel with the tone, in an open syllable, may be strengthened 

by the insertion of a Nasal : thus "WJis zentu, "this", stands for 

TI"!*; UPli" heyanta, "instead of, for Uf-J", which still appears 

along with it; tf*AV; for tf-A;*N Mfl for KQ; A'MA*, A'JIl.Ar 

along with A-flA (Konig, p. 102); JS**}*^ "chance", for Jt«H«; 

cf also fo'iai'im/} "petty", from Vaoflfi ; AW"^^ lekuetent. 

"7dflA and 0IWI0A; <W»5tdA^ and tf^Atf^; i'f'YlP^ for 

•WMtfh and farm* for ^Mrh C/hA* and cftArih; 
^AKC^ for "ffcAC^; ^bwtt for frp-Actf-; ^OMi^ for 
^-HaH<p^ ; hi HibHr and fc«7fl a* ; MUh and fc^Mi*; £*<n>tf* 

for Ji^-ilD^hll- 'Gadla Adam? (ed. Trumpp), p. 79, 1. 24. — .On the question 
whether the prefix of the Causative-Reflexive,— KA*I* has °een transposed 
from hH-H, v. § 83. 

(*) But v. Praetorius, 'Beitr. z. Ass.\ I, p. 21.— Cf. Arab. Jds*, from 
Greek "kfrpa. ' 

( 2 ) Ewai,d, l Hebr. Spr: p. 91; Schrader, 'De Indole 1 , p. 24; Konig, 
p. 144. — . 

§ 58. — 109 — 

Xy/cvfrog; <w>7*T>> ^X av vC)- But just as a short vowel may in 
such a case be strengthened also by doubling the following con- 
sonant (§ 55) ( a ), so may a Nasal in turn make its way into a word 
to compensate for giving up the doubling of the consonant (§ 56). 
This phenomenon, which is quite usual in Aramaic as is well 
known, is shown in Ethiopic, just as in Arabic ( s ), — mainly however 
in root-formation, though in this case, of very common occurrence, — 
by a 7 coming in after the first radical, probably to replace the 
doubling of the second radical (for examples v. § 72). In the 
word JPH"! Deut. 32,15, we have, alongside of this original form, 
the variation 9°^^% Of foreign words there may be compared, 
e. g. ATCC odnfoipog. With less frequency a C is interpolated 
for a like purpose in root-formation: ^GAPfl Callus; mCi\»'iilh 
Tdbennesis (cf. infra § 72) ( 4 ). In Syriac and Arabic this practice 
is more common. 

The rejection of a Consonant without any compensation is 
similarly infrequent in Ethiopic ( 5 ). The Nasal "> is the letter most 
liable to be so treated, e. g. blb$ for d^bTr? before the Semi- 
vowel, or as a final letter after a long vowel, as in the numerals 
from 20 to 90 (§ 158) and in the Pronominal terminations (e. g. 
§ 146). An entire syllable, viz. }, d along with its vowel), is thrown 
off from fcJP°> "from", when it has to be closely attached to the 
Noun. And just like f, the Liquid fo is constantly rejected after 
a long vowel in a word which is in very frequent use, viz. £fl, "he 
said", for £-f)UA (cf. supra, § 46) ( 6 ). The Fern. ^ disappears, 
just as in Aramaic, in the terminations 6, e (for bt, et), § 120 sq. 
On the rejection of Aspirates and Semi- vowels cf. §§ 47 and 53. 
Occasionally too, in forms where several radicals are repeated, a 
letter is left out for brevity's sake. 

The softening of any one of the firmer letters into a vowel softening 

of Conso- 
ls still less common, and has mostly been handed down in very nant8 int0 

ancient words, like M-fl "star", from h-flh'fl Cf. also §28, on fl. Vowel »- 

O In Amharic, e. g. WiR "one", for fc£« from hthR- 

( 2 ) Cf. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.\ § 9 sq. 

( 3 ) Ewald, l Qr. Arab:, §§ 163, 191. 

( 4 ) Cf. also Konio, p. 103. 

( 5 ) Cf. Ohio, pp. 101, 103. 

( 6 ) Cf. also Gesenius, 'Thesaurus', p. 600. 

— 110 -- § 59. 


§ 59. The word, consisting of several syllables, has a unity 
of the impressed upon it by means of the Tone, which brings one syllable 
tt^Ad-uat- ^° pro 1 *" 1161106 as the one which dominates the whole. The pro- 
ment. nunciation of the other syllables is then accommodated to this lead- 
ing syllable, as regards length or shortness, height or depth of 
note, and even, in certain circumstances, choice of vowels for these 
syllables. Although the influence of the Tone upon the vocalisation 
of the word by no means displays itself in forms so manifold in 
Ethiopic, as, for instance, in Hebrew, it nevertheless asserts itself 
now and then, and therefore it calls for a short description here. 
1. It is true that the method of fixing the tone of the word(*), — 
in a dead language which has left no grammatical description 
belonging to the time when it was a living tongue, and which did 
not employ in its written character any tone-marking ( 3 ), — can no 
longer be exactly determined in detail; but the general principles 
of the process may be gathered, partly from the rules of word- 
formation, and partly from later accounts of the accentuation ( 3 ), 
and from a comparison of Ethiopic with Arabic and Amharic. 
According to these principles the Tone is not bound to any special 
syllable, as it is in Hebrew, in such manner that it should fall, as 
a rule say, on the last syllable, or possibly on the penult; but on 
the contrary in any polysyllable, — so far as mere possibility goes, — 
it may rest on any one of the last three syllables, and occasionally 
may he, it would seem, still farther back, e. g. fl^hi" barakata\ 
fl^hi"h barakdtaka. The adjustment of the tone is regulated by 
wholly different points of view. In the first place it depends upon 
the kind of syllables and their vowels. Syllables having long 
vowels, — or (which is the same thing as a matter of prosody) closed 

(}) Cf. now specially, on this subject, the frequently quoted treatise of 
Trumpp, ' TJeber den Accent im Aethiopischert, ZDMGr XXVIII, p. 515 sqq. : 
v. also Konig, p. 154: sqq— On the marked fluctuation of the tone in present- 
day Abyssinian, e. g. in Tigrina, v. Praetorius ZDMGr XLI, p. 688 [and in 
Tigre, Littmahn, l Ztitschr. f. Amyr? XIII, p. 140 sqq.]. 

( 2 ) The signs written over the several words in Ethiopic Hymnologies 
are certainly not Tone-marks, but musical signs, apparently formed in imi- 
tation of Greek notes of Music. • 

( 3 ) Lxjdolf, 'Gh-amm.' 1, 7. 

§ 59. — 111 — 

syllables having short vowels, — naturally assert themselves in the 
word, and necessarily attract the tone, in opposition to open sylla- 
bles with short vowels, e. g. *V^T hedat; V*ICV nagdrna. The 
second fundamental rule, which, besides, is connected with the 
formative history of words, is this, — that final short vowels, belong- 
ing invariably to the form, and final and simply closed syllables 
which have short vowels, and which have originated from the rejection 
of a final vowel in pronunciation (e. g. VIC hdgar, for hdgar e ), do 
not take the tone; while final long vowels also surrender the tone 
to the penult, when the penult has a long vowel (thus, of course 
£fl/i, yebali', fi>'t'd/t yetfanno; >"]£. nagaru; but £fl>/V* yebelu; 
^>*|: motu] f^°%a^ yemitu\ &&M yere'yu; J&A.C yesefo; &a\& 
f atari; 9°^£^t medrdwl &c). Evidently in most cases the tone 
avoids the last syllable. Much oftener it rests on the third last 
syllable, but oftenest on the second last. For the rest, the accen- 
tuation of a word is regulated by the nature of its formation, 
because it is only from this that we can see what vowels and sylla- 
bles are the most important in the word, what formative ad- 
ditions are attached bearing the tone, and what ones have given 
up their tone, — why, for instance, *7flC "act", (Imper.) is pronounced 
gebar, but DIG'- "city", Jidgar; why tf»fl<p'} ; h "princes" should 
be masdfent, but ¥TC^h „created" (fern.) fetert; Oh}i*^ "he", 
wetu, and *ffl4* "they acted", gabru, (fec.^). Accordingly, instead 
of reckoning up a series of rules on accentuation at this stage, it 
will be more advisable to give the accentuation of the several forms 
when we come to describe them. Still, reference may be again 
made here to § 48, according to which the Aspirates exercise a 
peculiar influence on the tone. 

Ethiopic has a large number of small monosyllabic words, 
which are too weak to take a position for themselves in the sentence. 
They are therefore attached to stronger words as prefixes or suf- 
fixes ; but, like the enclitics of other tongues, they are then un- 
accented, or only so far accented as to make them discernible to 
the ear as loosely connected appendages, which do not belong 
properly to the word. They cause no alteration in the main accent- 

( x ) [Without going into particulars it may be said here generally that 
Trumpp and Konig are probably safer guides than Dillmann in the pronun- 
ciation of Ethiopic, when the last-named differs from the first two, as h& 
frequently does, tr.] 

— 112 — § 60. 

nation of the word; and yet, according to Ludolf, in words which 
end in a long vowel, the tone must necessarily fall upon this long 
vowel before an appended particle, even though it did not rest on 
this vowel in the word when standing alone: oofy mdnu, but ao^ao 
manUma; ?•% yogi, but tf-Tjfc yogtke. f| "this (w.)" andH "this (/".)" 
differ from these attached particles, for though they are mostly 
attached, in writing, to the word which follows them, they still retain 
their own independent tone. 

Nothing is known in Ethiopic of any special pronunciation 

of a word at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause of 

a sentence, and nothing, accordingly, of any influence being exerted 

by the accent of the sentence upon the accent of a word (Pause). 

Ludolf expressly notices that the Abyssinians modulate their voices 

very little in reading. 

vocaiisa- § 60. 2. The vocalisation of a word mainly depends, of course, 

word, as in- not on phonetic conditions, but on the sense and signification of 

financed by ^ g own f orm — so f ar as different significations cling to different 

the Tone. ' ° ... 

vowels, as will be shown farther on. And yet phonetic conditions 
exercise an influence too; for the sense of the form is usually 
sustained in any word by one vowel only, or by two at most; the 
selection of the rest depends upon phonetic conditions, and that 
selection is made in such fashion that the several syllables in the 
word all sound harmoniously together, and the toneless syllables 
subordinate themselves to the tone-bearing ones according to their 
situation with respect to the latter. As regards, first of all, the 
long vowels, they appear, with some few exceptions, to be essential 
in Ethiopic to the signification in the forms concerned. The short 
vowels, a and e, — and particularly a, — seem possessed, it is true, of 
the same property, in the case of many forms, but they are often 
mere auxiliary vowels, employed to facilitate the pronunciation of 
consonants which are not supported by the formative vowel or 
vowels. Of the two, e is the more unimportant, indefinite and 
colourless; a is more important and significant, and accordingly, 
as a mere auxiliary vowel, it is employed specially in the Noun. 
Farther it appears that when once a or e has established itself in a 
form, the other syllables readily echo( x ) the vowel concerned; thus, 

i 1 ) For another example of a foregoing vowel recurring in the next 
syllable as an echo, v. § 26,4. 

§60. — 113 — 

both in the Perfect of Verbs and in Quadriliteral and Multiliteral 
Nouns the a often runs through several syllables : — VH^g 1 , 
M»A;*A, &1&*l\ or * in 4*WA, JtA^A*, JfMltf-A. To 
precede u, e is preferred, °H)rC hli^T-Q-K, and a to precede I, 
fllfl/fl- But if a long a, as the weightiest of all the vowels, has 
newly made its way into the stem, the syllable before or after it 
must as far as possible be shortened and obscured, and so it is 
not a that appears in it, but e: &£*$, AilOA, 9°ih9C, ^CPd, 
9°flH», Pfh, aottF, AVflA, tfo^hC^ In certain cases, in 
fact, before such an a, even an d, o or e must be eased down into 
a u or i at least:— T-Oh., fPIJ. The same rule holds also, when 
a tone-bearing d, or a formative syllable with d, is attached to the 
stem as the main syllable of the word; $!/*Mi» Ct?M, 4|tMff • 
Even a mere strongly accented d, which is pressing newly into the 
stem as the bearer of the signification, calls for an obscured e 
either before or after it:— j&"MlC, hlf>, Kfl'J- On the other hand 
an e is now and again obliged, through the influence of the tone, 
to pass into a. Invariably is this the case when, in the Perfect of 
the type ?«fl£ and *t"liiC the tone falls upon the syllable which 
begins with the second radical; for although "MlCh gaberka is 
capable of pronunciation, the e is yet regarded as too weak here 
to be retained in the main syllable emphasised by the tone, and 
therefore it is preferred to replace it by the stronger d. In the 
same way the long I of a tone-bearing syllable,— which is becoming 
a doubly closed syllable from being a singly closed one, so that 
its l is necessarily shortened by § 35 sq. — does not always pass 
into e, but sometimes into d, as perhaps in titffl^A* A*tflA ; lh; al- 
though in similar cases an e, shortened out of it, is regarded as 
regular, like ^TC^, out of <£a*CO- 

(*) For an account of these conditions, differing from the above, v. 
•ELSnig, p. 121 sqq. 



§ 61. Roots are the material out of which Language fashions 
Words. To explain the mode of their origin and their significations 
in detail, is the province of the Lexicon. Grammar takes these as 
given , but it is bound to furnish a survey of the different classes 
of roots and their forms, because the mode of formation of the 
words, which have sprung from the roots, is determined by the form 
of the roots. In accordance with their signification, Roots fall into 
three classes of very unequal extent. 

1. The lowest stage of roots is formed by those Interjections,. 
which are not derived from Pronouns or Conceptional Roots , but 
which burst forth as a direct expression of feeling , and are , as it 
were, the animal utterances of Man. They are mostly short and 
unbending; and in their case the distinction between root, and 
formation from the root, falls away. There are, however, only a 
very few of them in any language. The most common of these eja- 
culations is Yx\ "OP'O, employed to express emotion, and par- 
ticularly wonder, e. g. httffo'ilnC "0 what a marvellous thing!": It 
is therefore often used in accosting any one in the Vocative, § 142,, 
M'flC "O man!" It seems also to be involved in htf "Oh! cer- 
tainly", v. § 62. As ejaculations of distress and pain there 
appear:— h ( 2 ), in combination with fc: as Sh # & Numb. 24,23; 

0©{; 1,7; art, «> 

§ 62. — 115 — 

htiC) "Ah!"; g» and p-( 2 ) "Alas!". In more frequent use is fl)JR( 3 ) 
"woe!", always with a following A °f the dative, e. g. <Dg, i faf* 
*' woe's me!"; and, with like meaning, the longer form ftfl»( 4 )> also 
with a following dative ; finally A£ A or fl, A, with a following Suff. 
Pron., "ah! alas!" (for these last three v. infra, § 199). A second- 
ary form (Dj&A to fll£, or fc&A to fcft,, is not necessary to he 

assumed (§ 167); and yet, just as in Arabic Jol has been formed 

out of JL", so too in Ethiopic a noun <D£A» "howling" , "lamen- 
tation", has sprung from fl)£ and the ti which invariably follows 
it. Besides, we meet with h\ "come!" (Ex. 4,19; var V 1 }), fl&, 
flrh> flrh, with a following Suff. Pron., as a particle of salutation, 

— Arab. JLj, ^j ; and ft*p as a call to silence. • 

§ 62. 2. The Pronominal Boots are one stage higher. They p t onomfo»\ 
are no longer confined to the field of sensation, but belong to that ^J^ 6 * 
of the understanding. They do not, however, themselves denote the fives. 
objects of conception and thought, but only point out these objects 
in space and time (Indicating-words) ; and starting from this they 
are employed, farther, to denote all possible conditions of thought. 
They constitute quite as important a part of the language as the Con- 
ceptional Roots. If the latter contain the material of the language, 
the type is furnished by the former; and nearly all the formative 
additions to words , and the majority of the particles which serve 
to express the relations of clauses in a sentence, are of pronominal 
origin. Ethiopic has developed this portion of the language, precise- 
ly, in a very rich and manifold way, and has preserved much that 
has been lost in the other Semitic tongues. 

(1) Of these Pronominal roots, the most widely extended and 
most variously employed are the Demonstratives, in the narrower 
sense of the term (Demonstrativa). In this class we distinguish 
four orders of roots. 

- (a) The primordial Demonstrative ta( 6 ) has been softened 
into da ; and then , through transformation of the Mute into the 

( x ) V. Ludolf, 'Comm. Hist. Aeth.', p. 41. 

( 2 ) V. Ludolf, 'Lex. Aeth.\ col. 484; Arabic Us in a different meaning. 

( 3 ) \y ^y ply, wi, ~ol; m. 
(V^S. ( 5 )TO*- 

— 116 - § 62. 

Sibilant, the two farther modes of expression sa and za have been 
evolved. All the four are represented in Ethiopic. The elementary 
to,- besides appearing in the Feminine termination "H 1 ), is still pre- 
served in the Personal particles i* ( 2 ) and *fc "the" (m.&f.), though 
only in compounds, e. g. fl>-ft"fc, &hrt, Til*, H*fc, A"*, A-fc 
^m^^-Js — , as well as in the Interrogative h£»*b "where?". The 
softer form of pronunciation da, which has become predominant in 
Aramaic, can only be supported in Ethiopic by the preposition 
^fl "upon" (§ 165). Having passed into the harder Sibilant( s ), 
it has, under the guise of ft, produced a series of particles of 
relation and of exclamation, namely, ft e>£, "hfttfo "for" (cozy.), ftf} 
"when", ft and hflth "pray, do — !" (Gr. %tj, Lat. quaeso). Just 
as in Hebrew and Arabic, it lias become predominant, under the 
form of the soft sibilation, for the usual Demonstr. Pron. TJ "this", 
and for the Relative Pron. H "who" (§ 64), as well as in the particles 
T/f „here", "VhW "when?", J&ftH, "now", and perhaps also in 
%U, "point of time", "hour". 

(b) The root »J«, or &, has become U, through a farther 
subtilising of the Mute into a mere breathing ( 4 ). As such, having 
been shortened out of the •p which has been fashioned into a 
Personal Pron. (§ 65) , it makes its appearance in the Suff. Pron. 
V; Hi If" 1 *", U"}; elsewhere, only in Adverbial formation, in par- 
ticular in y as a mark of the Accusative ; V as an interrogative ; % 
"away to" (§ 160); % ts, "also"; i)f "there"; OfW* ^ place of; 
doubtless also in YxXf "oh! certainly" (properly, "oh! quite so"; cf. 
§ 61). And, remarkably enough (§ 24), this aspirate is hardened, 
in Ethiopic, even into *h and *\ in -lift "with" and "where" (§ 161)( B ), 
and flth "away yonder", UthYl "yonder"; and into Q perhaps, in 
*fi "behold!" (but v. §41). 

(c) Like the Mute and and Sibilant Dentals, the two Liquids 
n and I also serve to form Demonstrative Pronouns, with either a 
preceding or a succeeding vowel, as na, an( 6 ), la, al, and they are 

(*) [V. on this subject C. Beockelmank, 'Die Femininendung Tim 
Semitischen> (Breslau 1903).] 

( 2 ) Cf. Trumpp, p. 546, N. 2: [V. also Bezold, 'Die grosse Darius- 
imchriff, p. 25 sgg.; Babth, ZDMG, XLVI, p. 685 sqq., and LIX, p. 161 sq.; 
Fisohee, ibid. p. 443 sgg.] ( 3 ) Cf. Qtf. ( 4 ) Cf. U, KH- 

( 6 ) [Cf., however, Peaetoeius, ZDMG, LVII, p. 272]". 

( 8 ) These two are also extensively used in Sanskrit. 

§ 62. — 117 — 

still frequently employed in the Ethiopic language. The first branchy 
and first of all in the form >, is employed in Semitic generally, and 
accordingly in Ethiopic too, mainly to form delicate circumstantial 
particles which express relations either sensible or intellectual (*); 
From it proceed on the one hand the words for "behold !"( 3 ) VU*» 
VP, V^, (§ 16 °) and for "come now!"( 3 ) *0, and on the other hand 
a few enclitic particles, which closely resemble in form and meaning 
those which come from the root U, namely y« as an interrogative, 
% "away to" (§160), * "away to" (§ 160), and \ "also" ("again"). 
In the form \\}> modified into Ji'J, this branch serves partly to 
form Personal pronouns, in the Eeminines of Demonstrative and 
Relative pronouns, VJ^Yl-, and hl^'Yl± "that" (f.), VJ+ "who" 
(/".) (§ 64), and as the first element in the Pronouns of the 1 st and 
2 nd Persons (§ 65), and partly to form various particles , like &"} 
"there!" "see!" (in KiYi^, ht%6, httl, M?)\ Mi* "with re- 
pect to"; VJH "while", "since". As a Demonstrative it seems ori- 
ginally to refer, in opposition to ta and ha, to the more distant 
object, and thus to signify "that"; and, seeing that it points away 
from what is at hand and existing, words which express negation (*) 
could at the same time be derived from it. Like the Hebrew jig, 
Y$ in fine, the Ethiopic h"| "not", in compounds like h!JH% "per- 
haps" (§ 163) and V>»flP "I may not", is also traceable to this root ; 
and the usual Ethiopic word for "not", A. {cf. Assyr. YIYl ai) has 
been shortened out of a form like ptf. 

The second branch also, la, al(*), had originally the faculty 
of pointing to the more remote object, although it has not pre- 
served this more definite meaning in all its formations. In Ethiopio 
ii still occurs with a personal meaning, particularly in the redu- 
plicated form A/i"he, he", "even he", "he himself, "self", §150f); 
and }\fo in the same way is found in the compound ftAYt*? hMPi? 
"those"; while al and la together, compounded into alia,. appear in 

C) Cf. Trumpp, 'Sitzber. d. philos.-philol. CI. d. bayer. Ahad. zu 
Miinchen vom 5. Mai, 1877', Part 2, p. 117 sqq. 

( 2 ) mrr, ID; & >)W;*J;^. 

( 4 ) Like -if "not", ^SRf "other".' 

( 6 ) Cf. Trumpp, p. 550, N. 2 (contrary to Praetorius, ZDMG XXVIT, 
p. 639). 

— 118 — § 63, 

the plural stem, — running through all Semitic tongues, — of the 
Demonstrative Pronoun "hfc, ft/V "these", as well as of the Relative 
Pronoun ftA "who, which". And just as from the branch an, so 
too from the branch la, al, negatives are derived, especially h&C) 
"not", in fcAO "there is not", and A( 2 ) "not", in M "but"( 3 ). 

(d) As the original meaning of the roots formed with I and n 
has gradually become weak, the new Demonstrative root h has been 
fashioned, to indicate that which is more remote. In the form ha 
it is contained in the adverbs h*h "away yonder", \}fhYl "yonder". 
To form Personal Demonstratives it is appended, under the form ft-, 
to other Demonstrative roots, in order to bestow upon them the 
faculty of pointing to that which is more remote: IfYi- "that" (m.), 
M^Xl* "that" (/".), ftAYl- "those". This Demonstrative root can 
hardly be regarded as one which has sprung from the Interrogative 
Relative root (§ 63) , but it seems (*) , like the h of the 2 nd pers. 
(§ 65), to have come from original ta, twa. 

For a last Demonstrative v. finally § 65, treating of the 
Personal Pronouns. 

§ 63. (2) Interrogatives may of course spring from Demon- 
strative roots like U« and ^«, through the influence of the tone 
(§ 62). But as the influence of the tone does not suffice for the 
formation of all Interrogatives, languages have produced special 
Interrogative Roots. 

(a) In Semitic, and accordingly in Ethiopic, the most usual 
Interrogative root is ma (probably hardened out of wa) ( 5 ). In this 
short form it is still retained (though no longer invariably inter- 
rogative in signification, but brought down sometimes to the level of 
indefiniteness and relativity), in the attached particle ao (§ 162), 
as second member of compounds, in °%ao "iitrum?" (and Oi a %ao 
"an?"), Yiao "nearly" ( 6 ), h<w» "as"( 7 ), and as first member in ^KH, 
"when?"( 8 ). In order to turn ma into a Personal Interrogative, it 
was compounded with the Demonstrative stem na: ao\* "what (is) 

( 3 ) \Cf. however, § 168, 6, Note]. 

( 4 ) Cf. 4{tS, £J|S;?!,T!, ^«- 

( 5 ) As the remains of original kwa ;gi quis? (v. Ewald, l Hebr t Spr.\ 
§ 104). («) n»3. 

O 1»? ; U£ («) ™ ; ^ ; wJboof. 

§ 64. — 119 — 

he?", " who ?"( 1 ),— whence also the neuter J* }^ "what?", A 
neuter and adverbial form °% "what?" "how!" appears to be a: 

corruption of a form like Uo, HO, M13, — no longer retained in 
Ethiopic. A few other particles also, of a relative meaning, have 
been derived from this op (v. § 64). 

(&) The second of the most usual Interrogative roots is |%j& (*),' 

probably a weakened form of original kai (oilf). It is used in 
Ethiopic, just as in Arabic, as an interrogative adjective, in the 
sense TroTog, qualis, "of what sort?". Either in the short form e or 
in the complete form ai, it is prefixed to several Demonstrative 
particles and even to one Conceptional root , to impart interroga- 
tive force to them: fc£-fc "where?", fcG "how?"( 3 ), htl^Tf^i "now 
much?" "how many?". 

(c) Both of these Interrogative roots in common use point to 
an original root kwa, kai. And there actually appear to be some 
remains of it, even in Ethiopic, in the interjection h.1%6 "well 
now!", properly: — "see what!", where the k has at the same time 
passed into the strongest guttural. But in other cases, just as in 
the other Semitic languages, the Interrogative root, even in this 
original form, has assumed a Relative meaning throughout. 

§ 64 (3) As in other languages, the Relative Pronouns are Beiative 
derived from the Demonstratives and Interrogatives. Pronouns. 

(a) The ordinary Relative Pronouns are taken from Demon- 
' strative roots , viz. H "who, which" (m.) ; 'ht'i* "who , which" (/".) ; 

"hti "who, which" (pi.), as well as the conjunctions H "that", "in 
order that"; V}H "while" ("seeing that"), and the prepositions 
hTffr "with regard to" ; flft'H- "because of. Also, under the form 
$ this demonstrative root is employed with a Relative sense in flfl 

"when" (with appended fl, while (k perhaps corresponds to | j, 16!)* 

(b) From the Interrogative root ma there came, with the help 
of a prefixed aspirate (*), — the conjunctions ft*n» "when" ; ft«n» "if"( 5 ); 
and a form shortened from the last, 1x9° &v, in the apodosis of a 
Conditional sentence (§ 170); and with a prefixed demonstrative A, 
in accordance with § 34, ftftcrD (for f|tf° "that which"), "while", 

O ]»; ^»; yLo. ( 2 ) **, r.». 'T«; H U4; ^\, ^1, y&Jt &o. 
( 3 ) ri&H. (*) Somewhat the same as in Itf K. 

( 5 ) Dtjt; on its derivation cf. Ewald, p. 225, Bern, 1. 

— 120 — §65. 

"because", "for". From the Interrogative root kwa (§ 63, c) an 
impersonal Relative stem has originated, through simplification 
into ha, in the sense "that" (properly: — "whatf'X 1 ): It occurs in 
the compounds htihC) "until", "as far as"; V>h "therefore", 
Htaque" (properly: "see that", "seeing that", "from that circum- 
stance"). But this stem is mainly employed in processes of Com- 
parison, with the meaning "as", "like"( 3 ), first in \\ao "nearly" 
("like what")( 4 ); Xiao (Prep, and Gonj.) "like", "just as"( B ); 
farther, — when compounded with Demonstratives, — in fa, "there- 
fore", "now" (probably shortened from )3=)rD)( 6 ), and in fa "thus" 
(from Jcahu, "like it"), no longer in use alone, it is true (like n% 
K3; JL&), but probably preserved still in Ml "in nowise", "not"( 7 ). 
C( 8 ) seems to have arisen, by sound-transition, out of |l in the inter- 
rogative KC "how?". The same Jed, subdued into Tcu, seems to me 
to be involved also in ftftti- (§ 62) which is made use of in appeals 
(for ftfo-, § 34) u roIvw", "quaeso", "pray do!" (properly: — "since 
indeed"). The letter Jc might, however, be farther softened into g, 
and thus we can explain flip "well now!" as being another form 
of Mfl (properly: — "see what!"), — perhaps also *|,Hi "moment", 
"hour", "time", if this is at all of pronominal origin (for h + frhU.), 
and perhaps the quite obscure f«7, "perhaps", "that . . . not", 
"lest". For the remains of another Relative ia, v. § 65. 

§ 65. (4) The purely Personal Pronouns of the three Persons, 
"I, Thou, He" — are, asj the strongest Pronouns in the Ethiopic 
tongue, thoroughly compounded. The special root for the Third 
Person is of a purely vowel-character, viz. u or i, but not a. 
Although, at one time, even a possessed demonstrative force, as is 
still clearly shown in Sanskrit, it yet looked to that which was 
more remote, while on the other hand u or i looked to that which 
was nearer and more intimate ( 9 ). In Ethiopic at least, u ov i was 
employed whenever a demonstrative root had to be developed into 
a form with a personal reference (cf. -p, »fc, YK 5K)« Even to 

0) Cf. Hebr. >?, Ewald, p. 230. ( 2 ) ftfl — Tg, by § 30. 

( 3 ) V. Ewald, § 105, b. (*) Cf. BJ>»3. 

( 5 )L^; ^«5. (6) Cf alsou^. 

;. O So that ft, perhaps shortened from ft*} (§ 62) or ft£v> is possessed 
of negative force of and by itself. Cf. Tettmpp, p. 559, N.'l. 
( 8 ) Ewald, p, 232. . ( 9 ) Ewald, § 103, a. 

§ 65. — 121 — 

denote any person other than I or Thou, u or i was at one time 
quite sufficient; and so, with the help of a final e, the Ethiopic 
u e , i e emerged, i. e. fll-ft and fj\ (§ 40) ( 1 ). Both of these stems 
Chft and JRft, however, were judged by the Ethiopians to be too 
weak, and they were accordingly strengthened by the annexation 
of the demonstrative root ȣ or *fc( 2 ). When farther the distinction 
between u and i had become established in the language, so that 
u stood for the Masculine, and i for the Feminine ( 3 ) ; there emerged 
the Pronouns O^h'P "he" and J&ft-fc "she"( 4 ). Both are substantives 
originally, but in the course of time they have come to be employed 
also as adjectives, like wn&c, and are thereby brought down to the 
position of mere personal demonstratives. fj\ wa s even made use 
of to form an adverb in J&ftti "at present". The Second Person 
h'i'i* is a compound of the root tu or twa for "thou", and the 
demonstrative an( B ); but in certain types ta, which is a curtailed 
form of twa, is exchanged for h (§ 29), as in all Semitic languages. 
The First Person is certainly very much curtailed in Ethiopic, and 
takes the form M; but both the plural *>AV, and the Vh which 
still appears as the verbal termination for the first pers v show that 
ana has been shortened from anoku or anoki, — still preserved in 
Hebrew, — a compound of the demonstrative an and oM— u V\ 
Finally from the Jcu, Tea or M, which appears in the 1 st and 
2 nd Persons, and occurs also as a more general Demonstrative in 

(*) In the same way as *H ze, "this". 

( 2 ) This root is the basis of HI!"!; o©»; 1# ; and, in Ethiopic itself, of 
tf«, V Iftf*^, and If 7. 

( 3 ) [Cf. Barth, ZDMG XLYI, p. 685 sq.] 

( 4 ) Seeing that »J5 and *fc are still preserved complete everywhere else 
in Ethiopic, I cannot accept the explanation that (D*i\ and $ti, u e and i e 
are weakened forms of hu e and hi 6 , and these again of tu e and ti e . That theTe 
were original pronouns w and i is clearly enough discernible still from the 
declension of '^^ and ^HIH and the Latin is, from Zend and Lettish, as 
well as from the Gun a forms TJ*T, T£B[ av-ros, and also from the Relatives ^f 
and "^f derived from these demonstratives (e. g. in ^R^, l[c[ &c). In Semitic 
also there is a Relative ia, derived from that i, of which a trace is still pre* 
served in Ethiopic in the Binding-vowel of the Construct State, and in the 
Adjective-ending i; and it is not clear -why this ia must be only, a shortened 
form of tia, 

( 6 ) Ewald, p. 234 

— 122 — § "66. 

accordance with § 62, d, an Abstract Jciyat came into being, short- 
ened into Xi^g "Selbstheif ', which with the help of appended suf- 
fixes serves to express the notion of "self (v. § 150) C), and corres- 
ponds to the Arabic IJI and the Hebrew m«( 2 ). For another word 

to signify the notion of "even he", or "he himself" v. § 62 ( 3 ). 
conception- § 66. 3. The third and highest stage of roots is formed by 

«en^ t8_tne Conceptional Boots (i. e. Roots conveying an idea, conception 
Description. or notion — ^Begriffswurzelri). They are the designations expressed 
in sounds of all the simple ideas which have been gathered by the 
mind of a people from the experience lying within the circle of 
their contemplation, and which have been developed by their mental 
activity. They are exceedingly manifold and numerous, but still 
they are capable of survey, and are not inexhaustible. Inasmuch, 
however, as no simple idea or notion is ever entertained, in actual 
thinking or in actual resulting speech, in a pure form, but each in 
a certain relation of thought, — there are no pure Conceptional 
Eoots in actual speech, but only words which have been formed 
out of these roots. The root, which constitutes the hidden foundation 
of a number— which may be large — of words derived from it, is 
obtained from the actually existing words, only by the scientific 
process of Abstraction. The tracing back of words to roots in this 
way results in the announcement, — as the first fundamental law 
common to the whole family of the Semitic languages, — that the 
majority of the vowels, and particularly all the short vowels, belong 
invariably to the formation and not to the root, and that the root 
thus consists of firmer letters only. With this announcement is 
associated another, — as a second law quite as universally binding, — 
that every Conceptional Boot comprises at least three firm letters^). 

O Gf. Trumpp, p. 549, N. 1 (contrary to Praetorhxs, ZDMG XXVH, 
p. 640). 

( 2 ) Ewald, § 105, sq ; Noldeke, 'Mand. Gramm. 1 , p. 390, N. 2; l Syr. 
Gramm? English ed., p. 226, N. 1; Lagarde, i Mitteilungen\ I, p. 226; Haupt, 
'Beitr. z. Ass.', I, p. 20. 

( 3 ) On the Semitic Pronouns in general cf. O. Vogei, '•Die Bildung des 
personlichen Fiirworts im Semitischen\ 1866; Oh. Eneberg, *De pronominibus 
Ardbicis dissertatio etymological, Helsingforsiae, I, 1872, II, 1874; and H. Alm- 
kvist, l Den semitiska sprakstammens pronomen\ Upsala, 1875. 

(*) On Biliteral nouns v. D. H. MCller, 'Actes du VI me Cong. d. Orierti?, 
11,1, p. 415 sqq.; and on the other side, Barth, ZDMG XLI, p. GMsqq. 

§66. — 123 — 

No root has fewer letters than three, but a root may have more 
than three. There are Quadriliteral and Multiliteral Roots, but 
these are recognised without difficulty as later formations, which 
have been derived from simpler roots. Even within the sphere of 
these Multiliterals the law of Triliterality has had the effect of 
reducing many of them again to the form of Triliterals. And it 
may be remarked generally, that it is in the oldest Semitic lan- 
guages that the law of Triliterality has exercised the most absolute 
sway, while in those languages in which the root-forming tendency 
continued in activity for a longer time, — and Ethiopic is one of 
them, — roots were more and more elaborated into Quadriliterals, 
whereas roots with more than four letters are not at all common. 
Accordingly even in Ethiopic the root usually consists of three con- 
stant letters (Radicals). Consonants or long vowels rank as firm 
or constant letters, but, for a special reason to be explained farther 
on (§ 67 sq.), the vowels i and u are the only ones which occur as 
Radicals. The majority of roots are purely consonantal. Those 
roots only, which have a vowel as their second letter, like mut, are 
capable of easy pronunciation. Scarcely any of the rest could be 
pronounced, for want of the necessary vowels. The usual practice 
therefore is to exhibit the root under the guise of one of the sim- 
plest existing word-forms possessed by the language, viz. — the 
3 rd pers. sing. masc. Perf. of the simple stem; and we shall adopt 
this practice throughout, writing nagara, for instance, instead of 
ngr, and so on( x ). 

Now according as a root consists of three (or more) Consonants, 
or on the other hand has in any position a long vowel instead of 
a consonant, there arise different kinds of roots ; and inasmuch as 
the general rules for the formation of words from the root undergo 
special limitations and alterations according to the special kind of 
the root, the different possible kinds of roots must now be settled 
and described. The kind and order of the consonants, of which 
roots are composed, are in general completely free and unrestrain- 
ed; for, as Semitic languages are generally rich in vowels, and 
the majority of words have at least two vowels, there may be found 

(*) Ludolf has frequently exhibited roots mediae vocalis in the guise 
of the Infinitive, like OBtj**^', but there is no satisfactory reason for adopting 
that method in Ethiopic. In this case also we shall write ^°«fv 

— 124 — § 66. 

in a root, without detriment to the forms derivable from it, con- 
sonants standing together, which could not be pronounced together 
as one phonetic group without great difficulty. But yet even here 
the formative history of roots to some extent, and to some extent 
regard to convenience of pronunciation and to euphony, have 
imposed certain limitations upon the general freedom. We are 
speaking here only of roots made up of three radicals, as Multi- 
literals follow special rules of their own. The appearance of one 
and the same consonant twice in the root is allowable, and even 
common, in the position of second and third radicals. Cases in 
which the first and second radicals are identical, are, it is true, 
of more frequent occurrence in Ethiopic than in other Semitic 
tongues, but all such roots are secondary formations and are recog- 
nisable as forms shortened from quadriliterals, v. §71. Eoots too, 
which have the first and third radicals alike, e, g. (D£(D, are few 
in number, and have received this appearance only by a process 
of transformation from other roots, as in J-f-J and >m>, from 
natala; Afr>A, from sakata; 'pth'fr, from tuh; A0A, from ( al; *f A7, 
from gal, &c. ; and, in particular, those roots med. voc. which have 
also the same consonant in the first and third places (*), are mostly 
replaced in Ethiopic by other roots, and are now represented only 
by a few Nominal stems, like \\\i and f %. Farther there is no 
admission within the root for two different Aspirates (with the 
exception of the softest one, ft, which is allowed to accompany 
other aspirates within roots, and may even stand immediately before 
or after di or -If, though not immediately before or after any other, 
e. g. VRK th^h, h9°-\, h£<1xh Kr\£, MH &c), nor readily 
for two different Palatal-Gutturals (still wehave7*;h*fe and^^fi^), 
Labial Mutes, or Dental-Lingual Mutes ( 2 ). Different Sibilants, 
however, are admitted in the same root, and even side by side 
(e. g. u>0& AlIC rtHP, twX). Also h£, VA, rtlh, Ah, hR, Ylm r 
?f"+( 8 ) are considered difficult of pronunciation, and therefore are 
for the most part avoided as combinations. Alongside of 4», is 

( ) A still more common occurrence in other Semitic languages, Ewali> 
§118, a. 

( 2 ) In 'V/J'P, & is no more than a softer form of fll 5 Rt't'^ is a 
formation from £}> ; -f-^Jg seems to be foreign (8 jj£) ; on A-fH^ v. § 73, 

( 3 ) On this depend e. g, tfo m ^, Afll4», m$0, m+fl- 

§■67. — 125 — 

placed in preference to ti (O&0°, and 0«fe£), and ft in preference 
to rt or wC)- ' "f" or fli is in rare cases met with before A (e. #. 
•f-f|0 and fllfif). Many of the transpositions of letters described 
above (§§ 24 — 32) may be traced back to these and similar rules. 

§ 67. .1. Tri-radical Hoots which are composed of three Trf-radio* 
Consonants, are those which best answer to the Semitic root-forming stron* ~~ 
tendency. Many of them may have existed in their tri-consonantal Eoots - 
form in primeval times, even before the days when the Semitic 
linguistic family separated itself from a primeval language; but 
the most of them have assuredly arisen, by a re-casting process, 
out of longer or shorter original-roots, and by the hardening of 
such radical elements as originally had a vowel-character. Along- weak 
side of these, however, appear a large number of other roots, which 
have not yet attained this perfect root-form, or have degenerated 
from a perfect condition to a less perfect one : These constitute 
the Imperfect and Weak Boots. 

(a) A whole series exists of roots possessing only two Oon- Boots 
sonants, which are to be conceived as originally associated about „ 
a short vowel, (say a, the one which comes readiest to hand), like 
nab. In order to bring these roots up to the proportion set by the 
fundamental Semitic law (§ 66), the language has either repeated 
both of them, and thus elaborated them into Quadriliterals, like 
gasgasa (cf. § 71), or it has only doubled the second letter* and 
developed them into Triliterals, like nababa. With Ewaij) we then 
call them Double-lettered Boots (more exactly: — Boots} with the 
second letter doubled), Lat. — radices mediae geminafaeC). 

Many of these roots are common to Ethiopic and the other 
Semitic languages. Others of them are peculiar to it, — the short 
original roots on which they are founded having been developed 
into Triliterals by the other languages in a different way, e. g. <fl»VVj 

,jjo, ]KO, v Jao, jtt», «ju>. A few of these roots in Ethiopic are 
only recent formations, of a denominative character, like dil% 

Q-) Hence «fe,0^, fl^ft 0#£» *^?)» though, to be sure, we have 4><*>t{.» 
( 2 ) According to A. Muller, ZDMG XXXHI, p. 698 sqq. (cf. Noldeke, 
ibid. XLVI, p. 776) both these roots and roots mediae w had originally two 
radicals, and in the course of their inflection the Consonant became strength- 
ened in the case of the former class, and the Vowel in the case of the latter. 

med. inf. 

— 126 — ■ § 67- 

These roots maintain their amplified triliteral form through- 
out the whole formation, and they follow absolutely the course 
taken by forms from strong roots , and at no point abandon the 
double letter, although, according to § 56, there may be cases in 
which the doubling is inaudible in pronunciation. Only, one 
trace of their origin is still shown in the fact that, when the first 
of the repeated letters is separated from the second merely by a 
fugitive e, the e is readily given up by these roots, and the letters 
approach each other, without however ceasing on that account 
to be uttered as a doubled sound, — as has been described in 
detail in § 55. In some rare cases the doubling is transferred 
from the second radical to the first, or it disappears entirely (v. 
§ 56). 
Roots (6) We come upon a second kind of Imperfect roots in Boots 

with a Vowel-centre (*), (or Voivel-centred Boots), i. e. such as have 
for their second radical a long vowel, — more precisely a u or an 
* (radices mediae infirmae). Long a does not occur as a second 
radical; for although originally there were roots with middle a, 
they were bound, in the process of word-formation, to call in the 
help of some firmer letter, in fact an Aspirate, and they appear to 
have passed chiefly into roots with a middle Aspirate or with a 
middle % or u. On the other hand, roots with % or u as second 
radical abound. It is true that they also , like roots which have 
the second letter doubled, may be developed into the form of 
strong roots , by hardening their middle vowel into a Semivowel, 
but yet this is not always done, where it might have been expected 
in obedience to other formative and phonetic rules : fidelity to their 
origin is shown by their preservation of the vowel-pronunciation 
of the middle letter, wherever that is possible, as has been already 
described in § 50. Of these roots there are nearly as many with 
middle I as with middle u. Each of these vowels is tenaciously 
retained throughout the whole formation, in the root in which it 
has once been established; and almost no instance can be observed 
of the u passing into i, or the t into u. Farther, it is but sel- 
dom that both forms, with * and with u, have been brought into 
being to express the same meaning or a similar one (like t \\(D% 
and rhffc, f?R and £?0, ■)£ and 7f£>: frequently an entirely 

( x ) V. on the other hand Konig, p. 108. 

§68. — 127 — 

different meaning is attached to the form with u, from that which 
belongs to the ?-form (e. g. "ifli and ym, foV and VtV). Boots 
med. voc. are closely allied in origin with roots med. gem. , as is 
shown in particular by comparing the two kinds of roots in the 
various Semitic languages. It often happens that what one language 
has developed into a root med. voc. appears in another as a root 

med. gem., and vice versa; cf. e.g. Vl,£=tX£ &*h=*^ But within 
Ethiopic itself the two kinds are kept strictly separate from one 
another: they do not pass over to one another in the process of 
formation, as they do for instance in Hebrew. It is farther a com- 
paratively rare thing, to find both kinds of roots formed to express 
the same idea or a similar idea, as in Uhh and lfh- 

§ 68. (c) The third kind of weak roots may be called Vowel- vowei- 

Boots : 

sided roots, being such as have a vowel for their first or third Blded 

radical (radices primae (D et f , and radices tertiae infirmae). 
They fall naturally into two subordinate classes : 

(a) Boots beginning with a Vowel. There are no roots with a vow- 
for their first sound. Seeing that no word can begin with a vowel, JUJUf"* 
such roots would have to introduce the a by means of a Breathing 
(§ 34) ; and we may conceive that (as in the similar case, § 67, b) 
many roots, originally beginning with a, were consolidated into 
roots having an Aspirate for the first radical. Roots, on the other 
hand, which begin with i or m (although they too are bound, — 
whenever a word, formed from them starts clear with the first ra- 
radical, — to harden that radical into the corresponding semivowel) 
reproduce the vowel readily as first radical when a prefix is ap- 
plied, and thereby prove their origin (v. § 49). According to the 
analogy of roots med. inf. and tert. inf., it might have been expect- 
ed that about as many roots would begin with u as with i, but 
the fact is otherwise. If Northern-Semitic transformed almost all 
roots which begin with u into such as begin with i, Ethiopic, on 
the contrary, — in this, resembling Arabic, — has preserved the 
original tina very few roots only, and then for quite special rea- 
sons. The root f £0 "to know" retains i to distinguish it from 
ffljth, which is wholly different in meaning; in f *flfl, fflfl, ffl**U 
the transition from i to u was prevented by the phonetic character 
of the second radical (a Labial); while p-JP» and f°TJ are very 
old Semitic words. All other roots beginning with i, if such did 

_ 128 — § 68. 

exist at first, have been replaced, partly by roots beginning with 
u, partly by vowel-centred and vowel-ending roots, and partly by 
still others. On the other hand, roots beginning with u have been 
formed in great abundance. The two classes of roots , moreover, 
have been kept separate throughout the entire formative process, 
without at any time passing into one another. But sometimes, 
though rarely, an exchange takes place between roots with initial 
u and those which have a middle u: thus we say . jP°.<5-«|» "spittle", 
probably formed from £«£> not from the ordinary W^^C) (§ l^); 
and (Dfjfl has in the Imperfect J&0-»fl (§ 93): Conversely there 
appears tf^Oft "entrance", from OMlh instead of (1ft, § 115. 
Comparison, however, with the other Semitic languages shows that 
they often have roots med: inf., tert. inf. or med. gem., correspond- 
ing to Ethiopic roots beginning with u, or else that these languages 
have still stronger letters in place of u , like n and b, e. g. (D Afll> 
\ji\s', «D4»P, JLo-»> Isgoj Vp^'t <D*70, f^J- Others appear to be 
recent formations of a denominative character, like G)U&., from 
*)2 ; and fl> <£.<£, from "is. 

(/?) Boots ending in a Vowel. Those roots, which originally 
perhaps had a for last radical, have in most cases hardened it 
into an Aspirate. Roots, on the other hand, which end originally in 
i and u, although they have a very decided leaning to the stronger 
form of expression, i. e. to the hardening of their vowel into a 
semivowel, — a much more decided leaning to it, in fact, than have 
the corresponding roots in the kindred tongues — , permit often 
enough the vowel-form to re-appear in suitable cases; for details 
on this point v. § 51. Roots which end in i are, however, more 
common than those in u. With some few exceptions in Nominal 
formation, these roots remain strictly separate from one another. 
It is but seldom that radical forms of both kinds are evolved in 
the language, to express the same meaning, like £flP and <£A<D, 
H^fl) and H^P- In other cases, when both forms were developed 
out of an original root, the significations were more or less strongly 
differentiated, e. g. &1(D "to be gracious", and ft"|f "to bloom"; 
ftAfl> "to listen", and ftftp "to pray" (properly: "to incline" the ear, 
body or knee); rhAlD "to watch", and rhAP "to think" (cf. Jty. 
Of all the kinds of weak roots this is the one in greatest favour 

{*) [Y-y however, DiLLMAmsr, l Lex?, col. 


§ 69. — 129 — 

in Ethiopia It appears very frequently for the Vowel -centred 
and Double-lettered (med. infir. & med. gem.) roots of the other 
tongues. In some rare instances it is interchangeable, in Ethiopic 
itself, with roots med. gem., as in ji££ and /i<Jf with somewhat 
different meanings. Certainly the predominant sense borne by the 
whole of this class of roots is a transitive one; and accordingly, 
when new roots are to be derived from short nominal stems , the 
class is of use to express the doing, exercising, owning, &c. of that 
which is signified by the Noun, e. g. Aflfl), from £v»fl; *fft<D from 
7X"; mflfl) from T-fl. 

§ 69. (d) More than one weak radical may be found in one DoubLy 
and the same root. Such roots are styled Doubly Weak. The 
most numerously represented among them in Ethiopic are those 
which are at once 'Vowel-beginning' and 'Vowel-ending', and have 
only the central radical a Consonant. Such as begin with u and 
end with i are of no uncommon occurrence, e. g. ID&f , CD*6f . Only 
one root is known as yet, having u both at the beginning and at 
the end, viz. tt}£jB\ and not a single one is known, beginning with 
i and at the same time ending with i or with u. In the process of 
formation each of these two weak letters follows its own peculiar 
mode. Roots which have both a Vowel-centre and a Vowel-ending 
are fewer in number. They may have the same sound in the second 
and third place, just like roots med. gem. (Off, Off, 7°ff), or 
they may have different sounds there, like rhj^fl* on the one hand, 
and ^fljf , £<Df , fllfflf , flffif on the other; but invariably, in the 
formative process, the second sound — a Vowel — must be hardened 
into a Semivowel (§ 50), while the third is treated as in the vowel- 
ending roots. The remaining possible combinations, — namely, the 
case of both first and second radicals being of a vowel-character, 
as in OKB'O, ^O^U, and the case of the first radical being of such 
vowel-character, while the second and third are identical consonants, 
as m fflfl, <!)£&, (Dhh — present no peculiar features to affect 
the formative process , seeing that they occur only in stems and 
derivative forms in which a vowel-pronunciation either cannot be 
developed at all, or only in conformity with rules which hold good 
even in other cases. 

There are no other Weak roots. Roots which begin with \ 
are all treated throughout as strong roots. And for the rest, it is 
only the largely employed root "flU/l which has anything peculiar 

— 130 — § 70. 

about it, its peculiarity being that in one of its forms it gives up the 
final &, § 58. But roots which have an Aspirate in the first, second 
or third place, pursue a course of their own in the formative process, 
so far as the rules stated in §§ 43 — 47 are put in force with them. 
And if such roots, containing Aspirates, belong at the same time 
to one or other of the classes of "Weak Roots, very peculiar forms 
of course may sometimes arise. 
Certain § 70. Even these various classes of Weak roots, still existing 

Strong Ethi- . j> i ■ t> 

opio Boots hi the language, furnish manifold information as to the nature of 
!° + T!^!i the most ancient root-construction. But besides, roots which have 

witn cdrre- ' 

sponding been fashioned into strong roots in Ethiopic, when compared with 
Boots in corresponding roots in the kindred tongues, discover in multifarious 
kindred ways foe maimer f their origin. This is best illustrated in the 

Languages. u 

case of roots, which contain an Aspirate by § 67 sq.: — Roots with 
Aspirates are very often changed in the different Semitic languages 
into Vowel-beginning, Vowel-centred or Vowel-ending roots, as well 
as into Double-lettered roots. Thus, for instance, OTti compares with 

Jj| and Jo^ ; and in Ethiopic itself ORh and (DRh are connect- 
ed. Of roots with Middle Aspirate there may, e. g., be compared: 
— »10A, top, •?£; XO&, ^U; «7dH,^U; ft04>, p», ^U; Iimi, 
ijjj (and vice versa, e. g. flfft, yoju); 9°dC, 8po (yu>); 9°dH, 

Lb. Ethiopic roots, which have an Aspirate for their final radical, 
often correspond to Vowel-ending or Vowel-centred roots in the 
other tongues, such as— gh/^h, ntftf, £&£*; hb*l, MSi, Ldj; ^T0, 
fittpi d/tO, -Xs'- Eor the converse relation compare e.g. (\*t>(D, 
Up2, «&>, (J^>; l/hf, «XJ». The process of forming roots by pla- 
cing ^ before an original root exhibits little vigour in Ethiopic. 
pearly all Ethiopic roots, which have initial V, have been formed in 
the same way in the other tongues O; but many which are formed 
with n in the kindred tongues exhibit a different form in Ethio- 
pic (cf. e. g. 4»f«w», Dpi, jvaj). Frequently Ethiopic has tm in- 
stead of it, e. g. in tn>Yldi, *s^o and < £] 0<>mtD, (JaJ III, 

Lkc IV. Earther fr, as third radical in proper Ethiopic roots, 

C 1 ) Contrary to Praetorius , 'Beitr. z. Assyr? , I. p. 36 sq. , who would 
compare Ethiopic Boots beginning with Of, with Roots primae Nun of the 

Mildred tongues (a>8r<h=*>-d3; Kah/»h^\j£\, afcy, m££«= Jb). 

§ 71. — 131 — 

appears to have been lately added, e. g. «w>ml, TlO, <Xx>; 0«fefr, 
,*Lo, p«, (not (j^su*., "11D). Several Triliteral roots are, properly, 
shortened Causative stems from Weak roots, formed by prefixing 
fa, which may then be hardened into under the influence of the 

succeeding radical, e.g. hm$, from ^jlo; KhH*, '&+£', v!*T(m 
the sense: — "to crook", "to bend"); ftlffl, sh, of, ylvi 04><w», 
Dip, r U; 0«fe^, ^U V,VH; 0££, nfin, U ; ; or by prefixing A 
(§ 73):— rtH^, from fi^; fl£m, HAS; fl<*.V, D"iS; or by appending 
-t", as is done still more frequently in Quadriliteral roots (§ 73): — 
ftfl-f« and ftflf (Hen. 89,6) "to swim"; fl,JHh "to have plenary 
power", from flflWh; 01i", _U, ii)U; hiP-f* "to disclose", from 

HD3 "to cover". On Triliteral roots which are shortened out of 

T T 

Multiliterals, v. infra, p. 132 sq. 

§ 71. 2, Along with the Triliterals a large number of Multi- Muitmterai 


literal Roots have been formed, which, viewed in the light of (a) origin*. 
historical grammar, are to be estimated very differently. According ^^^ 
to their origin we distinguish three leading classes. of **&■- 

(a) Many Multiliteral roots originate in repetition of individual ^ads., or of 
radicals, or of the whole root according to a formative expedient ^ e WhoU 
common to the Semitic tongues, which still displays marked activity 
throughout the whole process of "Word-formation (§ 74 sqq.). 
Accordingly the discussion of all the roots belonging to this class 
might be deferred, till we come to deal with Stem-formation; and 
of the forms which have arisen through stronger repetition of the 
radicals, those at least whose simpler root-form is still retained in 
the language — had best be relegated to that stage of our subject. 
But the greater number of these stronger formations appear no 
longer in their simpler aspect, but are only found in this length- 
ened form; and on the other hand the ordinary Tri-radical roots 
do not admit at all of stem-formations effected by such stronger 
repetition of the radicals, or only very seldom indeed (and mostly 
in Nominal Stems). It seems advisable therefore to follow the 
example of the Arab Grammarians and join such lengthened forms 
to the Multiliteral Roots. 

(a) A large number of those formations arose out of Biliteral 
roots as yet undeveloped, or out of weak Triliterals, by repetition 
of the whole root or of its two chief letters. By this device the 
inner movement or repetition of the conception itself was expressed 


— 132 — § 71. 

in a highly picturesque fashion; and so this root-form appears with 
special frequency for those notions which involve 'movement, ming- 
ling, custom, repetition, separation, gradual formation, or steadfast 
continuance, doubleness, multiplicity, or superfluity of parts or of 
acts'. Accordingly it is used in conveying the ideas of 'tottering 
and wavering, trembling and rolling, going backwards and for- 
wards' (flAArh, 4»A+A, VA-Jrh, tttfh, +W. <»AaiA, 0?0J, 
Aft'Aft h»CW, 'feA'feA, tClC Hat-ftm), of the trembling, glit- 
tering movement of light' (ftO>«A<0, flflflA, Viah^ Hen. 108, 13, 14) ; 
of the 'murmuring sound caused by repeated notes' (flrMlrh, *fr*C1°& 
— cf. also fyTr&p, §58); of 'dropping, welling forth, gushing, sprink- 
ling' (V¥V^» mAmA, £A£A, fiAflfl, V/***^), of 'knocking, whip- 
ping, striking' (>£•>&, nWIfllfl, &1&A); of 'stroking, shaving' 
(fl»1f tn>li,*lhlft) ; of 'severing, emptying, crushing, dispersing' (A £AP> 
(ICIU, +T*fll, +X-4>ft, ACA^, HCIM) ; of growth', of superfluity', 
of 'nourishing', and — vice versa, — of 'wasting away', of 'putrefying' 

(A?°A<n», ££■£&, Hl-m Aj&rtf, £«7&7, 'kW, fl-Wl»; of 

'checking, holding back' (PVIO, ZlAhA alongside of hA&, 4»J&4»f); 

of 'making ready' ("JfrTji): also for 'conditions and habits of soul 
and body' (like l£*lf "to sin", &.VCU "to be tender, soft"). Besides 
those which are enumerated here, there is a farther series of doubled 
roots retained only in Nominal stems, which are dealt with in § 112. 
Similar doubled roots in Arabic also correspond to a very con- 
siderable number of these roots. In the rest of the Semitic lan- 
guages there are weak roots which answer to others of them, e. g. 

ao*\l<n>n, £uo and JL* ; &VCO, i^\ WiA.,*\V] ft£ft£,*Vtt; IJE-IP, 

Meanwhile many an original doubled root in Ethiopic has 
been restored to the standard of triliterality by shortening; and 
thus have arisen several triliteral roots, formed in quite a peculiar 
way. In particular, by assimilating the second radical of a doubled 
root to the third a number of Tri-radical roots have been produced, 
of which the first and second letters are identical: the second, 
however, is invariably doubled, so that these roots in outward 
appearance resemble an Intensive stem. These are : Wf^O (from 
vp/"0, ri& and src") "to be insatiable"; fifth (bW : , Jf)) "to 
withdraw"; +4»f "to be avaricious" (side-form of 4»#.«1»P); tf»JP°0 
"to be timid" ; &£+ "accidit" (from <D&4» "to fall") ; (DtD-0 "to 

§ 71. — 133 — 

o *- — 

raise a shout" i^y £j^)> ?^ " to ^ e in anxiet y"; "KF-Ji "to 

hasten", "to be eager" (L&.L&., L^O- On the same process of Root- 
formation depend also Nominal stems, like footf'th, Art"}, &fth 
and others. More rarely, original doubled roots were shortened 
into Triliterals by transposing and contracting individual letters 
(as in A0A A<>0A = 0A0A 1A1 = 1AA1 = 1A1A), or by dis- 
carding the last letter (as in hAh = tlAhA; Afl*"A = JJ)- 

(j3) Many Multiliteral Roots have been developed from Tri- 
radical roots already fully formed ; by repetition of the last radical 
or of the last two radicals. Both modes of formation are employed 
also in the derivation of Intensive stems from still existing Tri- 
literals (cf. infra, § 77). In this place we have to discuss those 
roots only, which do not occur in any other form than as Multi- 
literals. By reduplication of the last two letters, there have been 
formed ftA^A^ "to be shaken" (probably denominative) ; ftff&AftA 
"to gleam"; and 0£D*ffD "to utter lamentations", an abbreviated 
form of 0fl)J&fllp ( i 5«-c)( 1 ). More numerous than these Quinque- 
literals are tbose Quadriliteral roots, which have been formed from- 
Triliterals by repeating the last radical; and, just like the stronger 
reduplication of the entire root, this weaker repetition of merely 
the last radical is employed chiefly to express those ideas which 
involve the gradual progressiveness or the duration, continuation 
or constancy of the individual acts, or the vehemence and thorough- 
ness of the action, or ideas w T hich convey some inherent disposition. 
To this class belong tlftf-AA "to become giddy" (ton); YIVflAA "to 
roll up" (bota); AflWlUH "to fall into perplexity or terror" (icLu, 

cf i^mf); WhCL "to be terrified" (te or^so); diiW "to be 

in anxiety" (pin, pOK); A^fM "to be mouldy" (^^A, 2&, Aefl), 
&CHH "to burst" (of a bud); ^Cll "to heal"' (of a wound,— 
properly "to break up" _ *i); fllfl^AA "to be flabby", "to hang 

loose"; HOAA "to play tricks"; ,h-fl«M» "to bedaub one's self"; 
"7UAA "to deal mildly, or graciously with any one" (jLg^o); flUW 
"to withdraw", "to escape"; &9°M "to abolish", "to destroy" 

O But this root in the end goes back to fflJE. "woe!" (§ 61); and 0, 
from ft, is Causative: [indeed Ktf**ffl) still occurs:— Kebra Nag. 54 a 18; 
67 b 23; 131 a 16 s?.] 

— 134 — § 72. 

(Jlwo5); 9°Cf^ff: "obstinate", from the V tf»C&&; and , besides, 
the roots of various Nominal stems, v. § 112. Specially remarkable 
are the roots A'fflA "to whisper softly" (ArhA, &G% and hTrtfl 

"to be somewhat serious" (from^*..^), because they have continued 

to keep the long vowel of the noun, from which they sprung. 

m. b.: w § 72. (b) While, however, the whole of this first class of 

in inter- Multiliteral Roots is due to an original and general formative ten- 

poiation of ^ency i n Semitic languages, and while the only thing peculiar in 

after i st Bad. this matter to Ethiopic perhaps consists in its scarcely ever retaining, 

or its never having developed, the triliteral forms alongside of such 

longer forms, — the occurrence or the predominance of the second 

class is, on the other hand, a mark of decline in the formative 

powers of the language. In this second class we rank those 

Multiliteral Roots, which have arisen from the interpolation of one 

of the firmer letters after the first radical. The interpolation of 

the mixed vowel e or b is less remarkable, as it may be considered 

a variety of the formation of the third Verbal Stem (§ 78). It 

occurs very seldom indeed in Ethiopic ( 1 ). Farther it very seldom 

happens that an Aspirate is inserted after the first radical, as it 

is in (h)?«hiPf "to overlook", "to forget" (nefa, ^S). A Liquid 

is very frequently interpolated, partly to give the root greater 
fulness of sound (§ 58), partly to make up for that doubling of the 
second radical which is called for by the formation (§ 56, in fin.). 
So far, the most of these forms might be dealt with at a later 
stage, in discussing word- formation; but, to facilitate a general 
survey, it seems better to set them together here. Generally it is 
the Nasal "}, which amplifies a Triliteral root into a Quadriliteral. 
This "> occurs most frequently before Labials ( 2 ): — rtT'fl^h, f&$; 

WfrU, 11B|?; OIM "lion" (t^jJU, from {JM ^); «7*>4-A "brick" 
( > W^J; A70.A, n^; ftlflA "camel's saddle"; Atf-flC* 
"navel"; &'}i\C'1l& "scab" (§ 57); h">flA "crisping-pin" (JuT); 
M&C "lip"; Aild-ll "berry"; rfi^m "to scratch"; r»ftA "to 
turn upside down"; often too before Palatal-Guttural Mutes: — 
thTrlH "eye-brows"; £"|«7 A "virgin" ; tWihtl "to be lame" ; m*>+* 

( x ) Oftener in Syriac: Hoffmann, 'Syr. Qramm.\ p. 186. 
(*) Cf. Konig, p. 99. 

§ 73. — 135 — 

"to be exact"; H*>*70 "to talk at random"; tf*>M» "to mock"; 
&1Q0 "to be deaf, or hard of hearing" (s^?); 01*10 "to lie 
on the side" (whence ^dlpd along with 9°&P6): rather less 
frequently before Aspirates and Sibilants, and before -f« and fi\v 

XTr<hA\ "whole burnt-offering" (L*>, wj); rtlKA, from ftfcA; 

MflK "ringlet" (S^i)*, noOT-rtfl "soothsay ex" (^n)-, £%* 'a 

disease'; tf»7HH "to revile" (Ja*, Jax); "¥iR& "to pick out grains"; 
4»*|fll < B "gnawing hunger" (3Bg); 4*1oiA "to pierce" (2tDp); and 
probably in ftT'f'A "to be impatient". This nasal has in one in- 
stance passed into ao before a\ ( x ) : rt?°TP "to put the field in 
good order" ; and in flTdd^h "scab" (nsnx) it has slipped in after 
the Liquid r. R is found instead of n, but only in a few words ( 2 ) : — 
0°CM "to feel for, to grope" (tftffi); *hCfl& "to wallow in the 

mire" (dJo°^) ; &C0& "to leap" ( ^!i, tfrjg) ; rhClfr "crocodile". 

Several of the words and roots enumerated here exhibit also a like 
form in Syriac or in Arabic ( 3 ). 

§ 73. (c) The last class of Multiliteral Roots, — an exceed- m. e.: (o) 
ingly numerous one, — is derived from Triliieral Boots and Words ^"^ 
by the external application, before or after them, of formative teral Eoot8 
letters, and in fact in manifold fashion. Several have been formed \> y External 
at first merely as derived Verbal Stems from the tri-radical root; A PP lication 

J 'of Format 

but in process of time and on various grounds they ceased to be tive Letter, 
recognised as derivatives and came to be treated in the language 
as independent roots. A prefix fl, — more fully Aft, which at one 
time was employed in the formation of Causative stems (§ 79), — 
may still be clearly recognised both in certain triliteral roots (§ 70 
ad fin.), and in certain multiliterals;— partly in Nominal stems, 
like A£1<V "cart" (^n, %y\) [?]; (fifch "lungs" (n?i) ; A£Al "ham- 
mer" (Tig); aoti\\£<f° 'name of a month' ("beginning of winter 
or of the year"); — partly in Verbal Roots, such as AGIO) "to 
adorn" (cf. certain roots in the other Semitic tongues, which begin 
with rag and raq) ; fi'H'fO "to play the harp", and several others, 
v> § 85 ad fin. In ftjF°*\<p "blear-eyed", and ft-fl£4» "to diffuse 

C) V. also Hoffmann, 'Syr. Qr.' p. 186. 

( 2 ) Cf. Ewald, l Gr. Ar? § 191; Hoffmann, cited supra. 

( 3 ) The origin of the roots 07OH, Oltt£, filf-A*, ^td.K " still 
obscure or doubtful ; yet v. next Note. 

— 136 — § 73. 

light", "to scintillate", the fl has even been thickened into the 
sound of ft C). An original »f , serving to form Reflexives, has been 
softened into £, thus becoming unrecognisable, in $/l*{[$ "locusts" 

("515); £C"l<h and &C"l<h "rag" (J^oo», &iij); £<0l? and £dK 

"purple" ()lp5"1«, tfo-^jj) [from Assyr. argamannu\\ and pJl'froo 
"to become an orphan", "to be bereaved" (Dn\ )&k-»> *.£>)• By 
means of the reflexive prefix »f«'} (§ 87) there have been formed the 
root ■f'*)flA "to act as intercessor for any one" (from "flUA)> and 
the word '^'>h'f , 9 ,, "bridge" ('covering over of the river', dJri3). 

A series of Multiliteral Boots of another sort came to be 
formed from triliteral roots, or rather words, by means of an ap- 
pended e, o, i or u, through which also Tri-radical roots ending in 
a vowel are derived from Nominal stems (§ 68, ad fin.). This 
formative vowel-suffix, when it was a new-comer, and not a funda- 
mental part of the Nominal stem, must originally have had the 
power of forming Transitives and Causatives. It is therefore of 
service in the derivation of new roots which have the sense of 'doing 
or exercising' what is expressed in the ground-root or ground-word. 
This formation has become a very favourite one in Ethiopic (even 
in a greater degree than in Syriac)( 2 ). To this class belong: — 
rlrflAP "to acquire by trickery" (/h-flA); HChP "to calumniate" 
(jXjv and J.i); £CflP "to shoot"; 1C0P "to stab in the throat", 
"to slaughter" ; ■?»'}£? "to delay" CMJC") ; ftJPW "to wither", 
"to dry up" ; ftC<»P "to become brutalised" (but also h£(D) ; HUP p, 
from aofftfr, and ftrhpp "to clear of weeds" ; perhaps also flh't'P 
and H.?&p. Still more common are those roots which have been 
formed with fl):— friftfD (tlth), a*M*(D (fl>A^), WCHfO (<D£H); 
£74»<D (§ 72); fl/h-MD (flarfc^); ^fotHD ONh/Hh) , XArhfl) 
(X-Arh-^); -%£tD Ci4-^), VbVlD (h/J); HV© (related to $0 ; 
TAa> (bna, J^i); ft<n><D, fl»H<D (jb, ^b); ^d£fl> ("to be devout" 
t^.a); ftd&fl); JV>ft<D( 3 ). In many cases the form aya or awa is 

(*) Similarly an ^ of the Causative Stem may have been hardened into 
(v. § 70) in 0'>(1H and 0*>H^, if these actually belong, as I imagine they 
do, to oyj and IIS ("I3D); and into *\ in *V}|J.R, if this may be compared 
with yi)3. The «f« in -f-ftrh "to mix (fluids)" is probably causative also; 
v. Hoffmann, p. 187 ; Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.\ § 122, o. 

( 2 ) Hoffmann, p. 186; and Ewald, 'Hebr. SprS § 125, b. 

( 3 ) In the existence of several roots of this kind, Praetorius — 'Beitr. 

§73. — 137 — 

already suggested by the termination of the fundamental word: 
cf. e. g. 7-C0P , from TC%\ ^h\h(D, from *NhA-ih More rarely 
an Aspirate (instead of e or 6) serves the same purpose, as in 
foQIO "to throw stones", from «n>C*9', h&ihh, from ftj^h", 

mat-frO (^fi, Jib). 

While we may see, in the series Avhich has just been dealt 
with, the Ethiopic offshoots of an original Semitic formative-impulse, 
which once exercised a powerful influence even in the development 
of triliteral roots, — a third series, which is now to be described, 
depends, on the other hand, upon an after-formation belonging to 
the later period of the language. In the course of time it became 
usual in Ethiopic to derive, — from Nominal stems which had been 
fashioned by formative additions of a consonantal character, — new 
Verbal roots, which continued to retain these formative additions, 
and which thus had of necessity to be Multiliteral. This recent 
style of formation is relatively more common in Ethiopic than in 
Arabic f). Such roots are most frequently formed from Nominal 
stems having tn* prefixed, like /w»'Hfl^ "to lie in ruins"; "VO^h 
"to make booty of". Of some 30 of these forms ( 2 ), the following, 
which have been fashioned from simpler roots beginning with a 

vowel, are specially to be remarked: "7rt1r "to decay", from ^j.^1, 

&»y ]#;; H°tyth "to take prisoner", from ^3y >>.S^, W; *f°Trh 

"to veil". More rarely, Consonantal formative suffixes of the 
Nominal stems are retained; in particular >, in (fow&ifflb, from 
/^A'H'J (cf. ^LXmjJ) ; and perhaps in &/1V "to persecute" ; oftener 
■f", as in rh'fl^'f" "to polish" ; ("f")<w ,; lhrh'h "to appear as a phan- 
tom" (G. Ad.) , ft A<«H' , <w»#<D+ , b A* , PVW and (K)«n» ft L* "to 
found" (from i/nfl^^, from the root fi££, so that both an and »f« 
are formative letters here). And sometimes this "f" appears even to 
have penetrated, from its position as a final letter, into the original 

z. AssJ I, p. 31 sqq., — is disposed to find a proof "that Ethiopic at one time, 
like Hebrew and Arabic in the case of roots med. gem., knew of the attachment, 
by means of o or au, of inflectional endings which begin with a consonant". 

0) Ewald, 'Gr. Ar: § 191. 

( 2 ) I have not enumerated all these forms in this place, seeing that 
for the most part they may easily be found in the dictionary under the 
letter gio. 

— 138 — § 74. 

root itself, as in thCrlraD "to be ill off" (from fh<£*w», cf. ^LssSo); 

l&^h "to destroy utterly" (U$0; perhaps also in IWH-^C 1 ). 

Through the same energy of the later formative processes, 
verbs were derived from foreign words, like tf»"}Vlort from fxovccy6c,\ 
a*7i*\h from ^.yjxocvyj [== fxdyyavov] ; £A.rt£ from <pi\6ao(j)og &c. 

Besides the various classes of Multiliteral roots which have 
been described hitherto, there are other individual roots, of obscure 
or rare formation, e.g. HlVlA: — for those, in particular, w T hich 
have been developed into Nominal stems, v. infra, § 112. The 
general result is, that Multiliteral roots are very fully represented 
indeed in Ethiopic. — They may be estimated approximately as 
amounting to a sixth or a seventh part of the entire number of 
roots in the language. 


Methods § 74. With the exception of Interjectional roots and certain 

g°eneniiy in Pronominal roots, which in their first and original form have 
word- acquired the value of small independent Words, all roots must 


Division of pass through one or more stages of transformation, before they 
-i %Vrbs° : can ^ e use< * as Words of actual speech. Following the various 
2. Nouns; determined modes and conditions of thought, under which the mind 
' of man can regard a conception, the root must also assume various 
forms, in order to become a suitable expression of the conception 
so regarded. The more general of these determined modes are the 
first to receive the stamp of language, and then the process is 
applied to those which are more special, and so on, until the very 
finest distinctions, of which a conception is capable, have expression 
given to them in speech. The formative expedients which are 
applied in this process in Semitic languages, and accordingly in 
Ethiopic, are of three sorts. 1. Comparatively small and originally 
independent particles, mostly of pronominal origin, approach the 
root or the stem in order to fix and determine the general con- 
ception contained in it, by means of their own signification; and 

(*) The two following forms are to be regarded as secondary abbreviations 
from Multiliteral rootsi-frflA "flame", from JtfflAflA (root 3^, AUfl) 5 
and ?Yt-A "reeling", from M^AA (root jfl/V). 

§ 74. — 139 — 

in this proceeding the language displays a sustained endeavour to 
knit together these external additions as intimately as possible 
with the root or stem, and cause them to coalesce with it. In a 
few cases such additions, originally external, make their way into 
the interior even of the root or stem. 2. This expedient is con- 
fronted by another, which sets itself to develope the root from its 
own resources, by doubling one or more of its radicals. But this 
device, which became very important in the formation of roots 
(§§ 67, 71), is of comparatively limited application in the formation 
of words, and extends only to the stem-formation of Verbs and 
Nouns. And in the farther stages of formation it is not the radicals, 
but individual formative vowels, which in an analogous fashion are 
lengthened and broadened, to give expression to a new deter- 
mination of the fundamental idea. 3. But the expedient most 
current in Semitic speech, and which is at the same time the most 
delicate and intellectual, is Yowel-change within the Root. Even 
the form of Semitic roots (§ 66) testifies to the commanding preval- 
ence of this means of formation. All vowels, with the exception 
of those which naturally cling to certain weak roots, are mobile ; 
and, — according to their kind, their shortness or their length, their 
number, position or relation to each other, — they serve the pur- 
poses of the formative process and determine the meaning. — The 
greater number of actual words, however, have been produced by 
the co-operation of two or even all the three of the means of 
formation which have just been described. 

The most common and obvious distinction, differentiating 
root-ideas (*), is the contrast between the Verb and the Noun, or 
between the word which signifies action and the word which indi- 
cates a name. All the words of the language take a position either 
on the one side or on the other. Roots conveying general notions 
are for the most part developed into both verbs and nouns, Pro- 
nominal roots only into nouns. To nouns, taken in the widest 
sense, belong also by their origin many Particles and Prepositions, 
which however, by reason of their frequent use, are here and there 
much mutilated in form. But just because in Ethiopic the majority 
of Particles and Prepositions (being those of Pronominal origin) 

( ) \i. e., — general notions or conceptions presented by those collocations 
of letters which we call Boots, tk.] 


— 140 — § 75. 

have not yet been formed into true Nouns, and exhibit peculiar 
formations and laws of formation, thgy must be treated of specially. 
We accordingly distinguish between 1. Verbs, 2. Nouns, 3. Particles. 


The stages of formation, which the Verb must pass through, 
are three in number; 1. Stem-formation; 2. Tense- and Mood-for- 
mation ; 3. Formation of Persons, Genders and Numbers. 


General § 75. The Root is fashioned into the Verb by means of one 

of definite vowel-pronunciation, and into the Noun by means of another. 
For example, tkl is a Verb, when pronounced »HlA> and a Noun, 
when pronounced "MflAC 1 )- The difference between Verbs and 
Nouns, which have proceeded directly from the root, accordingly 
consists at first in the vowel-pronunciation alone. A more exact 
account cannot be given until we come to describe the individual 
forms themselves, seeing that the vocalisation is different in different 
formations; yet it may be observed, in general terms, that the verb 
has shorter and more mobile vowels than the noun. But just as 
from one root, not merely a single noun but an abundance of them 
may issue, so too there issues from the same a series of verbs, each 
of which impresses upon the fundamental notion a new determination. 
Following the lead of others we call those verbs which have been 
derived mediately or immediately from the root, Verbal Stems 
(or Conjugations). In Ethiopic there are twelve of these ; or, if one 
or two stems are taken into account which are employed only in 
the case of quadriliteral roots, there are thirteen or fourteen 
different stems, which may be formed from one root. Of these 
verbal stems , all those whose meaning did not render it a priori 
impossible, appeared, at one time, under the contrast of an Active 
and a Passive voice by means of internal vowel change ; and to this 
there was added, in the first or simple stem, the distinction of a 
semi-passive or intransitive voice. But of this passive form, effected 
by internal vowel change, such as is exhibited in Hebrew, and in 
the most consistent fashion in Arabic, Ethiopic preserves no more 

(*) On the question of priority relative to Noun and Verb, v. A. Muller 
ZDMG XLV, p. 237 sq. 

§ 76. — 141 — 

than a few traces (in the Participle) ; and it is only the semi-passive 
form in the first stem (and partly in the reflexive of the simple 
stem) that is still regularly distinguished in Ethiopic. The proper 
Passive form, however, is made up for by another device, the 
reflexive form, just as in Aramaic. On this ground we shall deal 
with the subject of the distinction between Active and Passive, in 
connection with the account to be given of Stem-formation. The 
Stem-formation itself assumes different fashions in Triliteral and 
Multiliteral roots, which must be dealt with separately. 

8 76. Scheme of Stems and their Relations: scheme 

* . ■ of 

I. II. III. IV. Stems. 

Ground-Stems. Causative St. Reflexive St. . Q , 

lve btems. 

i simple st |*2f, i. mm AVli AQVPJL 

2. Intensive St. £&m> 2. K£R«w> 2. «f\«.R<*> 2. ftft<h#VA 

3. Influencing St. fl<tfi 3. M+A 3. -Wi£A 3. JfcA-HlAAC 1 ). 

In conformity with this Scheme we shall continue to denote the 
several Stems by 1, 1 ; II, 1 ; II, 2, &c. 

I. Ground-Stems. i. Ground- 

1. In the first or Simple Stem, which proceeds directly from lg e ™ e ' 
the root, the Verb is distinguished from the Noun of corresponding Sim P le 


( x ) [It is to be observed that Praetorics, l Aethiop. Qramm.\ p. 36 sqq., 
formulates a Scheme of Verbal Stems , which differs considerably from the 
one given here. He enumerates 5 original and independent Ground-Stems, 
instead of Dillmann's 3, the 3 rd and 5 th being of a Paial and Paual type re- 
spectively, viz. — 4»"f"A ana 4**1" A> From the first of these two he easily 
derives the Imperfect form J&4»*ih£V> wn i° n * s a ^ 80 use ^ as the Indicative 
of the Intensive Stem, — rejecting as unsatisfactory D.'s account of the 
origin of this last Imperfect form. Forms, however, presenting the types 
Tf'hA and 4W*A — which P. regards as illustrations or survivals of his 
3 r and 5 th Stems — D. considers as belonging properly to his own 3 rd or In- 
fluencing Stem, while in their farther formation they follow the Multiliteral 
roots (cf. infra, § 78). At the same time, Praetorius' analysis of Verbal forma- 
tion, — which is accepted by several scholars, — deserves most careful considera- 
tion, even if it does not itself claim to be conclusive on every point. It may 
be doubted whether all the difficulties of this portion of Ethiopic Grammar are 
even yet finally settled. Meanwhile, Dillmann's Scheme may be safely adopted 
as the Norm of the Regular Stems, tr.] 

— 142 — § 76. 

formation, by the circumstance that the leading vowel comes after 
the second radical. This vowel is a , when the verb is of active 
signification. In later times it took the tone, but hardly at first^). 
The first letter of the root, properly being without a vowel, when 
it forms a syllable for itself, calls in the help of the readiest vowel, 
that is to Say, the vowel a in this case too (§ 60), for its own utter- 
ance. Farther the last radical letter is always uttered with a in 
the 3 rd pers. sing. Perf., just as in Arabic, even with all Roots tertiae 
infirmae (cf. infra § 91). Accordingly this stem in the active form 
Transitive i s given as >7£ nagdra, "he has spoken". Ethiopic, however, like the 
intransitive other Semitic tongues, makes a difference, — by means of a different 
Forms, vocalisation, — between the Transitive or Active verb of the first 
stem, and the Intransitive or Semi-Passive verb, which expresses 
participation, not in pure doing, but either in suffering or in a mere 
condition. In place of the a after the second radical in the Active 
verb, the Intransitive verb has e( 2 ), as in *f*fl£ "he was active"; 
and this vowel finally disappeared altogether, so that it was pro- 
nounced gabra instead of gabera (§ 37)( 3 ). Thus the Intransitive 
pronunciation of the strong verb coincides entirely, in outward form, 
with the Transitive of Verbs tert. guttur., like Ufoh, according to 
§ 92. This mode of distinguishing Intransitive verbs by means of 
the pronunciation has remained in full vigour in Ethiopic. All 
verbs which denote properties, bodily or mental states, emotions, 
confined activities, are pronounced with e, like Crhfl "to be wide" ; 
O-fie "to be great"; £h<w» "to be tired"; ft«7(] "to be satisfied"; 
ft£"l» "to be just" ; >«7ip "to be a king", "to rule"; Clfl "to hunger" ; 
CKP "to see"; £ah? "to drink to satiety"; than "to suffer" 
(= rhJP<w»); rhT^A "to perish". It is the same too with those 
verbs which have areflexive meaning, like A*flA "to clothe one's self", 
and in rare cases even with those which express free activity but 

Q) Cf. Arabic, Amharic and Tigrina (Schreiber § 83). Konig also 
correctly observes, p. 161 , that the toning of the second syllable was not ori- 
ginal. In later times , to be sure, a at least appears to have received the tone 
after the second radical; v. Ludolf, l Qramm\ 1,7, and Trumpp, p. 525, who 
however is himself obliged to allow, that, strictly taken, nabara, agbara, ba- 
raka, would have to be accentuated, seeing that "the voice lifts up the first 
syllable with a certain emphasis." 

( 2 ) Instead of the u and * (6, e) of the other languages, by §§ 17, 19. 

( 3 ) Cf. Konig, p. 81. 

§ 77. — 143 — 

associated with effort and toil, like lit^ao "to rein in"; fl^h<i "to 
hew in pieces"; fl«J»*;R "to rake coals of fire together". The great- 
er number of them are not strictly intransitive, but are rather 
to be compared with the Greek Middle, seeing that they may have 
Objects. Many of them occur under both forms of expression' 
like irnfiA and <w»AA "to be like" ; -\CX and -^f "to be pleased', 
and "to elect" ; >f and >f f "to flee" ; flhfl and flhfl "to lie" 
and "to lie down"^). 

Intransitive verbs of the Simple Stem may even stand directly 
for the Passive of their Causatives, at least where the operative 
cause is not given, e. g. 0W>f evenprjafh/ Josh. 6,24; 'p'p "they 
were put to death" Josh. 8,25; -Tft£ (in Transitive expression) "to 
become short", also "to be shortened" Matt. 24, 22 ; l-flft airoKa- 
reard&y Matt. 12, 13 [and fiCV "to become enlightened" 'Kebra 
Nag. 112 a 21]. 

§ 77. 2. The Intensive Stem. An intensifying of the idea of 2 - The . 
the verb , whether it be in indicating more or less frequent repeti- stem, 
tion, or to signify force, eagerness or completeness in the action, 
is expressed by repeating the radicals; and, according as one or 
another or several of them together are repeated, very different 
forms will be produced by this mode of formation. But although, 
according to § 71 , a very large number of Multiliteral roots have 
sprung, by means of this formative expedient, from simple original 
roots now lost to the language , yet in the department of ordinary 
triliteral roots the majority of the possible repetitions of the 
root-letters have not been brought into common use. The forma- 
tion which is relatively of most frequent occurrence is contrived 
by the repetition of the last two radicals. It expresses in a 
very picturesque manner the notion of 'backwards and forwards', 
'unremittingly', 'again and again', in (h)C<">ft0 D A (§ 57) "to feel as 
a blind man does" (palpavit), from a*>CM W», § 72); h)'} Mil mil 
"to drip" (from Wnfl), and interchanging with it, (K)7ft<i:ft& "to* 
distil"; (h)-}flAflA "to blaze" (from VflA), (Jt)A#+<D "to howl" 
(cf. flhf); (h)CtlA\tlth "to utter reproaches" (from £AWi); 
MiiCUd "to revile repeatedly" (from ^h£) ; and it serves besides 

O It is the same with U>C&, "Vll^, l»9°d, fl>Jt4», CMNV, i*C£, 

imm, oca, eat., &sx, 9° foe 9°Aih, r>&*, fi/hm, aka, 

— 144 — § 77. 

to express variation in the case of words denoting colour: — 
(h)*Wai£A "to gleam red" («|»£/h), (h^^A^A "to become 
green" (*^Sf°A), c/". § 110. More rarely the repetition of the final 
radical occurs with a like meaning, as in § 71, j3:— flC&& "to 
hail" (fl^ "hail"); (folddd "to sweeten" (tf»^C "honey"); 
?*flftrt "to plaster with stucco" (yvif/os); 7A0A "to veil" (from 
lAfl = lti(D 'to cover over'). In the formation all the stems which 
are mentioned here, just like those enumerated in § 71, are treated 
as Multiliterals. 

In place of these more vigorous and violent reduplications, 
a finer and easier intensifying device has become usual in the 
language, namely, the doubling (or strengthening) of the second 
radical, effected too in such a way, that this letter is simply repeated 
without any intervening vowel (*), as in \%& ndssara "to view, to 
consider" (cf. infra, § 95 sqq., for a more precise statement regard- 
ing the vowel-expression in this and the following stems). 

1. This Intensive Stem is a favourite mode of conveying those 
verbal notions that seek to express 'dealings, practices and usages' 
which consist in a series or group of individual acts, or which by their 
nature continue for some time, like rhAfD "to watch"; /JiAP "to turn 
over in one's mind", "to meditate"; H0°£ "to play" (on a musical 
instrument) ; 'YoA'fe "to number" ; <D&A and fy'dth "to praise" ; ftOH0 
"to call upon"; qiP& "to chastise"; <hfta> "to tell lies"; Hr/ofl) "to 
commit fornication" ; ftflfl "to sin" ; 0&°B "to act unjustly" ; — as well 
as those in which 'force, completeness, rapidity, effort, or promptitude' 
is made prominent, like *^f A "to exert strength"; (D£(D "to throw"; 
*>*>£& "to hasten"; u>1£ "to take quick steps"; %Qt "to feel pain"; 

(*) Doubling, effected in such a way that the constituents of the doubled 
letter are separated by a vowel, is found in this case, it is true, in Amharic, 
but not in Ethiopic ; and wherever such stems occur, they are to be regarded 
as introduced from Amharic, e. g. J&^VPfP Gen. 3, 24, Note. According 
to Trumpp, p. 522, when the second radical is doubled, the second syllable has 
always the tone, even when it contains e: ^Af rassaya; A'flrft sabbeha— 
(but 0A° '• hallo, because contracted from OiifB hattawa). On the other hand, 
in Amharic the first syllable has always the tone; and so the second radical 
is always doubled in the Perfect, even in Non- Intensive stems: v. Gvim, 
*Gramm. elem.\ p. 21, and 'Sulla reduplicazione delle consonanti amarichd in 
* Supplement period.delV Archivio glottol. ItaV II, 1893, p. Isqq. ; [and 'Zeitschr, 
f. Assyr.' VIII, p. 245 sqq.] 

§ 77. — 145 — 

»HlH "to be much grieved"; v>Q£ "to split"; &$$ "to pound"; 
HlP4» "to consider closely"; <£.h£ "to explain" &c. 

2. This stem serves directly to express active working and 
doing, associated with the accessory notion of carefulness and zeal. 
Accordingly it often comes into touch with the Causative stem, by 
its being also able to signify the making or doing of something, 
either in actual production or merely in word or thought, as for 
instance declaring or regarding a person or thing as being this or 
that: cf. ch&& "to lead", "to guide"; h»» "to judge"; &&a° "to 
complete" ; tf»tf^ "to teach"; th&A "to renew"; 4»£fl "to sanctify" 
and "to declare holy"; h.o°C "to show" ("to make high, or clear"); 
(Dfch "to make an end"; A<)Mi "to lend" ("to cause to be taken"); 
hHH "to command" ("to exercise power"). And since in Ethiopic 
many notions are regarded as belonging to the category of Action, 
which we are wont to express in our own languages rather as 
properties or conditions, there emerges an explanation of the 
employment of the second stem in cases like i*»Jp "to be beautiful" 
("to acquire form"); h&0° "to please" ("to content"); rhO)H "to 
be agreeable to" ("to delight"); Uft(D "to be", "to become" ("to 
acquire being"), and many others. 

3. Accordingly this stem is frequently employed in the for- 
mation of Denominatives ( ] ), in the signification of 'bringing about' 
or 'busying one's self with' that which is expressed by the noun, 
or of 'possessing and using' it: AflfD, (VSb) "to possess under- 
standing"; v>£(D "to eradicate"; h(DA "to form the rear-guard"; 
Otfoft "to erect columns" ; a»l\t\\ "to salt" ; %&£ "to pare the 
nails"; 0p^ "to fix the eye upon"; *|f£ "to plaster with lime". In 
particular, verbs are derived in this way from Numerals: i^Art "to 
do something for the third time", "to be the third"; £*fl0 "to form 
four"; Qw£ "to give the tithe". 

While, however, in the other Semitic languages, the first stem 
has, as a rule, continued to be used side by side with the second, 
Ethiopic, by virtue of the frugality displayed in the housekeeping 
of its forms (§ 4), has mostly given up the first stem, in the case 
of those verbal notions which it has developed in the second. In 
point of fact there are only a very few roots yielding a first and 

( x ) "Which purpose is also served in some cases by one or two of the 
stronger Intensive Stems: cf. supra, e. g. "J-flAA, 0C&&* 


— 146 — § 78. 

a second stem which are both in use together, such as ootid "to 
he like", 0o(iti "to compare"; rhT-A "to perish", /h>AO "to 

ruin" (Gen. 35,4; Numb. 21,29); 0fln "to hire"; MO "to be 
firm"; 0C4» "to be naked"; W)£ 1 and 2 "to throw" and "to 
stone". Besides, in most cases, when both stems are fully formed, 
there is no longer any essential difference in the meaning, as with 
m»OC 1 and 2 "to teach"; \tym 1 and 2 "to give forth a sound 
or cry"; *^AP 1 and 2 "to sing"; 0fl? 1 and 2 "to requite"; dhfl 
and Vhffl "to find fault with"; ft&£ and JV0£ "to feel pain" ■ &c. 
Farther, the roots which have been described in § 71, a, of 
the form ip/**0, are dealt with in their formation as verbs of this 
second stem, seeing that their second radical has to be given as a 
double letter. But those roots which have made up for the doubling 
of the second radical by a i or £ (§ 72) follow the formation of 
the Multiliteral Verbs. 
3. The § 78. 3. The Influencing Stem is formed by the interpolation 

Inf stem Cm8 °f a lon S tone-bearing ( 2 ) a after the first radical, and it corres- 
ponds precisely to the Arabic Stem III. It is no longer very com- 
mon in Ethiopic, but in a number of Yerbs it is replaced by III, 3 
(v. § 82). Besides, the first and second stems of those verbs which 
have coined this third stem, are either no longer used at all, or 
only with the same meaning as the third. Meantime, various traces, 
particularly in isolated Nominal formations (§§ 111 a.f., and 120), 
show that the Influencing Stem was once used more extensively ; 
and as it serves at the same time as ground-stem to Stems 111,3 
and IV, 3, it must doubtless be dealt with in the Grammar as a 
special Stem. Two kinds of formative principles seem to have 
co-operated in its production. In part' the doubling of the second 
radical was replaced by a semivowel, which coalesced with a forego- 
ing a into 6 or e: in part an originally exterior causative form, 
consisting of the prefix ft, was brought within the word, and this 
ft became established as a after the first radical. The Influencing 
Stem is therefore in the last resort to be regarded, both in origin 
and meaning, as a variety partly of the Intensive Stem and partly 

(*) This form, however, is obsolete, and is always replaced in later 
times by II, 1. 

( 2 ) According to Ludolf, Verbs mediae gutturalis form an exception, 
in which the second syllable has the tone. According to Tbumpp, p. 522, the 
tone always rests bn the second syllable. 

§ 78. — 147 — 

of the Causative ( x ). It is formed most regularly in Arabic, as is 
well known, and there it is employed as the strongest Active Stem, 
particularly in cases where the action is to be represented as one 
which influences another being and challenges him to a counter 
activity, — a meaning which is obvious enough in Ethiopic also, in 1, 3 
even, but particularly in the derived Stems III, 3 and IV, 3 : — But 
other verbs of this Stem in Ethiopic do not go beyond the meaning 
of the Intensive, or the ordinary Causative Stem. Verbal Stems 
too which have a formative e or 5 after the first radical are pro- 
perly to be referred to this Stem( 2 ), thus %<D(D "to take prisoner"; 
f^m "to emit fragrance"; $££ and J»HH (in htl$d£ "to abhor" 
and htlPUtt "to make torpid or stiff" § 73) ; but in farther for- 
mation these follow the Multiliteral roots. The other stems belong- 
ing to ; this class have all a after the first radical, which in many 
of them is certainly original, but in others appears to be shaded 
out of o or e. This a, however, seems to have been pronounced 
o in an earlier period of the language, just as in Hebrew, for it 
passes into u (§§ 18, 20), when the rules of formation require it to 
be shortened. The verbs of this stem are : \M(0 "to mourn for" 
(alongside of Arhfl) "to mourn"); fl£h "to bless" (by means of 
'bending the knee'); <Prhf "to visit" {^%)\ ■?♦? " to torment" 
(^&& "to be unhappy"); HA*h "to draw one out", "to rescue"; 

%0£ (along with «fe0£) "to lay a snare", "to surround with snares" ; 
Aft? "to crop", "to shave" ( 3 ); (44"£ "to make one participate", 
^Ioa) ; h££ "to found" ; #£& (with ^CL) "to flay", "to lacerate"; 
V**.* "to doubt", "to play the hypocrite" (jjib); flh»f "to make 
for the distance", "to wander about" (conn, with flh ^), which is 
also simplified again into the first stem; 7HM( 4 ) "to console"; 
"1*70 "to bind fast" (Zech. 14, ldvar.); *l£V "to cover" (Gen. 9,23 
var.); nmi "to be equal"; /J£«f» "to come upon"; «?/**& "to lead 
away" (Is. 57, 13 Cod. Laur.)\ *P6(i "to take possession of" (ibid.). 

C) V. Ewald, 'Eebr. Spr.' § 125, a. 

( 2 ) Like the Aramaic Pauel and Paid, Hoffmann, p. 186. [Of. supra 
P- 141, Note (*). tb.] 

( 3 ) Unless we are to understand here the root iw-yo or mOjJ and f 
according to § 73. * ' _ 

( 4 ) Although this root seems to be closely connected with La/1, ,««*!, 

^awL, and the a might thus be otherwise explained, 


— 148 - § 79. 

On the other hand i\an(l) "to endure toil and distress" (derived 
fromfW "distress", by § 73), and ^(ft Ho decay" (§ 73) are multi- 
literal roots. Besides the verbs named, several other roots were 
at one time used in Ethiopic in the third stem, e. g., *h4*<£. ; 'to 
embrace"; *JR<{. "to envelop" (cf. the forms in § 120); but in the 
course of time they were allowed to fall back into the first stem, 
just as some other forms which did not seem absolutely necessary 
were given up, particularly in later times. 
§ 79. II. Causative Stems, 
ncausative Erom the three Ground-Stems which have been mentioned, 

stems: an( j leaving their other peculiarities untouched, Ethiopic derives 
three Causative Stems. It does so by means of one and the same 
formative device, and in this it develops a certain bent of the language 
with even more consistency than the other Semitic tongues, includ- 
ing Arabic, which form such a Causative only from the Simple 
Stem. The device employed consists in prefixing an a to the 
Ground-Stem , introducing it just as in Arabic and Aramaic by 
means of the softest breathing ft. The Causative a is no longer 
attended in Ethiopic with the stronger breathing h, by which it is 
introduced in Hebrew (*). But traces are found which prove that 
in Ethiopic also a stronger prefix was at one time employed to form 
the Causative, namely "f" (§ 73, Note) ( 2 ) and more frequently A 
(§ 70 a. f. and § 73 a. i.), which A, in its original form ftft, is 
still quite regularly employed to form the Causative Stems IV,1, 2, 3. 
It is possible that ft, originally V, is just a weakened form of this 
fl or «f- ( 3 ). In signification the Stems formed with ft are always 
Causative, i. e. they give expression to the 'causing or occasioning' 
the performance or realisation by some one of the action or dealing 
expressed in the Ground-Stem. 
i. causative 1. The first Causative Stem, of the form ft*?fl^( 4 ), belongs to 

simple the Simple Ground-Stem. It is true that often enough the Simple 
stem. Ground-Stem corresponding to II, 1 does not occur in common use, 
or else that the second only of these Ground-Stems is still retained 

( x ) 0^<W»V "to believe" is a foreign word:- J^i, ^L»£», [V9g?j]' 

( 2 ) *f*C"l" D "to interpret" is a foreign word from Aramaic (Hoffmann 
p. 187). [Aramaic borrowed it from Assyrian, and perhaps Assyrian from 

( 3 ) V. on this point Ewald, 'Hebr. SprS § 122 a. Cf. K'oma, p. 77 sg. 

( 4 ) According to Teumpp, p. 522, it is to be accented aghdra. 



along with II, 1 ; but any such lack of the Simple Stem rests merely 
on the contingencies of speech-usage, and so, even in that case 
11,1 is to be considered as derived from 1,1. If the Simple Stem 
is a semi-passive verb, the Causative turns it into the corresponding 
active verb, as in Y\9°Kh "to bring", from tf»ft"K "to come"; 
\\faL "to cause to go", from th£ "to go"; — or it signifies the 
causing of something to exist either in word or thought, e. g. hGh°rt 
"to declare and hold as unclean", from ^tf"rt "to be unclean". If 
the Simple Stem is a transitive verb, the Causative turns it into a 
double transitive, as hfl-f"? "to give one something to drink", from 
fl^f "to drink"; hf^Otl "to make one paint something". But 
not seldom the Causative gives a peculiar and even unexpected 
turn to the root-idea, e. g. Ji^flrt (from Iflfl "to speak") "to read" 
(as it were, 'to make the writing itself speak'); 7t"}<£*^ "to sound 
a wind-instrument" (from ^^ "to blow"); KC*flrh "to lend money 
in usury" (from Iftfa "to make gain"); Mflrh£ (from h/h& "to 
deny") "to represent one as a liar"; hTr/^h "to take up", "to 
waken up" , (from >/**& "to take"). It is only in appearance that 
verbs belonging to this stem have now and then an intransitive 
meaning; — originally and really there is always a Causative sense 
lying at the foundation of even such verbs : hddd. "to rest", originally 
"to cause to become drowsy"; Y\Cavo° "to be silent", properly 
"to maintain tranquillity"; ft£*M "to bow", properly "to cause a 
bending". When Stem 11,1 occurs along with 1,2, the two certainly 
have often different meanings, as in <td^A "to compare", "to make 
similar", ti9°flfi "to declare similar", "to put forth a parable"; 
Ko°C "to show", ht\0i>/i "to discern", "to know" ('to have some- 
thing high and clear'); tn>t\£ "to form a plan", h9°Ud "to counsel": 
— but in other verbs the meanings agree, like rh*?°A and Jhth'b'ti 
"to ruin"; VR£ and M&& "to glance at" (11,1 properly "to cast 
a glance") ; &4*'l' and ft£*4»4» "to crush in pieces". More rarely 
II, 1 reverts to the meaning of 1, 1 , e. g. £Rh "to help", hCRh 
"to give help", "to help"; til 9 " and hM " "to curb", "to 
tame". An instance of II, 1 as Causative to 1, 3 is found in ft Arh® 
"to cause to mourn", with f[/h(D "to mourn for". Examples of 
II, 1, in cases where none of the three Ground-Stems remains ex- 
tant, are afforded by hC\(D "to open"; ftfl)*rtfl "to marry" (a#»); 
^££■0 "to inform" (3>T); hah/»h "to answer"; h^^C "to love"; 
hbdd* "to rest". Denominatives also are formed in II, 1: K4»*RA 

— 150 — § 79. 

"to put forth leaves", from ^fejf £v; htllii "to practise divination" 
(rt7A); M10A "to celebrate a feast" (fl*JA); h9°tih "to rever- 
ence God", from ft?°Alfl> and several others. 

2. causative 2. T/ie Causative of the Intensive Stem. This form occurs much 
intensive less frequently, it is true, than Stem 11,1, hut still [though of later 

stem. f orma tion] it is sufficiently well represented in the language. Intensive 
Stems which seem to have an intransitive meaning, become active in 
the Causative form, e. g. foiPfrf ( x ) "to beautify"; ft*VPA "to streng- 
then"; JiAflfD "to make intelligent", "to instruct". Others which are 
already transitive, become doubly transitive, but they also adapt them- 
selves to simpler notions, by means of some new turn: — hd&ao 
"to order the completion of"; t\1(\£ "to cause one to work at 
something", "to compel"; h\\»'i't "to cause to judge", "to appoint 
as judge"; h&'ftth "to order one to pay any tax", "to collect 
taxes"; ht\\h? "to suggest". In rare cases, Stem 11,2 reverts in 
the end to the meaning of I, 2, as in lao^ "to pollute" and Y\*loo^ 
"to cause to pollute" and "to pollute"; 0£p and hOd? "to make 
equal"; tf"A0 and h"°fiO "to set out", "to continue a journey". 
Stem 11,2 occurs occasionally, no doubt, along with Stem II, 1, 
and then, as a rule, it bears a different meaning, like fr*7fl£ "to 
cause one to carry out", hlfld "to compel"; h9°Yld "to counsel", 
h0°ll£ "to test": but there are cases in which the two stems 
occur together, merely in consequence of a certain indecision in 
the usage of the language. Eoots of the type ip/**0 (§ 71, a) 
form their Causative in Stem 11,2, e. g. hl^h "to urge to 
haste"; friP/^0 "to satiate" (G. Ad.,— inasmuch as wfO means 
first "to be insatiable" and then "to eat much", and so on). This 
•Stem also may be denominative, through the intervention of 1,2, 
e. g- M.'.^fl "to administer the Communion" from «J>*Cfl*J- 

3. causative 3. The Causative of the Influencing Stem. This Causative is 
influencing of very rare occurrence , as the Ground-Stem itself is but little 

used. The few verbs which belong to it, so far as yet known, are : 
M4*fl "to condole with any one" {^i "to be afflicted", ^Sf 
"to bear with patience"); K*Phf "to illumine something by its 
own light"; h"lf£ "to foretell"; and as a denominative, hVth^ 
"to unite one thing to another", "to add (in Arithmetic)". But 
h^fa "to destroy", M<«»<D( a ) "to cause trouble to one" (by § 78), 

( 1 ) According to Trumpp, p. 522,— to be accented aMnnaya. 

(2) According to Tbumpp, p. 522,— to be accented asamawa. 


§ 80. — 151 — 

and ft"]0<D "to worship idols" (derived from "l/ ,; )h "an idol") 
belong to the Causatives of Multiliteral roots. 

8 80. III. Reflexive-Passive Stems. in. bo- 

These (Stems form the antithesis to the Causative Stems; passive 
they convey the action which is expressed in the Ground-Stem, stems: 
back upon the acting Subject, so that it becomes both Subject 
and Object at once. But just as in the Indo-European languages 
the Passive was developed out of the Reflexive, so inEthiopic also 
(as in Aramaic and to some extent in Hebrew) the Reflexive came 
in process of time to serve the farther purpose of a Passive ; and 
this use so completely gained the upper hand in the language, 
that the other Semitic Passive form, effected by means of internal 
Vowel-change, almost entirely disappeared. One leading cause of 
this phenomenon certainly lies in the fact that the short u dr o, to 
which the inner Passive form specially clung, gradually disappeared 
from the language. It is only in the Noun (Passive Participle), — 
in which the Passive u or i was lengthened into long u or I,— that 
a remnant of the old Passive formation has been retained. And 
seeing that in this way the Reflexive served also as a Passive, there 
was all the more reason in consistency to form such a Reflexive 
out of all the Ground-Stems. Of the two prefixes, which at one 
time served to form the Reflexive in Semitic, viz.- — in (hin) and it 
(hit), only the latter has continued in use for triliteral roots, while 
the former is retained merely in the Stem formation of Multiliteral 
roots. But farther, the prefix it (originally no doubt a pronominal 
element of reflexive meaning) has already been smoothed down in 
Ethiopic to the simpler ^throughout (just as in Stems V and VI 
in Arabic). 

.1. The Reflexive-Passive of the Simple Stem. This form, i. r..p. 
in its twofold utterance, i-ftld and 'f-0<f»fl (cf. infra § 97), ^° e 
corresponds to the Arabic Stem VIII and the Aramaic Ethpeel. stem 
The greater number of these Stems are both reflexive and passive, 
e -9- 't'hJ^V and -Hi£J ft "to cover one's self and "to be covered"; 
but many occur only in the one signification or the other. In this 
matter everything depends upon the usage of the language and 
upon the fundamental meaning of the Simple Stem. Thus, for 
instance, -H]UA (from ftVli "to be able") and WM (from ftM 

( 1 ) According to Teumpp, p. 523, — to be accented takadna, taJcadana. 

— 152 — § 80. 

"to be unable") can only have a passive sense, "to be possible" 
and "to be impossible". But when the reflexive signification has 
been fully formed, the backward reference is not always so direct 
and immediate by any means as it is in *f«A*flrt "to clothe one's 
self", "to put on", but the Eeflexive Stem may also express the 
'doing of something for and to one's self, as in 't'dYiao "to take 
anything upon one's shoulders" (Judges 16,3); ^W\\& "to see 
that something be put in one's own hand", i. e. "to take"; ■f , ^£ , P 
"to oppress any one for one's own profit", i. e. "to practise usury". 
The Eeflexive may farther signify the exhibiting one's self in this 
or that character, e. g. 'frthft? "to assume the position of admini- 
strator and surety", "to take care of anything"; 'frO&tD "to show 
one's self to be a transgressor", "to transgress". Often several 
such meanings unite in the same word, e. g. »H%« ID i and *hh?°i 
"to keep one's self in a believing attitude", i. e. "to trust"; "to 
entrust (or unbosom) one's self to any one", i. e. "to confess"; 
finally, "to become a believer"; or *f-fl)Crt "to take anything to 
one's self by way of inheritance", but also "to be inherited". 
Several of these Stems approximate to the Simple Stem in signi- 
fication, particularly when the latter has an intransitive meaning, 
e. g. ±ao&h "to fill itself", "to become full" = <n>Aft ; 'fr0 D £>m 
"to turn one's self back" ("to return") = 0%ai ', "lttxV* and 'FQthw 
"to withdraw". But in many cases the Simple Stem no longer 
survives by the side of the Reflexive Stem, and the latter serves, 
like a Deponent, for the first, particularly with words which express 
emotion, e. g. i'^dO "to be angry"; 'f'rh/*'? "to exult". Even 
from the examples already adduced it is apparent that many 
Eeflexive conceptions may become transitive by means of a new 
turn; so too, for instance, <f*04>fl "to be on one's guard", but also 
"to observe"; -f^f "to subject one's self", I e. "to serve"; 
-f*AMl "to submit to be sent", i. e. "to perform services for one", 
"to serve". 

Since the Reflexive fills also the place of the Passive, Stemlll, 1 
may farther serve as Reflexive and Passive to Stem II, 1. Thus 
-hf^-0 "to be made known" is the Passive of hfrgO] -f , &4'£ 
"to be loved", of JtfW»l; 'th^d "to be recognised", of Kh<n>£) 
'frOm "to open" (intrans.) and "to be opened", the Passive of 
AC-1(D. Farther, -Kfr/^fc "to arise" is the Eeflexive of ht/^h, 
and +ifl means both "to be spoken" (Jflfl) and "to be read" 

§81. — 153 — 

(hTflfl). More rarely Stem III, 1 is the Passive and Reflexive 
of Stem I, 2, e. g. in *f*<J.Jf)^ "to be explained", from &\i£ "to 
explain"; -f'tfDTV "to be measured", together with *f*tf»fnV III, 2, 
from tfDfllV I, 2. This Stem is also employed as a Denominative, 
e. g. in i^AU^ "to become a presbyter", from A^4*5 i'tWt'd 
"to be delivered of the first birth", i. e. "to give birth for the first 
time", from flfrC. 

§ 81. 2. The Reflexive-Passive of the Intensive Stem. This 2. b.-p. 
Stem in the form *fV«S\tf» tafassama, corresponds to the Hebrew In ° ensi e ve 
Hithpael and to the Arabic Stem V, and is likewise of very common stem - 
occurrence. As regards meaning, all that has been said about 111,1 
holds good also for this Stem. Often it has merely a reflexive 
meaning, e. g. *\r\\0°& "to show one's self" ; •\ , a^\\A\ "to praise 
one's self", "to boast"; *f«ft*j0 "to harden" (intrans.); *f"«w>fnO) 
"to cause anything to be handed over to one's self", i. e. "to ac- 
cept". Frequently it has only a Passive meaning, like ^oOfM "to 
be measured" ; ■f"^«»A'fe "to be numbered" ; i"rhAP "to be thought" ; 
but often it has both meanings together, as "f*£«w>£ "to mingle" 
(intrans.) and "to be mingled". It is specially in use with verbs 
which express emotion: «|"flA<D( 1 )'"toliope"; 't&f^ih "to rejoice"; 
i*fl)ilA "to confide"; 'f-OfiP "to exercise patience"; >f*ty?ao "to 
take vengeance"; -f<w»Jf "to wish", "to long for". Often quite 
simple conceptions have been re-developed out of it, as in the last- 
named instances, and farther in »f-ftHH "to obey" ("to let one's 
self be commanded"); -f-tfoU^ "to learn"; -f-fflVf "to play"; 
i'+flA "to go to meet"; and sometimes there is not much dif- 
ference between its meaning and that of the Ground-Stem, as in 
i'i* f Cth and WCdi "to prosper"; -f-^ftrh and ^f|*h "to experience 
regret"; 0£p and -fOtf "to be equal". By simplifying the idea, 
it may even take a transitive sense, as in several of the cases 
mentioned. In conformity with its origin from I, 2, it has in a 
very special manner the meaning, — 'to be declared something', 'to 
give one's self out as this or that', e. g. in */vhrtO) "to be convicted 
of falsehood"; •f&F % fi "to be sanctified, consecrated or declared 
nol y"; i-OOid "to show one's self blind to" ("to connive at a 
matter"); -frO?d "to appear as a faultfinder"; +&M "to think 
one's self righteous" ; so too i-Oflf "to magnify one's self" (although 

O According to Trtjmpp, p. 523 —to be accented tasaffdwa. 

— 154 — § 82. 

0flf 1, 2 is not in use). When this Stem is developed alongside 
of III, 1, the two stems, as a rule, have different significations, 
e- 9- "f*Hhd "to remember", 'FHlfl^ "to be mentioned"; 'J'&tfB^ 
"to become obscure", ■f'&JPJ "to be covered"; ■f"lfl^ "to conduct 
a trade or business", ■f*7'fl£ "to happen". More rarely the usage 
fluctuates between the two Stems, both having the same signification, 
e. g. in ^ao^i and 't'ooafi (v. supra and § 97, 2). Tor several 
of these Stems the Simple Stems no longer exist, as for •f'tydh, 
•MW, i*<W , ^<0hA, i-OlA, -h<n>V? » •fOlw. This Stem is 
also denominative in cases by no means rare, as in *f*Vfl? "to act 
as prophet", i. e. "to foretell"; •f'O^i "to seek one's self a well", 

i. e. "to encamp"; •f'ffflC "to observe the flight of birds" (Jus); 

"f*PU& = "f"£U& "to become a Jew", and several others ( 1 ). 

3. Eeflexive § 82. 3. The Reflexive of the Influencing Stem. This Stem, 

influencing w ^ n the form ■f'ii^ti corresponds to the Arabic Stem VI. It 

stem:- mav a i so? ^ j s true, have a purely Passive meaning, in those verbs 

Reciprocity, namely whose only Ground-Stem in use is I, 3, like -f-fl Arfi "to 

be saved"; •f*^f4 , P "to be tormented"; or it may have a purely 

Reflexive meaning, as in *JhARP (from AR?) "to shave one's self"; 

i"A'f*<J. "to take a share in a thing"; but these cases are only of 

rare occurrence ( 2 ). Almost always the meaning proper to the 

Ground-Stem inclines to appear in 111,3, viz., 'bringing influence 

to bear upon another by means of the action expressed in the 

verb'. It signifies either, — 'to set forth the Subject as influencing 

others', — or, if the action is attributed to more than one, — 'to 

influence one another reciprocally'. It has thus in part come 

directly into the place of the gradually disappearing Stem I, 3, 

and in part it serves to denote reciprocal action (Reciprocity)^). 

It is in very frequent use in both references, and may be derived 

( x ) The following Stems have made their way into Ethiopic writings 
from the Amiaric (v. Isenbbeg, ' Grammar 1 , p. 54, No, XIV):— w t'0 fi $f(f\ 
"to turn hither and thither" ;»f«<7D/\ A A "to run hither and thither" '^f^O ^ 
"to mingle with"; i^flftA "to be hospitable". 

( 2 ) Oases like 'J^flV "to be laid waste" (§ 78); 'fr a ?£? "to act the 
soothsayer", from "^^, do not belong to this class, as these Stems come 
from Multiliteral roots: — v. infra § 86. 

( 3 ) Frequently however, when several individuals are spoken of, phrases 
like flfl£«?i:tf OV, or hA\%, i 0°J|A s t| Ah-» are expressly added. 

§ 82. — 155 — 

from all the Ground-Stems, or even from derived Stems. This 
Stem is specially employed to express the ideas of 'contending, 
fighting, quarrelling, censuring, disputing (at law)' and such like, as 
'YP'Vh in the Plural, "to fight with each other", or in the Singular, 
"to fight with one", taking an Accusative, in which case it is presup- 
posed that the person who is fought with displays a counter-activ- 
ity; +?(Dao, +(\M, -f\?£A, WC& -H-flfc, -t-i&di, **f rt, 
i*Ai0D?, -Mll»f , 't^/rotro, i'^dO- It is also used to convey 
the ideas of 'separating, dividing, binding, collecting, cohering' ; and 
some of these verbs may also be used both in the Singular and 
in the Plural, e. g. 'M-AmO) "to separate (intrans.) from one 
another"; 'frpiih "to assemble themselves together"; ■f , AR4» "to 
cohere"; ■f'/.tlfl "to light upon one another", i.e. 1. "to meet one 
another", 2. "to be together". In the very same way Stem III, 3 
is derived from many other conceptions, in this sense of reciprocal 
action, like •ftlf^O "to understand ('hear') one another"; ■f^h^ 
"to advise together"; ^"VflA "to resemble one another"; WlC 
and -Mill A "to parley together"; f-^^K "to help one another". 
Accordingly it may quite as readily be formed from intransitive 
as from transitive ideas, since even intransitive actions may be at- 
tributed to more than one individual in their relations to one 
another, e. g. 'f ,< P£4* "to fall away from one another"; "f-^OJR 
"to flock together"; i«<PJf "to sport with one another"; -MlTi*!! 
"to multiply together"; -f*<P<l£. "to rush upon one": — just as, vice 
versa, if it is derived from transitive verbs, it is in no wise neces- 
sary that the Subjects of the verb should at the same time be its 
objects, but the Stem may assume an object for itself, e.g. -["fl^A 
not "to divide themselves", but "to share something among them- 
selves", 1*»t pfn not "to sell themselves", but "to sell among them- 
selves", "to exercise trade", "to purchase something from one"; 
, t ,fl 7rtm "to contend together over plunder" or "to plunder together". 
On the other hand it may have a reflexive sense, for instance, in 
WlA. "to disengage one's self", (while *f-J7A has a passive 
meaning). In several cases, however, the idea of reciprocity retires 
quite into the background, and then the Stem seems to revert to 
the meaning of III, 1 or 2 ; but in these cases also some reference, — 
at least of a tacit order, — to other persons is included, e.g. ^"fOA 

(*) According to Trumpp, p. 523,-to be accented tafdlata. 

— 156 — § 83. 

"to show one's self propitious", "to be gracious" to others; -f"flA 
4» "to mock" at others; ^Arlif "to adorn one's self" for others. 
Or the reciprocity which is expressed is not absolutely bound to 
refer to the Subject of the action and some other one, but may 
concern nearer or more remote objects, e. g. •f'A-tf??*. "to tell off 
after one another", "to muster"; -t^lfl "to kick with both feet". 
This stem too is now and then denominative, e. g. in "f^fliD 
"to cast lots" (with different rods); -f^^l "to attack each other 
with the horns"; ^ptDJi "to dwell together in a neighbourly way". 

About the time that the language was dying out, people be- 
gan to make this Stem revert to III, 1 or 2 (thus frequently i**w»fhA 
instead of ■f*°7rfiA "to conspire" , "to enter into a confederacy" ; 
'frdhfi "to fight", for 'f'flftrt &c), — a phenomenon which, for the 
most part, occurs only with roots having the first or the middle 
radical an aspirate, and therefore is to be explained not according 
to the analogy of the VIII th Arabic Stem , which here and there 
also has the meaning of Stem VI, but according to § 48. In such 
roots also the converse may be met with, 111,3 being written for 
111,1, e. g. i«'J4 > fl for ■f t 0^d' — Care should be taken to avoid 
being deceived thereby. 

§ 83. IV. Causative-Reflexive Stems. 

From the Reflexive Stems Causative Stems are again derived, 
and this new formation is an embellishement peculiar to Ethiopic, 
to which Arabic alone, in its Stem X, presents an analogy. Ethio- 
pic is, in this case as well as in the case of the Causative Stems II, 
richer and more thorough-going than Arabic, inasmuch as it derives 
new Causatives from all the three Reflexive Stems together. This 
richer evolution of IV, 1, 2, & 3 brought about the disappearance of 
several of the simpler Stems in the case of many roots, because 
the defining of the conception effected by them appeared to be given 
still more appropriately by means of the form IV. The formative 
device for these Stems is the syllable ftft, which is prefixed to the 
*J- of the Reflexive. True, it is open to conjecture, that the pre- 
fix htl't', characteristic of these Stems of Class IV, should not be 
analysed into ftf| and -f- , but into J^ and fl , h^fl having been 

turned into hhi' (£Lf), in old Semitic fashion. But, apart from 
the fact that such a transposition of letters is not Ethiopic (§ 57), 
the meaning of Stems belonging to Class IV tells against this ex- 

§ 83. — 157 — 

planation, for nearly all of them are Causatives of the Reflexive, not 
Reflexives of the Causative. That as was at one time actually 
employed in forming Causatives is seen partly in Ethiopic itself 
even yet, from the forms htlPtlH a^nd hft$££ (§ 73 ad init), 
and partly from the Amharic, in which ftft still forms simple Causa- 
tives^). And |%f| thus appears to be the original form for later ft, 

exactly as rin, i'! is the original form for -f*, o ( 2 ). The new Causa- 
tive, to be sure, is formed as has been said from all the three Re- 
flexive Stems, but still the form IY, 3 is by far the most common, 
manifestly because the Stems III, 1 and 2 modify the root-idea fre- 
quently in a less special manner than 111,3 does. Accordingly 
the Causative, which is formed from III, 1 and 2 ; may be more 
easily replaced by the simple Causative, than the* Causative, which 
is formed from III, 3. As regards signification, all three Stems 
express the bringing about of the appearance, or the occurrence, 
of that which is denoted by the Reflexive, — or they directly express 
the practising of what the Reflexive describes. A Reflexive must 
then be always presupposed, although in the ordinary speech such 
Reflexive has in many cases ceased to exist. Occasionally too the 
three Stems pass over, the one to the other: — in particular IV, 1 
may be formed from III, 2, in place of, or alongside of IV, 2, as, 
for instance, htl'tAfth IV, 2 and Kft-f^/^rh IV, 1 from 

C 1 ) Isenberg. 'Gramw.' pp. 53 & 54, St. 8 & 9; [Guidi., l Gramm.\ p. 21; 
'Zeitschr. fur Assyr.'' VIII p. 286 sqq.]. Also the Saho has 6's placed after the 
root<to form Causatives, 'Journ. Asiat,' 1 1843, Tome 2, p. 116. 

( 2 ) Trumpp, p. 523, N. 2 agrees with the above view. On the other hand 
the explanation of /ifl»f* as being derived from fa*^ and ft is maintained by 
Osiander, ZDMG XIX, p. 240 sqq.) XX, p. 206; Wright, 'Ar. Gr. 3 ', p. 46, 
§ 65, rem. [cf. ' Lectures on the Compar. Gr? , p. 214 sq.]- } Konig, p. 79 sqq,, 
and Noldeke, who, in a private communication of the 10 th Feb. 1887, observes 

that even the Arabic JutAJC^I is used quite preponderatingly in a trans- 
itive sense. [In many cases it is directly Causative; e. g. ^jgLuA is often 
quite synonymous with wi*.f, although the former originally contained a 

subtle side-meaning. At the most there might be a question whether in 
«ifl*f*'7n^ the causal \\ did not come in besides before the is. But this a 
was no doubt called forth through the analogy of the other verbal classes. — 

— 158 — § 83. 

Causative- 1. Causative-Beflexive Stems 1, and 2, In these Stems the 

s^mir-Mfc 2. Causative signification is for the most part brought out very clearly 
and decisively: hil'i'l'Uii 1. "to take (by force of arms)" — "to 
cause that a city ■f'l'flK surrender itself" ; foft'Hlrhft 1. "to in- 
duce one to fall away from the faith"; KfHhd tfD ^ "to accustom 
one to serve" (^09° fL); hll'tHtU 1. "to make a bending of the 
knees", not very different from fl£h; hfl'l*fi£fl) 2. "to cause one 
to cherish hope" ( "to give one to hope") ; htl-tlthi^ 1- "to 
cause to withdraw". And it is merely in appearance that occasion- 
ally they have an intransitive and reflexive look, e. g. in Kft'h 
ChfC) 1. "to cause to appear", i. e. "to reveal one's self", "to let 
one's self be seen", "to appear"; htl'tChft 1. "to make one's self 
cling to something", i. e. "to busy one's self eagerly therewith"; 
ftft"f*01i*' 2. "to exercise patience", not very different from "hOli** 
"to be patient" ('to allow to happen to one's self). These Causa- 
tive-Beflexive Stems are also much used to express lasting senti- 
ments and mental dispositions ( a ) : htl*t % 9°fh& 1. "to be prone to 
pity" ; htl'frafhh 2. "to be trustful", and many others. And since 
in this way the Causative of Reflexives frequently expresses merely 
the practising of that which the Reflexive speaks of, the Participle 
of Stems IV, 1 and 2 may replace directly the participle which is 
wanting in Stems 111,1 and 2 (§ 114). Among the more common 
significations of these Stems the two following deserve to be speci- 
ally noticed: (a) — to hold, or pronounce as something, e. g. hh*t1 
h(i 1. "to deem too trifling for one's self", or generally, "to deem 
trifling"; ftft-MldO 1. "to pronounce blessed"; htl1 m h(\& 2. "to 
despise one as a fool" ; &ft-Mf A 2. "to regard as preferable", "to 
prefer": (b)—to endeavour to obtain something for one's self or for 
others, e. g. htli'9 fhd 1. "to implore pity", "to intercede" (for 
another meaning of this word v. supra); hil'ttld? 1. "to entreat 
pardon"; Kf|'Wltf>vfi 1. "to crave permission"; ht\\"t\Oh 1. "to 
want to enrich one's self" ; hh'V^h^ 1. "to beg for a morsel". 
But in other respects also the Stems of this form are distinguished 
strongly enough from the simple Active Stems , e. g. ftftl^A 

O What justification theremaybefortheforms^f|'f'C|f|fl,Jif|'f«CJ l f J 
which are sometimes met with in MSS., but which are purposely omitted in 
my Lexicon,— still awaits investigation. 

( a ) V. on this point the instructive passage 1 Cor. 13,3—7. 

§ 84. — 159 — 

1. "to inhale" and "to smell" (but also "to cause to breathe again", 
"to revive", like M&ft)', hW^W 1- "to discover" \*iwv* "to 
seek"); htl'tbM 1. "to alarm" (fcflflfl "to weaken"). Occasion- 
ally all the other Stems are lost, e. g. of frftf-frHfl "to make 

§ 84. 2. Causative-Reflexive Stem 3. Stem IV, 3 forms oansativo- 
Causatives, generally from the Stem of Reciprocity III, 3, whether ^J" 1 ™ 
the latter be still retained in the language or not, e. g. ftfrf 1 ? CL 
"to breed mutual enmity", "to make certain persons enemies of 
one another"; htli'P'dh "to collect together"; hM^M "to 
glue together"; hfl*Hl£tf "to relieve one", and "to do something, 
in turn with others"; Kfl'f*;WV<D "to cause to follow each other 
in succession" ; Afti*fl'H"1f "to cause anything to multiply from it- 
self"; ftft , f*'PA& "to render capable of propagation" (so far as 
more than one are concerned in it); htl't^'tid, "to make (the 
hands) pass over each other", "to cross (the hands)". It often 
conveys merely a tacit reference to others, e. g. hh't' at ldO "to bear 
a grudge" (towards others); hli^flC^ "to be forgiving" (to others); 
htl'P&'Ml "to expose to contempt" (from others), ht\'l'<hffl\l "to find 
or to make anything pleasant" (for others and so too for one's self) ; 
Kfl4" < P0(\ "to give in restitution"; ftfl-fiff^ "to preserve to the 
last" (where the comparison lies with some other). Farther, just 
as Stem III, 3 (by § 82) expresses also the qualifications "in their 
order", "gradually", "the whole in its several parts", and such like, 
so the Causative-Reflexive Stem IV, 3 is particularly often employed 
to denote the 'doing of a thing by a series of efforts', the 'bringing 
something gradually into being', as well as the ideas of 'restoring, 
adjusting' &c. This qualification, however, of the idea is brought 
about merely by the two prefixes Kfl and »J« operating together; 
and the Reflexive Stem III, 3 hardly ever appears when Stems IV, 3 
of such a kind exist, or only appears with a different signification. 
Examples: hWPbh "to spend (more and more)"; ftfl'f-'hpfll 
"to bring back to life"; ftft'Mfrtf "to restore"; YxM^O "to 
improve", "to reform"; litl't' f tt* t h "to re-establish" (on the other 
hand i-^/^K "to rise against another"); hil'lfiiUD "to prepare"; 
hh't' t tKfh "to purify (in process of time); hti't^O*^ "to warm"; 
J»fH"4«mV "to quicken"; htl'frtyF'h "to discover by hearkening", 
"to listen for some time". Thus Stem IV, 3, as compared with IV, 1 
and 2, has several significations peculiar to itself, while on the other 

._. 160 — § 84. 

hand it never conveys, or only seldom^), the two senses of "holding 
as being this or that", and "endeavouring to obtain something" 
(§ 83) ; but no doubt it is employed, just like the other two Stems, 
to express permanent sentiments and dispositions, particularly when 
these involve some reference to others (v. 1 Cor. 13,4 sqq.). Ac- 
cordingly, when the forms IV, 1 or 2 and IV, 3 are both in use, 
the meanings are generally distinct from one another, e. g. in ftf| 
'Yhtf and KMrtiiX (v. supra)- hf)+« , Mlh and htl-tPHh (v. 
supra); hhWih "to be envious", so hti'frpTrh, yet the latter 
has also the meaning, "to provoke to mutual jealousy". There 
is however scarcely any difference between htl'f'^ii 00 an( i htl't' 
pftao, both meaning "to divine from omens". htl r t' ( iT'0 "to 
remove the marrow" is derived from a noun (htl^d "marrow"), 
without the intervention of Stem III, 3. 

The twelve Stems which have just been described may be 
derived immediately from triliteral roots, or they may be denomina- 
tive. But nothing like the full number of twelve Stems are to be 
found actually derived from any one root. Even in other languages 
such a case does not occur; and Ethiopic in particular, through its 
tendency to economise its resources, was in the practice of evolving 
only one or two of the most necessary Stems from any one root, 
while it allowed others, which might once have existed, to fall away. 
The most fully developed Verb in this respect, 7*fl£( 2 ), has only 
six Stems in ordinary use. As for other verbs, the more fully 
developed roots have formed one Stem each in the classes I, II, 
III and IY, and in addition III, 3 as a Reciprocity-Stem. The 
most of them have generated only one Active Stem, one Reflexive- 
Passive, and perhaps also III, 3 or one Stem of Class IV. It 
farther results from the survey which we have been engaged in, 
that roots, which are in use in one of the three Ground-Stems, 
may easily pass over to a different Ground-Stem under II, III, 
and IV, e. g. from 1 to 2, or from 2 to 1 ; but when Stem 2 has 
established itself from any root, it is generally continued through 
the Classes II, III, and IV. 

( J ) For instance in KfH"*i«h»(V properly "to pollute", then "to esteem 

( 2 ) Which Ludolf chose for his Paradigm on that very ground. 




§ 85. How Quadriliteral and Multiliteral roots generally scheme 
originate, has been pointed out in §§ 71—73, 77, and 78. These ste ° ma- 
sections show also that roots of five letters are, generally speaking, 
of rare occurrence, while those of six letters are met with only in 
isolated cases. The four classes of Stems (I — IV), which are 
employed in the development of triliteral roots, repeat themselves 
in the Stem-formation of Multiliterals ; but the Intensive Stem 2 
falls away completely, and the Influencing Stem 3 also disappears 
in Classes I and II at least. In certain roots, however, a Reflexive 
Stem, — formed by the prefix fr>, and which the triliterals have 
lost — , has been retained. The Scheme of Stems most in use for 
Multiliteral roots is accordingly as follows: — 

Ground-Stem I. Causative Stem II. Reflexive Stems III. 

Causative-Reflexive Stems IV. Second Reflexive Stem V. 

i. hirf-fttha m>£"?-£ 

3. hM'Mhd) 

A few other rarer forms might be added, but it seems un- 
necessary to enumerate them in the Scheme. 

I. Of Multiliteral roots it is only the Quadriliteral which oc- i. Ground- 
cur in the Ground- Stem C); and the second letter in the ground- 
form is always without the vowel, e. g. &t10. The place of the 
second letter is often taken by a long vowel, as in "7AV ft/Ii, 
•fcflrh- There is no distinction here between transitive and in- 
transitive pronunciation. In meaning, the greatest variety prevails, 
corresponding to the variety in the genesis of these roots. With 
reference to the last point the following differences may be ob- 
served: ^T+fll "to bruise", — where the whole root is repeated; 
#h">«l , «| > "to be anxious", — where there is repetition of the third 
radical; f h'i(\i\ "to put forth berries", thC.ftP* "to wallow in the 
mire", %(D(B "to take prisoner", — with insertion of a soft letter 
after the first radical; *H}£f "to loiter", (DCfUD "to become a 
lad", — with a weak letter annexed; &Tr*l0 "to be perplexed", 


O Only RiPUp f or ft^VAff "to wither" seems to form an excep- 
tion,— from the Quadriliteral ft 9°Of, the fourth radical being repeated. 


-- 162 — § 85. 

OTrUd "to play the harp", -f-ftrh "to mix", — a formative letter 
being prefixed; "VU^h "to carry off as booty", th'R&'fr "to make 
smooth, to polish", thC"t % 0° "to be in misery", — as derivatives 
from Nominal Stems increased externally; nv*}\\pfo "to become a 
monk", — as an example of a foreign word. This diverse origin 
makes no difference in the formation, for which only the appear- 
ance of weak letters in these roots has any significance; cf. §99sg. 
iLCausative n. The Causative is formed, as a rule, by prefixing ft, just 

as with the triliteral root. It turns intransitive conceptions into 
transitive, and transitive into double-transitive, e. g. WCtlfl "to 
grope", haoCtift "to cause to grope"; hl*A&\ "to soften or 
soothe"; ft<DAfl>A and ft<D4<I>A "to perturb"; ftfllftfft and 
hmhTh "to dispose in order". It farther occasionally predicates 
finer distinctions, as %h(B "to be fragrant or to exhale" in the 
sense of 'spreading an odour', ft&Vfl) "to smell" in the sense of 
'inhaling an odour'. The majority, however, of the Causative 
Stems which occur, are derived from some Nominal Stem (ex- 
ternally increased), for the purpose of expressing the 'causing, 
doing, or carrying on' that which the Noun speaks of &c, like 
h^tldi* "to lay a foundation for", "to establish" ; ft^V/hflV "to 
hand over to be protected by any one", "to entrust"; ftvAfll} 
"to give full power to"; htl'M'l* "to keep the Sabbath"; ftA»Af 
"to spend the night"; ft<W}A<D "to lead into temptation"; fti)0fD 
"to worship idols". Quinqueliteral roots also occur in this stem, 
especially those which originate in the repetition of the last two 
radicals (§§ 71, 77): hC^il^fl "to seek by feeling for" ('to wish 
to discover by feeling'); h?:t\$M> "to shake"; ftC4/hf)«h and 
hCftthtlfh ('to render turbid') "to convict of a crime"; ftrYi^A^A 
"to grow green" ; ft4>?*h£fh and h&ffapnh "to become reddish" 
(properly, — 'to acquire that colour', and accordingly Causative); 
also KhnnmH "to drip", and M9&%& "to pour out in 
drops"; MftCfa "to revile repeatedly"; also a few which only 
repeat the last radical, but, because they are denominative, have 
a long vowel following the second radical : ft A'TflA "to whisper 
gently"; h\]H°M "to address any one harshly", "to reproach". 
As relics of an obsolete Causative formation by means of the 

(*) By origin at least, these two belong to this Class. As regards their 
conjugation, they may quite as well be referred to Stem V. 

§ 86. — 163 — 

prefix htl (§§ 79, 83), hh$££ "to feel horror", "to abhor", and 
htlPttH "to become cramped or benumbed'^ 1 ) are still preserved. 
On the o-sound of these words cf. § 78. hll4>ty(D "to howl" has 
only an external resemblance to these forms, provided the deriva- 
tion conjectured in § 77 is correct, and the word not rather founded 
on a root ^0*^(D. 

§ 86. III. Multiliteral roots, like the Triliteral, form their in. Passive- 
Passive-Reflexive Stems by prefixing »f*. In meaning some are gtemg . 
passive, some reflexive, some both passive and reflexive ; and the 
reference back to the Subject of the verb is sometimes direct and 
immediate, sometimes indirect, just as with the Reflexives described 
in § 80: — f-^rtfr "to be corrupted", "to be laid waste"; »M$tfhh 
"to be utterly destroyed"; w t ,g f°Tth "to cover or veil one's self", 
and Passive; Hhrtirtf "to nourish one's self with anything'', and 
"to eat", with Accusative; •f*n>H(D "to ransom one's self", and 
"to ransom for one's self", and "to be ransomed"; •f , ?iff a O? "to 
exhibit a dry appearance", i. e. "to put on a sour look"; *f"£*^C"1l 
"to be appeased"; "t , "lVpK and *f(tlh t ?h "to be arranged". 
This Stem occurs often, as it serves at the same time for a Passive 
form of Quadriliteral roots of Active signification. But it is often 
enough derived also (like the Causative) immediately from Nominal 
Stems, e. g. •f , ao&Ml "to become a prince"; "fT<w»CMI "to lean 
upon a staff", and in general terms "to lean upon" ; 'frhCOlf "to 
become brutal", "to be brutalised"; ^ao/^^O "to chew the cud"; 
"f*<£.AA<£. "to philosophize". Worthy of notice is the word 4'h'iii^ 
"to become like an eagle", because it is derived from a plural 
hthC't (TrtlC "eagle"), so that in form it resembles the verb 
i'h'iMi "to be brutalised" (from MM)- Also noteworthy is the 
word 'fr&kii "to become a Metropolitan", because it has retained 
the two long a's from its Stem-word fcftft iramira^ so that it must 
rank as a Quinqueliteral verb. No other Quinqueliterals are as yet 
known. A Sexliteral word appears also in this Stem: i«KT"f"A^A 
"to be impatient and unwilling", formed according to § 77 from 
the Quadriliteral root hlftfi (§ 72) still in use. 

The Reciprocal Stem is formed from some at least of the 
Multiliteral roots. The long a, which is introduced after the first 

(*) [Probably, however, this j^f| is a shortened form of ftf|*f", just as 
in the Amharic Verbs of the form Jffcf|. — Noldeke.] 


*_ 164 — § 87. 

radical in that formation in Triliteral roots, is consistently es- 
tablished only after the second radical in Quadriliteral roots, 
since the first and second radicals in such roots are always more 
closely associated than the others, and together correspond to the 
first letter of Triliteral roots: — ■f'ftVRfl) "to contend enviously 
with another about anything"; ^(WflA "to be linked together"; 
•t m fl l ih(D "to be in harmony with one another"; •f'tih'tf "to 
conspire together"; 'HDACD/V "to be at variance with one's own 
mind", ("to be perturbed in mind"); •f-m < 7«M > "to go to work 
with accurate scrutiny"; »Mf^V<D "to announce to one another" 
(H.V«D); •f^hKh "to worship"; •fQoyaoty "to engage too eagerly 
in" ; •f'*l ot %fJ^ "to loiter" ( 1 ). In Quinqueliteral roots the long a is 
introduced only after the third radical, that the most important 
syllable might not be too near the beginning : ^ A"VPrtfl "to whis- 
per gently to one another", 
iv. IY. The Causative-Reflexive Stem from these roots occurs 

Beehive" very rarely indeed. Since the roots, which are already long enough 
stem. j n themselves must in this case be still farther lengthened by two 
additional syllables, such a Stem is avoided as far as possible. As 
yet I know of only four examples of IV, 1 : htl'tHthli "to grant 
discharge or leave of absence" ('f'hTrhti "to take discharge or 
leave"); htl-fkCO)? "to render wild"; hh'fmh f ?h "to arrange"; 
htl't'ffl'i^'^ "to explain exactly", — and the very same number 
of examples of IV, 3: — hh'V^hOi "to render in accord"; 
htli % l of iM (Gr. Ad.) "to think one had come too late for a 
thing" ; Jift'|'fl)<\fDA "to perplex" ; frA4'fl1?'M' "to rouse to zeal". 

v. second § 87. Y. Besides these Stems which are formed both from 

stem!™ Triliteral and Multiliteral roots, another Stem originally Reflective 

makes its appearance, formed by prefixing \\\. In this there may 

be easily recognised the Hebrew _iJl( 2 ) and the Arabic _ if St. VII, 

employed in the formation of Reflexives and Passives, and originally 

of a somewhat weaker meaning than _nn and _i'|. The a-pronun- 

ciation is quite as peculiar to Ethiopic as the like pronunciation 
of ftfl (§ 83). In Nouns which are derived from this Stem, this 

0) "f^fh/Vfl) belongs to Stem III, 1: f**h(lti¥> which Ludolf, 'Lex.' 
col. 42, adduces, is to be explained by § 48. 
( 2 ) Cf. Ewald, 'Sebr. Spr.' § 123, a. 

§ 87. ■ — 165 — 

an is simplified into na, like as into sa, just as _fln or _ jf is always 

rendered in Ethiopic by »f«. But this Stem can by no means be 
formed from all Multiliteral roots. The language has confined it 
almost wholly to the roots described in § 71, and in strictness to 
reduplicated Stems of such roots, which express movement to and 
fro of any kind, and also of light and sound ( x ), such as hH f, £1 n & 
"to thunder"; MMfl* "to walk about"; MftAA "to be giddy"; 
MltM (angallaga) "to band together" ( 2 ). Of other roots only 
four are known up till now, which form this Stem: htMMLi* 
"to sparkle", "to shine through" ('to be clear, or transparent'); 
h'id.COK "to spring", "to dance"; h'}p&&(D "to lift up (the 
eyes"); hli^t\0 "to stretch", "to spread out"; and these come 
very close, in meaning at least, to the first-named forms. Several of 
these Stems indicate a transitive signification as well as a reflexive 
one: h"}h»Gh»^ "to roll" (transitive and intransitive); hTrlCld 
"to wallow or revolve" and "to drive round" (trs. and intrs.) ; 
h7«f»A4*A "to totter" and "to shake" (trs. and intrs.); fc7AA<0 
"to go" and "to move"; h'iMtlO "to bubble", "to boil", also in 
a transitive sense; hTrflaim "to frighten", "to be alarmed" (trs. & 
intrs.). The following have a transitive signification only: KT^AO 
"to stretch out"; JrfH$H& "to expand (the wings)"; htPb&O* 
"to lift up (the eyes)". Seeing that ft*J, speaking generally, forms 
weaker Reflexives than *f«, — almost pure Intransitives in fact, — 
and seeing that all these roots, except %1f and 'H£"'|«»&, are used 
in Stem V only, and that in particular no new Causatives are 
derived from them, this phenomenon might without difficulty be 
attributed to a gradual transition from the intransitive to the 
transitive meaning, and in most cases perhaps this explanation 
might suffice. A Passive-Reflexive, however, of some of these 
formations occurs, formed by means of ^\ "i*"JfnAO "to be 
stretched out", "to stretch one's self out"; 'f'JhoCh-d (according 
to Lttdolf) "to be rolled about" (cf. the words beginning with >£'}, 
§ 73). It seems to follow from this that the instinct of the language 
conceived the ft of ft*} in several of these formations as being ft 
Causative, as if these were new Causative forms from Nominal 

(*) Even Ludolf teaches that this Stem expresses impetum quendatn 
vel motum reciprocantem. 

( 2 ) The rest are: llf , ftjhftrh, AdflO, +A+A, flAflA, H/MMl, 

flfinrt, h»CW, 1C1£, 1°0£, oiAmA, Amm, mAA, HUAA- 

— 166 — § 88. 

Stems "beginning with V (by § 85, II) C). Accordingly the process 
may be thought of as taking the following course: htl^CYi-d 
"to roll" (intrs.);—}\taC\KC "rolling"; Causative Mh-CW "to 
roll" (trs.) ; 'frlYtoCfad "to be rolled". A certain want of clearness 
in the consciousness of the language is unmistakeable here( 2 ). The 
formations which are derived from Nominal Stems without the in- 
tervention of a Causative (by § 86, III), 'frhTr1&, 'frh'iM are not 
to be confounded with Passive Stems like »K>fnA0; for here, just 
as in 'frtrtfid, i"K7 , f'A, i'OTfUA, the h is treated as a radical. 


General § 88. In the formation of Tenses, Ethiopic like the rest of 

uses of the the Semitic languages, proceeds from the twofold, and not from the 
threefold division of time. To that original stand-point it has always 
adhered. Every action or event is conceived as presenting itself 
either in a finished — and thus realised — state, or in an unfinished 
state ( 3 ). In conformity with this contrasted view of things, only 
two Tenses have been formed, the one, — the Perfect, — to express 
the finished or completed action, the other, — the Imperfect, — to 
express the unfinished or uncompleted action. To this category of 
the incomplete, however, there belongs not only that which is hap- 
pening in the Present, as well as that which is only to be realised 
in the Future, — so that the Ethiopic Imperfect, generally speaking, 
corresponds at once to the Present and the Future of other lan- 
guages, — but also that which is merely thought of and willed, that 


( x ) [That fa did 'actually come in before the in in these Nifal forms, 
appears plain also from the fact, that the Stems under discussion (cf, supra) 
have for the most part a transitive, or causative signification. Words , like 
"to thunder", "to sparkle", are to be explained exactly like »JO^p(, 'opi, 

TMfl, iVv?i & c ; properly "to produce light" &c. In the positively Reflexive 

nature of the in or na, — one inclining to Passive (and in Hebrew and later 
Arabic actually becoming Passive), — it would be a very singular thing if the 
transitive signification had introduced itself thus in Ethiopic -without farther 
assistance. — Noldeke.] 

( 2 ) In Amharic all this is met with in quite the same fashion, though 
more frequently employed than in Ethiopic; cf. Isenbeeg, p. 54 No. XXIV; 
p. 56Nos. VII-X; p. 60 No. VII; [and Guroi, 'Zeitschr. f. Assyr: VIII, 
p. 258 and Note 3.] 

( 3 ) V. farther on this point Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr? § 134. 

§ 88. — 167 — 

which may or must be realised. Accordingly the Imperfect here 
becomes also the source of the formation of the so-called Moods 
of the Verb , through which the conditions of will and necessity- 
are expressed. In Ethiopic, just as in the other Semitic langua- 
ges, moods are formed from the Imperfect only. The Perfect 
has produced from itself no special moods. Farther, the moods 
which have been formed from the Imperfect^) are only two in 
number. With these few tense-forms and conditional forms of the 
Verb, Ethiopic is able to convey the force of all the much more 
richly developed Tenses and Moods of the Indo-European languages. 
1. As regards the two Tenses ( 2 ), the Perfect serves first of 
all and most frequently (a) to express the Past Every action 
which the speaker regards as having happened , or as being past, 
from the point of time of his speaking, he expresses in this tense. 
It is the tense therefore which is usually employed in narration. 
If an action has to be marked as concluded in the past (as in the 
Greek Perfect), the Perfect also must suffice for this. In isolated 
cases only, where Germans would use schon or bereits ('already') 
along with the Perfect, the Ethiopian may also put (DRh "he has 
completed" ( 3 ) before the Perfect (and, according to § 180, 1 a a, 
without a <D), e. g. (D^th't * 'M'GJr "we have (already) shut" Luke 
11,7; [<D/JMl- s Chfc "I bave seen already" Hen. 106,13](*). 
Farther, the language has nothing but the Perfect to represent an 
action as already past at a certain point of time in the Past 

( x ) [It is perhaps unfortunate that Dillmann employs the same word — 
Imperfect — , both as a generic term for the Tense which is contrasted with the 
Perfect, and as a specific term for the formation which is now regarded as that 
Mood of the Imperfect Tense which is differentiated from the Subjunctive. It would 
have conduced to clearness, if like Praetobitjs and others he had restricted the 
term Imperfect to the Tense, and used the term Indicative for the Mood, tr.] 

( 2 ) On the question whether the Semitic Perfect is only a later devel- 
oped form, cf. Haupt, 'J. Am. Or. Soc\ Vol. XIII, pp. LIV, LXI sq., and on 
the force and signification of the Perfect in contradistinction to the Imper- 
fect, the somewhat prolix explanations of Knudtzon, 'Zcitschr. f. Assyr. 1 
VI, p. 408 sqq., & VII, p. 33 sqq. 

( 3 ) In like manner Jo is always prefixed in Arabic; Ewald, l Gr. Arab.' 1 
§ 199 sq. But the usage mentioned is not so common in Ethiopic. Besides, 
Q*£?h may also be placed after the verb, e. g. HfoaDiOJRh. John 6,17. 

(*) [This is Flemming's reading,— not Dillmann's, who reads merely 

— 168 — § 88. 

(Pluperfect) ; and it has to be gathered, merely from the context and 
the sense of the passage, whether one action has taken place before 
another in the Past, or not. Thus the Perfect may most readily 
stand for the Pluperfect in accessory sentences, particularly in circum- 
stantial clauses, e. g. Gen. 31,34 (accessory to vs. 33 and 35); ft}* 
J&fl, "he had said", Gadla Adam 90, 13; or in sentences which are 
introduced by the relative pronoun, e. g. (DCTtf : Yf"A" s Hl'd/i "and 
he saw all that he had made" Gen. 1,31 ; Hfo> s ft*M° "that he had set 
up" GadlaAd. 147,20; Hfrjs £rt<*»£! <H>AMi: W^fi "who had 
been called 'Good Angel' " Hexaemeron (ed. Trumpp, Munich 1882), 
36,20 sq.; or by relative Conjunctions like flfl, K0°JM£, "h9°hf° 
(also "hfXfi* g>ft6* A*"fc "then he would have forgiven him" Gadla 
Ad. 90, 18). (6) Comparatively seldom does the Ethiopic Perfect serve 
to express Present time, and for the most part in the two following 
cases merely. (1) When a transaction has already begun, starting from 
the Past, and is continued up to the Present, the Perfect is employed, 
e- g- (lYlCtl-f-tl* 't'tRl ■' M • ^aifafa "our sin is forgiven us for 
Christ's sake"; and the use of the Perfect is obligatory, when a 
Future cannot be thought of as taking its place without an alteration 
in the sense, e. g. VU" * 4*Cfl * H^l'dhi, "Lo, he that betrayeth me 
is at hand" Matt. 26, 46. Certain actions especially, for which 
we would use the Present, are mostly expressed in the Perfect, be- 
cause the Ethiopian conceives them as not so much 'a state of being', 
as 'a mode of doing or becoming', e. g. KK^CYl" "I know" ('I 
have learned'); Chjtib "I see"; h^'Pd "he loves". In particular 
the verb (JACD, "to be", — in the sense of "he is there", or "he 
is present", almost always occurs in the Perfect, where in our 
tongue we employ the Present. (2) The other case is met with 
when an action coincides with the very moment of its announcement 
in present speech. Such an action the Ethiopian regards as com- 
pleted with the very utterance of the word, and therefore he puts 
it in the Perfect, e. g. «7tf« s iJ.'fft-tl "Lo, I send thee" Judges 6,14; 
lib* <D(M)tbll "Behold I give thee" Gen. 23,11; Vu-i KlfoB'iXbh 
ilov 7rapoiTi& aoi Tob. 10, 12 (*). On the other hand general 
truths, practices, and customs are expressed mostly by the Imper- 
fect, less frequently by the Perfect, (c) The Perfect is employed 
even to express Future actions, first of all in conditional clauses 

0) [Cf. Kebra Nag., Introduction, p. XX.] 

§ 89. — 169 — 

and relative clauses of equivalent import, when the future action 
has to be represented as preceding another action, which is placed 
still farther on in the future,- — a case in which other languages 
with greater accuracy use the Futurum exactum: — lf*A* s H^tlflfe* 
£«HhAfc "every one who findeth (shall find) me shall slay me'' 
Gen. 4, 14; Mark 16, 16; Matt. 23,12; Gen. 40, 14; [cf. also 
Hen. 14,6 {ChM^)\ 62,15 (-M/^K-)]; {cf infra, § 205). So 
too by dint of a lively imagination, the speaker may transfer him- 
self to the future in such a fashion that a matter appears to him 
as already experienced and accomplished: — it is upon such a 
conception that the Perfectum propheticum in Hebrew is based, 
a usage which occurs often in exactly the same way in Ethiopic, 
in Biblical and kindred writings, e. g. Hen. 48, 8 ; 99, 1 ; and in 
looser diction, e.g. Of : !M»: '(\UF> i/csViarai Kkavd-fJ.6; Matt 8,12, 
just as we too can say: "there — is crying out", instead of "there — 
shall be crying out". In conditional, desiderative, and similar 
clauses, the Ethiopic Perfect corresponds also to the Moods of 
Preterites in other tongues (§ 205). 

§89. 2. The Imperfect, as the means of expressing uncomple- uses of the 
ted actions, serves (a) to denote, above all, the Future. The Imper- Im P erfect - 
feet is the readiest and (with the exception of the cases noticed in 
§ 88, 1 c) the only mode of expressing the Future, whether (1) the 
Absolute Future, like £hflKJ "he will be"; HJE.<w>8rfc ! °i M° "the 
future world", or (2) the Kelative Future, both (a) the Future as 
regarded from a certain point of time in the past, e. g. "he held 
his peace to see \xao s $**%Cfa » MlUK-flrfbC whether God was to 
grant him success" Gen. 24, 21, and (b) the Future which precedes 
another future occurrence {Futurum exactum), e.g. Y^fst'ty'V A ! 
hMl ' YiO° '' &$(D'9 s tyRa** s OflH^* u he shall not be put to 
death, until he stand ('shall have stood') before the judgment-seat" 
Josh. 20, 6. But in the latter case the Perfect occurs much more 
frequently (§ 88). Farther, as the Moods, according to § 90, serve 
only to express what is contemplated or purposed, the simple Im- 
perfect (*) is employed to signify any doubtful, uncertain or conditioned 

(*) [Dillmann seems to regard those modifications of the Imperfect Tense, 
which are presented in the Subjunctive and its offshoot— the Imperative, as 
constituting the two proper Moods of the Ethiopic Verb (cf. § 90), while his 
"plain" or "simple" Imperfect (=the Indicative) is suggested as standing outside 

— 170 — § 89. 

Future, e. g. "take no thought H'ThOAfJ- ri fyayyjTs" Matt. 6, 25; 
"settle for me thy wages Whlh[\X\C) which I am to give thee" ('as 
thou thinkest') Gen. 30, 28; "he set apart a present H^fl>ftJts 
ii%tlQh which he would or could send to Esau" Gen. 32, 14. In 
the same way it is used, — in Conditional clauses, — of any future 
event which is put merely as possible, e. g. Matt. 11, 23 (§ 205). 
Even the Future of Will may be expressed in the plain Imperfect, 
particularly when a decided and stringent command has to be given, 
taking the form "thou wilt do it" in place of "thou shalt do it". 
For some other finer modifications, however, in the predicating of 
a matter in the future, the Ethiopic language employs periphrastic 
forms, contributed to by the auxiliary verb UiMD "to be". Whenever 
a future transaction has to be represented as continuing in the Future, 
the Perfect Ot\P or OtMD is joined to the Imperfect of the principal 
verb, somewhat like amaturus est in Latin; and the Imperfect, as 
containing the main determining idea, takes the first place, e. g. 
&&thQ « U/t° "there will continue to be recording" Hen. 98, 7 ; 
104, 7; £3"lJf»A-i OAfflL "they will perish" ('be perishing') 52, 9; 
H£h<D-'> •' VIP "what will be in the future" 52, 2. But the principal 
verb may also follow the auxiliary, e.g. h*H" ! OtitD'ti 'HhdkRjF's 
■S.A . yog£ i ftaBtpfifo). "which (/".) shall be done on the earth 
in his days" Hen. 106, 18; cf. ibid. 99,2. Naturally too the same 
periphrasis may have the sense of a Future just impending (Futurum 
instans), e. g. fcaoKh* UA° "he is about to come" Hen. 10, 2; 
Wmfs OfUD^ "it (f.) is on the point of sinking" 83,7. Mean- 
while, precisely to indicate the last-mentioned variety of modification 
of the Future, a periphrasis, — made up of UAfl) and a suffix 
pronoun (with the force of a Dat.) followed by the Subjunctive of 
the principal verb, — has become more usual, and is very frequently 
employed( 2 ), e. g. llVtiP •■ p,9°%K 6 juiXXccv spxea&cci Matt. 11, 14; 
17,10; UA5 p -'^7"nfcP "they will (shortly) deliverhimup"Matt.l7,22, 

of the sphere of Mood, and as being a mere counter-balance of the Perfect Tense. 
It would conduce to clearness of nomenclature, as well as to accuracy, to follow 
Peaetobius and other scholars, in holding the General Imperfect Tense as being 
divided into two Moods, viz. (1) the Indicative (=Dillmann's Imperfect), and (2) 
the Subjunctive, including the Imperative as a sub-form, tr.] 

(*) On the other hand Hft(Mlil> which might also stand, would mean— 
"which I am to give" ('as thou hast determined'). 

( 2 ) The Greek /tsXXe/v is also expressed in this way. 

§ 89. — 171 — 

and similarly in 2, 13; 17, 12; Hen. 104, 5. Still more frequently 
some definite shade of the Future, — as in the notions of will, shall, 
must, — is expressed by this device, inasmuch as Vhffl with a suf- 
fix means "it is incumbent on one to—", e. g. JP'J'f'! ^«7fl4-s 
\)(U[)\\ar>~ "what will you do (then) ?" Hen. 97,3; 101,2; OtUD\}0»- : 
fyCh&P "y° u ^11 t> e obliged to see him", "you must (then) see him" 
Hen. 55, 4; 98, 12; Matt. 16, 21; Gen. 15, 13; 18, 19; Ex. 16, 23;— 

similarly fiV-i £f|«7J?« "they had to worship" Gadla Ad. 147,18 sq. 

Occasionally the suffix pron. for VtOD is wanting, as in Hen. 100, 8 ; 
and OtifD stands also, although comparatively seldom, after the Sub- 
junctive, Hen. 104,5. 

(&) But, by its very conception, the Imperfect expresses also 
that which is coming into being, that namely which already is in 
process of becoming, but which is not yet completed, (a) It is 
therefore the most obvious tense, and the one most frequently 
employed, to indicate the Present (Praesens), especially when the 
action of the Present is not one which passes by in one moment, 
e. g.:— "tell John n^9°(h • (DM^^ what you are (at this 
very time) hearing and seeing" Matt. 11, 4. And it is so much in 
common use for Present time, that even the Present Participle is 
usually expressed periphrastically by this tense: HJRJiCfr "a sower", 
"sowing" &c. ("who sows" Impf.); or ChMP* VthOhC "I see him 
go" ('going' — 'that he is going' — ). And where usages, customs, and 
actions, which are continuous or which are often repeated, are 
delineated, the Imperfect is always summoned to take the duty 
first; and it is comparatively seldom that the Perfect is used instead. 
(j8) But, just as frequently and usually, that which was coming into 
being in the Past is denoted by this tense, and 'then it answers 
quite regularly to the Latin Imperfectum. Whenever in narration 
an action has to be represented as continuing, or as being gradually 
accomplished, or as being repeated, the Imperfect is used through- 
out: "the governor was wont to release some one at the feast" 
Mr?:- hfo&IP Matt. 27,15; M*Y- ■ £*£■£»* A-flV* Hhtf"' 
£V*7£7 otyl ij Kapbia vjjutiv /caiopiivyj tjv sv ^juiv, a; skakei y\{uv\ 
Luke 24,32; HA£* ftWlC* FhMl** "- <Dh°%VC "continually 
I sat with you and taught" Matt. 26,55; tiTW^li' f^dJ^f^' 
J&Ch'fl! M ft r f g "from that time he sought (continually) to find an 
opportunity" 26,16; Gen. 27,41; 25,21; in the description of the 
manners of Noah's time, Matt. 24, 38 sq., and similar instances in 

— 172 — § 89. 

Matt. 4,23, and Gen. 2,6. The Imperfect is therefore the tense 
of circumstantial clauses, in which the accessory circumstances, ac- 
companying the main action, are described, whether they are in- 
troduced by (D, VJH, or in some other way, e. g. >i*>H 8 &AA0-* 
£0, "while they ate, he said" Matt. 26,21; anShM^fi' &0> m 9 o 
'while he slept" 8,24; Gen. 3,8; tfAm.: b&.p\tf <*»* • tDKWM* 
"they were naked and were not ashamed" Gen. 2,25. In smoothly 
flowing narration also, statements which describe anything of a 
circumstantial nature appear in the Imperfect, e.g. fDOtilD* *fl?ifl« s 

flW-flC- Ohio-: £41*:* h,9&9°'- a>}f»h'. A~fc» -flhrt/f- 

Judges 19, 1. If, however, duration in past time has to be expressed 
still more precisely, so as to bring into more distinct prominence the 
notion of the customary character of an action, or its coincidence 
with some accessory circumstance or other, then the language has 
once more at its disposal, for this purpose, the periphrasis constitu- 
ted by VlMD or tij "to be", followed by the Imperfect of the verb 
concerned^): — e. g.\ Ji>: J&f^lC* I'fi/i' "flC^ "he was wont to 
fabricate implements of brass" Gen. 4, 22; (DIM : fvh*>ft 8 ^fll 
9°4» s 01^9° "John baptised, ('used to baptise') in the wilderness" 
Mark. 1,4; <D/f"PA: Oilr* £H1C> fDtl't'' hTr&K "just while Lot 
was sitting in the gate" Gen. 19,1 ; 18,22 ; Wfc : M£b * AX a 7tlJk* • • • • 
(D^O* "I was just praising God . . . ., when lo (they called me)" 
Hen. 12, 3; frj: fJfrfJtXi Gadla Ad. 95,28; flfr: ££fr "it was 
fitting" = "it would have been fitting" G adla Ad. 90, 21 ; but also 

fo>- *1&4« "hdbUdbcmt" Gadla Ad. 103,9; and even Jfl4.s $,th 

*}& "they kept on building" Gadla Ad. 164, 1 sqq_. [and VflClb • fc&A. 
"I kept on praying" Philosophi Abessini (Littmann) 20, 23]. In 
contrast to the similar periphrasis for the Present in the Future (v. 
supra), DA ID and frV must stand first here. A case, different from 
those which have hitherto been described, arises when the speaker or 
narrator transfers himself into past time in so lively a manner that he 
represents it as passing at that very moment, or as being present to 
himself and his hearers (Praesens historicum). In such a case, actions 
may be described in the Imperfect, which in less lively narration 
would necessarily have been expressed in the Perfect. This turn 
of speech is not very common in Ethiopic; but upon it depends the 
universal use of J&fl, "he said" (literally, "says he") in narration. 

(*) Just as in Arabic: Ewald, l Gr. Arab. 1 § 208. 

§ 90. — 173 — 

§ 90. From the Imperfect, as the expression of uncompleted Derivation 
action, or of action coming into being, are farther derived the Moods j££ e ^ odB 
(§ 88 in init). Ethiopic has developed only two. In particular, imperfect 
if the action coming into being has to be set forth as one that 
is willed (whether it is one that is founded in the will of the acting 
Subject or in the will of another), then this condition is denoted 
by a special form of the Imperfect, which we shall henceforth call 
the Subjunctive. The Subjunctive stands wherever the expression 
of purpose, or of will or wish is in question. It stands not only 
in dependent and subordinate clauses, but also in simple and direct 
deliverances, and therefore it has at once the force of a Subjunctive 
and a Jussive. It is accordingly employed in plain command (unless 
the Imperfect (*) is preferred, by § 89), either with an introductory 
conjunction, as in Aj&Vb'J 1 -flCVJ "Let there be light!" Gen. 1,3, 
or without it, as in fOhtl-fl "he shall marry" Matt. 22, 24 (for the 
second person, however, the Imperative is used). Farther it ap- 
pears as a Cohortative, e. g. Yt&ty "Let us build!" Gen. 11, 4, 
and in wishing, as in h l ?ll«Kilth.C : £d«Hlh "The Lord preserve 
thee!" Ps. 120, 4. Even in Interrogative clauses, it makes its ap- 
pearance, whenever the action is conceived as one which is willed 
by some one, e. g. MR'Th "am I to abandon?" Judges 9, 9; 
XC S h*7fl£* ATTH* 1 Y\C "how can I act in this way (that you 
require of me)?" Gen. 39, 9; and so in all other sentences of what- 
ever kind, e. g. hh^Ci* Xio** IrfWlrM 2 ) "we know that we must 
praise him" Hen. 63, 4, whereas Xiao s *>rt,«fl,h means "that we 
shall praise him"; or fcAfls HjWft** p(pao*i a^% "there is 
no one whatever, who is to hear their voice", i. e.\ 'no man must 
hear it!' Josh. 6, 10. Quite as frequent or still more frequent 
employment is found for the Subjunctive in dependent or sub- 
ordinate clauses, which attach to the main clause the object aimed 
at or only some purposed result, whether the purposed action (or 
result) may be immediately subordinated to the main action, as in 
Klilf: PUft- "commanded (he) that they give" Matt. 19,7, 1£"7: 
tO\£> "allow that we see" i. e. "let us see", 27,49; aoRhi fAfF* 
"he came to seek" 18, 11; or be subordinated by means of a relative 
pronoun, as in "they sought false witnesses Off * £«HhA? > through 

( x ) [That is to say,— the Indicative, tr.] 

( 2 ) [Flemming's edition reads:— Trft'fljh. tb.] 

— 174 — § 91. 

whom they might put him to death" 26,59; or by means of a con- 
junction, as in hldC? 00 * : \\"° * &&Cb "he constrained them to 
go up into" 14, 22 &c. Accordingly it must stand regularly after 
certain final Conjunctions, particularly after \\ao "in order that", 
and suchlike, and farther, after those which contain the idea of 
"before", "not yet" (§ 170) , e. g. hJP^Jt^ s £-n<feA "before it 
(i. e. 'herb or grass') grew" Gen. 2,5, — because in such clauses lies 
the meaning that there is something to come about, or to be deter- 
mined, but that it is not yet realised ( 1 ). On all these cases, which 
are merely indicated here, v. infra in the Syntax. 

The Imperative is a special ramification of the Subjunctive, 
and has been developed out of it. Although it may be formed from 
all verbal stems, it is only used in the second person, and never in a 
subordinate relation, but only in direct speech by way of command, 
wish, request &c. It takes the place of the second person of the Sub- 
junctive, so far as the latter is Jussive. But since it admits of absolutely 
no subordination to any other conception, and can only be set down as 
an independent summons, it is again replaced by the Subjunctive as 
soon as the summons is preceded and conditioned by a negative. 
General § 91. The formation of these two Tenses and Relations (Per- 

i^rmation f eG ^ an ^ Imperfect) of the Verb is effected by the co-operation of 
in the two formative expedients. The one consists in the different way of 
TnT attaching to the Stem the additions which form the Persons of the 

imperfect Yerb. Seeing that a Yerbal stem, on entering upon the process 


of Tense-formation, at the same time brings to view of itself the 
distinction between the persons, there is actually no Tense-forma- 
tion without Personal-formation; and thus the Semitic tongue was 
enabled to make use of Personal-formation as a means also of 
Tense-formation. The contrast between the Perfect and the Im- 
perfect is in fact given expression to by the contrast presented by 
the two possible positions of the signs used in indicating the Per- 
sons. In forming the Perfect the Personal sign is attached to the 
end of the stem, so that e. g. tfDAh^h means: — "full (is) she"; but 
in forming the Imperfect it is attached to the beginning of the 
stem, so that e. g. "h^w AK means : "she (is about to be) full". In 
the latter case the action is represented as something still standing 
before the person, in the former as something already set behind 

(!) Cf. the like in Arabic: Ewald, 'Gr. Arab.' § 210. 

§ 91. — 175 — 

the person; and by this device the essential difference between the 
two Tenses is hit off with great subtlety. Along with this formative 
expedient is associated the second, vis. — Internal Vowel-Change. 
This change is very simple in Ethiopic, as it now lies before us: — 
In all Stems of active signification the characteristic vowel following 
the second-last radical, if it is e in the Perfect, passes into a in 
the Imperfect, and if it is a in the Perfect, into e in the Imperfect. 
But in Reflexive Stems, which at the same time serve as Passives, 
and generally are closely allied to the Passive, this change is either 
not carried out at allt 1 ), or only to a partial extent. For by another 
rule which takes effect here, the Passive must take, in the Imper- 
fect, a in the place where the Active has e. This a prevails without 
exception in the Imperfect of the stronger Reflexive Stems; and 
it was due only to the fact that some had introduced into the Per- 
fect an e instead of a in the critical position, that there emerged 
a farther partial change between Perfect and Imperfect. On the 
other hand the weaker Reflexive Stem V (belonging to the Multi- 
literal Roots) exhibits the same change as the Active Stems. Both 
the Tense-forms originally possessed,— in those Persons, to which 
no formative addition was appended, — a vowel-ending (just as in 
Arabic), which, following the distinction of the tenses, must have 
changed between a for the Perfect and e (u) for the Imperfect. 
Such vowel-ending constituted a farther mark of distinction be- 
tween the two tenses, and served also to distinguish Moods in the 
Imperfect Stem, by different pronunciation. But Ethiopic soon 
gave up entirely the vowel-ending of the Imperfect at least, i. e. 
the e (just as it did the termination of the Nominal Stems, § 38), 
while it regularly ( 2 ) preserved the ending a in the Perfect. And 
so by this difference a new contrast is brought about between the 
two Tenses: — The Perfect has a fuller vowel- expression ; the Im- 
perfect ends with the last radical in the forms mentioned. 

O And just as little in the Arabic Stems V and VI. 

( 2 ) It is only in the one Perfect OitT, used for UAflJ "to be", and 
occurring quite as frequently in the latter form, that the a has been thrown 
off or has blended into an o, so that it resembles the form of expression of 
verbs tertiae mfirmae with the Syrians. That the distinction in meaning between 
OA" au d VlUD, which Ludolf sets up in his 'Lexicon?, is incorrect, has been 
already pointed out by Drechsler. [On the slight variation of this final ft in 
the Abyssinian dialects, v. Noldeke, "Beitr. z. sem. Sprachwiss", p. 15, Note 2.] 


— 176 — § 91. 

older Form In the other Semitic languages, if they possess Moods at all, 

° f tTense } sucn Moods are formed from the Imperfect, partly by modification 
used as the f the final vowel and of the personal-endings, and partly by short- 
Mood.- ening; and in the most ancient times this appears to have .been the 
Fuller case a i so i n Ethiopic. But in still early days the final vowels here 

Form as *■ . 

the pure must have fallen away ; and the fuller endings which are still retained 
[= P the 6 in- i n Arabic, must have been greatly curtailed and abbreviated, so 
d i cat i! e that they became incapable of showing by themselves, through 
farther abbreviation, the distinction of Moods. But now, while 
Hebrew, — which so far had followed nearly the same course as 
Ethiopic, — either gave up entirely the distinction of Moods, or 
expressed it by shortening interior formative-, or radical-vowels, and 
by cutting off final radical-vowels, Ethiopic took a different path. 
It kept the old form of the Imperfect, curtailed as it was, for the 
Subjunctive, and from it fashioned a new and fuller form for the 
Imperfect [or Indicative]. It compensated for the vowels and nasals 
discarded at the end, by interpolating an a in the stem itself after 
the first radical (and in the case of the Multiliteral verb, after the 
third-last radical) ( x ). Thus there arose a new Mood-distinction, 
and a form of the Imperfect which diverges from the Imperfect- 
forms of all the other Semitic languages [with the exception of 
Assyrian]. And, since the Imperfect [or Indicative] thus depends 
upon a later formation, and the old form is represented rather by the 
Subjunctive, we must, in discussing this class of forms, start always 
with the Subjunctive as the Ground-form. The Imperative proceeds 
from the Subjunctive, with which it is intimately allied in meaning, 
the Personal sign of the 2 nd pers. Subj. being discarded from the 
beginning of the same. In every other respect the Imperative agrees 
completely with the Subjunctive : only, in one or two verbs of the 
First Stem it exhibits farther and more pronounced abbreviations. 
In the several roots and stems these general rules of formation 
are applied in the following manner. 

(*) Like the method followed in Ethiopic in the inner Feminine forma- 
tion of one or two Adjectives, where formative vowels, which originally were 
attached externally, forced their way into the interior of the form (§ 129). On the 
corresponding forms in Assyrian, v. Barth, 'Zeitschr. f. Assyr.' II, p. 383 sq., and 
Hommbl, ZDMG XLIV, p. 539. On the like in the Arabic dialect of Zanzibar, 
v. Praetorius, ibid XXXIV, p. 225. Of. also Konig, p. 82; Philippi, 'Beitr. z. 
A$»yr? II, p. 383 sq., and Rbinisch, 'Die Bedauye-Sprache\ Vol. Ill, p. 136 sqq. 

§ 92. — 177 — 

§ 92. I. 1. In the simple Ground-Stem of the Tri-radical i. Tense 
Root , the Transitive and Intransitive modes of pronunciation are formation 
differentiated, in accordance with § 76. In the former the Perfect in-i-aimpia 

7 " Ground- 

is given as >7£ (nagdra) "he spoke" ; in the latter, as 7»fl^ (gdora) stem. - 

"he was active". In the Subjunctive the characteristic vowel takes ^^2 a . 

up a position after the second radical, the first and third having lti™ Pro- 

d i o • nunciation. 

no vowel. The Personal sign for the 3 ra pers., £, by § 101, unites 
with the first radical to form a syllable with the help of the vowel 
e. The formative vowel after the second radical is e for Transitive 
verbs, according to § 91 (to which e the i — e, and u — o of other 
tongues have been reduced), and d for Intransitive. Thus the cor- 
responding Subjunctives are given as $/}"lC and £*7flC> with the 
accent on the first syllable: yenger, yegbar( x ). The Imperative 
has the sound T7C and *7flC neger (or neger ?) , gebdr. The Im- 
perfect ( 2 ) [or Indicative] anew interpolates an a after the first 
radical, by which proceeding the Personal sign is isolated, and it 
is then pronounced with a mere vowel-touch (Sh e va). The new 
vowel takes the accent, and so greatly dominates the word that an 
a, in the syllable following it, must be reduced to e, thus: — j&J*?C r 
£"I*flG yenager, yegaber. The distinction between a transitive and 
an intransitive pronunciation accordingly disappears in this case. 
Meanwhile, — just as in the other Semitic languages, — there are 
several verbs in Ethiopic which merely in one of the two tense- 
forms follow either the transitive or the intransitive form( 3 ); while 

( x ) Of. Trumpp, p. 530; Konig, p. 158 sq.— In Tigrai' a short vowel is 
inserted after the first radical, in the Subjunctive (Praetorius, i Tigriva\ 
p. 276 Rem.; Schreiber, '■Manuel de la langue TigraV, p. 37), which Noldeke 
(GGA 1886, No. 26, p. 1014) regards as original. 

( 2 ) [V. Notes to §§ 88, 89, as to Dillmann's nomenclature of the Moods : — 
to be kept in view in what follows, tr.] 

( 3 ) [Dillmann means that there are several Ethiopic verbs which are 
neither solely transitive in form nor solely intransitive, throughout both the 
Perfect and the Subjunctive. So far as can be made out from what follows, 
the different varieties under this relation would be; 

1. Tr. in Perf. and Tr. in Subi } . 

' J \ regular 

2. Intr. „ Intr. „ J 

3. Intr. „ Tr. & Intr. „ 

4. Tr. & Intr. „ Tr. & Intr. „ 

5. Tr. & Intr. „ Intr. „ 

6. Intr. „ Tr. 

7. Tr. „ Intr. „ tr.] 


— 178 — § 92. 

on the other hand there are some which fluctuate between the two 
forms in the Subjunctive, just as according to § 76 several verbs 
admit of both even in the Perfect. The following verbs fluctuate 
between the two forms of pronunciation in the Subjunctive: — 
4»Cfl "to draw near", J&^'fl and j&4»C"fl; *1rA4* "to pass away", 
JB/VAfc and j&U* (v. Gen. 8,3); OCl "to ascend"; 0*}fl "to 
be pregnant"; RA^ "to be dark"; Rfaao "to be tired" ( x ). The 
verb rthfl and flhfl "to lie down" forms both .ftfth-fl and j&flVHl; 
£*f-fll and Aftm "to wish", both f^^i'Oh (£<£-£) and frqityah 
(£¥ir)' O n the other hand, of those verbs which shift about in 
the Perfect between the two forms, some exhibit in the Subjunctive 
the Intransitive form exclusively, or at all events in the great 
majority of cases: — £{F°AA "may he be like!"; ^flC "let him 
be connected!"; £ftftA "let him ask!"; £<£<:£ "let him be fruit- 
ful!". The following have only the Intransitive form in the Perfect, 
and only the Transitive in the Subjunctive: — }*7i*» "to be king", 
£T7/**; 7TM. "to be thick", J&^Tf^; VPft "to make escape", 
£*}¥#■ • Contrast with these the following, which have the Transi- 
tive form in the Perfect and the Intransitive in the Subjunctive:— 
£tlfi "to find", j&tfMI; 71U "to sit", £-JflC, 0+fl "to keep"; 
0%>d "to wrap up"; O-f-fl "to bless with the sign of the cross"; 
tlOlD "to pour". The Imperative invariably follows the Sub- 

t. and m. (1) Of the Aspirate Verbs those which have an Aspirate as 

r of lon their first letter have only this peculiarity, that, by § 44, they 

Aspirate f urn i sn the Personal sign of che Imperfect with the vowel a instead 

Verbs- ° \_ 

of a fugitive e: P0C7, fVflC, f0*-fl &c.( 2 ). 

(2) Those which have an Aspirate as their final letter, whether 
they be transitive or intransitive, have all, by § 45, the form in the 
Perfect aofofa "to be full"; wCO "to set in order" (maVa, gar' a); 
and likewise, in the Subjunctive, seeing that here the Aspirate by 
rule requires a before it instead of e (§ 44), they have only one 
form of pronunciation, lengthening this a into a, by § 46 : J&jP'AJij 
£/^d, £-fl#fl — Imperative: 9°Mi, f»&*6, 9°Xh, M*. But 

0) [Gf. also Kebra Nag., p. XXXI, sub Ocrfl and fih£ ] 

( 2 ) On the other hand, after ^ "not", £, appears as a result of retro- 
gressive Assimilation, e. g. h+frthRd* "they </.) do not dwell"; v. Komo, 
p. 118 sqq. 

§ 92. — 179 — 

they exhibit no peculiarity in the Imperfect: £<7i>A?i, J&i*»G& 

(3) Verbs with an Aspirate for their middle letter run, when 
transitive, like AAh "to send"; ftrhfl "to draw", but when in- 
transitive, by § 45, like AU# "to grow", ftAfc "to deny", ^fl 
"to be little" : Several vary between the two forms (§ 76). In the 
Subjunctive these roots also have a instead of e, on account of the 
Aspirate (§ 44),— so that from transitives and intransitives alike 
we have the formations J&flrh'fl J&hrhJt, £A0C, £9°thC. In 
the Imperative, however, one says regularly, by § 44, iith'tt, h*fi£*> 
instead of tldvfl, hrh£" &c. The Imperfect, by § 45, takes the 
form £ftdi-fl yeseheb, instead of J&Arh*fl ; and similarly frKfaqi 
"he writes"; £AU4» "he grows"; JE.£"V> "he saves himself"; but 
*J*PdA appears, as well as tdhd A Gren. 33, 14 var. 

Only a few roots in frequent employment, having weak Aspi- 
rates, exhibit peculiar forms here. Ch? "to see" has the form 
£Cfc£ in the Subj., but, by § 46, it lengthens g,Ch£> into ££&. 
in the Imperf. ; and in the same way II, 1 $&h«\ Imper. Ch+ and 
^ftjR. It is imitated now and then by Gflf "to herd", Imperfect 
¥>&>% ; but this formation is not founded in the nature of the ; 
and the better class of manuscripts usually have J&G'i. for it (cf. 
infra § 94). Farther tlM "to be unable" might lengthen its e in 
the Imperf., thus £fl,V>, as appears from Ludolf's 'Lex.', col. 172, 
although, as a rule, it forms p,tlM 5 cf. Dillmann's l Lex.\ col. 377. 
Then the root -flUA "to say" (little used now in the Perfect) dis- 
cards its in the Subj. and Imperf.: accordingly we have the 
Subj. £flA (for JK.'OOA), and the Imper. flA- In the Imperfect 
the e is at the same time lengthened into e, after the manner of 
the foregoing instances : thus we get £ft»A (§ 46) ; and, as A is 
cut off in all those Persons, in which it would become the final 
letter (§ 58), the result is £fl,. But seeing that this £fl» is in- 
variably used (§ 89 ad fin.) with the force of a Preterite, "he 
said", the language fashioned a new Imperfect £-flA, for £'fH/A, 
in the sense— "he says" and "he will say". In like manner although 
the Subj. of hoA "to be able" is given in full pftUfr the Imperf. 

( ) So that the form, — to judge by the written character, — coincides 
with the Subjunctive of strong Transitive verbs. In pronunciation it is es- 
sentially different from it. 


— 180 — § 93. 

is usually shortened into J&hA. (yekel); but £}]UA occurs also, 
v. I Kings, 26, 25. Roots in which two Aspirates meet together 
are rare (§66): -fl/hft "to become sour"; MH "to take", "to 
catch" ( x ). The latter forms the Subj. J&VMI, Imper. K-VH, 
Imp.erf. £Mlf. The Subj. f ft*VH, which Ludolp found in an 
old manuscript, Ps. 15, 6 and 34, 9 (cf. also John 7, 30) and for 
which he printed f Mil (as Subj. of St. I, 2), may perhaps be 
explained by £ft having been spoken at one time like «\ 

§ 93. Of roots ivith doubled final letter (x/'y) the Transitive 
Perfect is pronounced like "^WIP "to seek"; Vflfl "to speak"; and 
the Intransitive, like fauo (hdmma, for ^9°"° hdm e ma, § 55) "to 
be ill", "to suffer". Some take both modes of expression: — V&& 
and}£ "to burn"; diXft and/hH " to become small", "to decrease"; 
T»pf and 1»p "to flee". From these come the Transitive Sub- 
junctives Wrr, tf/HMl (£/lrHh £&£■£", MA A); — also 
from ftflfl "to compress" and "to be narrow", £ff'fl'fl, — Imper. 
-iFr, XM1, A*.*— but the Intransitive £"*&£■, £T"f£( 2 ), 
£dP£ ( 3 ) ; Imper. *>&£" &c. The Imperfect is pronounced ffl&g? 
yenaded, £VfMI, Wfr (§ 92). 
verbs Of Boots beginning with a Vowel, the only one beginning 

pnm. voc. w ^k ^ w ] 3 j c ] 1 i s as y e ^ vouched for in this Stem (Simple Ground- 
Stem) is e-nA (intr.) "to be dry", Imperf. JE^HA, Subj. ££flA, 
Imper. £flft. But those which begin with ^ are numerous. Trans- 
itive and Intransitive forms are found in the Perfect: — e. g. fDA£ 
"to beget", (Did "to throw" and "to stone", fll^ft "to descend", 
<Dfl& "to lead away" ; (D^T* (rarely fl)&4» Numb. 14, 5) "to fall"; 
with middle Aspirate: GhthH "to flow", Oh^R "to become few", 
fl^fll (and a)"1m) "to gulp down", fl)l/0 "to give"; with final 
Aspirate: <D*?ft "to butt", "to push"; (Dflh "to go out". Only 
a small number of these preserve the initial w-sound in the Sub- 
junctive, hardened into a semi-vowel in the combination j&Oh (§ 49), 
whence in transitive form J&<0**^C (Lev. 24, 16; Deut. 22, 24), 
£0>«C4», J&m-^C, £<Mr-C £Oh<F}, ¥,&.$., J&Oh^fl Acts 19, 33; 

C 1 ) Y\"\{+ has Subj. I, 2 *ihK*VC> according to a single reading in 
Ex. 22,28, in the sense "to delay"; other MSS. have 11,1. 

( 2 ) Also £?<■££ Numb. 10, 34. 

( 3 ) [For the form J&frVJ, along with j&R*^^, from Jtf , ftfi "to be 

inclined" v. Kebra Nag. 117 b 12.] 

§ 93. — 181 — 

of Aspirate roots: ^Ohp} l Hen. 89, 43; £ah?6 ("to suck") 
Hebrews 5, 12. In the majority of cases the sound, — J&fll-, which 
is not much in favour, is simplified by rejecting the tfh (§ 53), and 
then, when the verbs are transitive, the second syllable is strength- 
ened by assuming a instead of e. True, the form £f|£" (yesed) 
also occurs, e. g. in Gen. 27, 10, Note; Ps. 42, 3; but usually ct 
prevails: — J&AJ^tO), J&7C John 8, 7 (as well as the above-mentioned 
J&fl*"*7G)> £<£.G (the u being retained in this case after the pre- 
formative), JR«J»C? £fll*J ; just as in the Intransitives $,$&, £££"• 
From middle-Aspirate verbs, f <hTf (§ 44); f O&i Luke 19,5; flfP 
Ps. 68, 18; PIM1- From final- Aspirate verbs, £?ft. Whenever 
the first radical has fallen out in the Subjunctive, it ceases also to 
appear in the Imperative, thus $Jp, ££■, A£r> IMIj ¥h\ and from 
forms like J&ftJt? comes the Imperative ftj^ Ex. 33, 12; Gen. 42, 19 
(although now and then rtJt is also found, as well as J&rtJCW But 
even from frOh°iC there is derived, by rejecting the first radical, 
«7C Ex. 1, 22 ( — yet we have also ah°lC, and 7C from J&1C? 
v. Notes ad loc.) : and similarly we say 4*C (from £04*^ "to hew") 
Dent. 10, 1, as well as #C, fl^fr and OhQC Ex. 34, 1, v. Notes ( 2 ). 
The Imperfect of all these verbs uniformly runs thus : J&fDjHk 
£<DA£", £<DCf), F'tDbh and from Middle- Aspirates, J&CD-fhTf, 
£fl>*fl A. &c. Only, the much employed word (Dfjfl, by transposing the 
tt-sound in £(D a U'fl yeweheb, invariably takes instead of it the form 

£iMK 3 ) 

Boots mediae infirmae of both kinds, — i. e. both with i and 
u as middle radical — , do away with (§ 50) the a or e in the Perfect, 
which ought to make itself heard after the second radical, thus 
obliterating any distinction between a Transitive and an Intransitive 
form of pronunciation. They invariably blend their vowel-radical 
with the formative a of the first syllable into a mixed sound : #<£ 
"to bear", "to carry"; £& "to run"; ,h<J "to go"; «t«fl> "to set"; 
°Xm "to turn"; 0,-f- "to pass the night"; and so too when the 

C 1 ) Cf. jJjG, T^; Philippi, ZDMG XL, p. 653. 

( 2 ) Some of the verbs concerned here are not yet supported by examples 
in all the forms. 

( 3 ) In accordance with § 68, this may be regarded as a transition from 
a Vowel-beginning Root to a Vowel-centred one; but in that case it must be 
assumed at the same time, that here the old form of the Imperfect, which 
elsewhere took the meaning of a Subj., continued to be retained. 

— 182 — § 93. 

verb is at the same time tertiae gutturalis: 1°h "to conquer"; 
flji "to come"; &rh "to make a way"; «6rh "to be red"C). It is 
only those, which are at the same time vowel-ending, that take 
another form, § 94. When Ludolf in his Lexicon cites forms like 
•fHDfr, ^(Dl», 0(D% <w»Prt, £? 0, Af (1, Af £, £f V, he has given 
them this shape only, because he had not yet met with their more 
exact expression in the Perfect, in the course of his reading. The 
forms of the Perfect If ^, Afi*, 0<dA are vouched for, it is true, 
but they appear to represent Stem 1, 2 ( 2 ). The Subjunctive from 
roots mediae i takes throughout, by § 50, the form f» a i M ^, $***L9°, 
£fc£% £*V.A, £rtl«d, £rh«fl Matt. 11,20; Jude 9:— Imperative 
tn L g T, "W * &.A I s - 40, 2. Roots middle u also nearly all have 
the form described in § 50:— £ft.C, £4-fo £0-£*, £«**fl, JEM; 
Imperative ft.C, 0-£% v*6. Also, fo> "to be" has mostly JR-ft-"} 
in the Subjunctive, and Yi«"} in the Imperative; but, according to 
§§ 26 and 36, these forms may be still farther shortened into JE^'J 
and Vf*"}. It is, however, unmistakeable that an intransitive form 
existed also at one time in the Subjunctive and Imperative, at 
least in roots mediae u, and that this form caused the intransitive 
vowel a, — which has to be given after the second radical — , to 
remain still audible ( 3 ). — It is most frequently preserved still in 
£fHG> /**& particularly in older manuscripts, though later ones 
generally have £/h«G, d*C- So too with £#C and JE-ft-CO- It 
may be met with too in other instances here and there, e. g. in 
fity = frfj^; v. Dillmann's 'Lexicon'. In roots mediae i, such 
differentiation of an intransitive form cannot yet be authenticated, 
even for more ancient times. Pinally, the Subjunctive of the two 
roots flft "to come" and «jpX "to conquer" were perhaps at one 
time also pronounced £fl?i> QWh 5 but, under the influence of the 
final Aspirate, o passed over, in accordance with § 44, into an un- 

( J ) Cf. the Arabic Imdla; Konig, p. 67; Barth ZDMG XLIV, p. 698. 
[The Imdla, of course, is the 'deflection' of the a-sound towards the «'-sound; 
v. Weight's i Ar. Gramm." 1 3 rd ed. I, p. 10 0. tr.] 

( 2 )This cannot be determined with certainty before the relative Imperfect- 
forms have been found. 

( 3 ) It is distinguished from the Transitive form, just as K13J is from 

>i -- \ >- 

U\p\, or oUbo from Jyb. 

( 4 ) [V. also Kebra Nag. 'Introd.' p. XVII.] V. on the other hand Konig, 
p. 151 sq. 

§ 94. — 183 — 

alterable a (§ 46), whence we invariably have .ftflh JK^h, and in 
the Imperative flh, "VhO- The Imperfect of all these roots, of 
both kinds , whether transitive or intransitive , is formed precisely 
as in the strong verb ; but the vowel-radical which follows the inter- 
polated (v. § 92) and accented a must be hardened into a semi- 
vowel, thus: ftoah% £&a*c, &ah% eofl>«j?:, f rh<»-c, ¥>1lah% 

P,t»fr9°, £#£&, eUJ&Jt, ?*h£fl Rev. 2, 4. (On the pronuncia- 
tion v. § 50), 

§ 94. Boots tertiae infirmae of both kinds (with % and with u) weak 
sound the final a in the 3 rd pers. Sing, of the Perfect, just as all tL ^ e 8 d: !! n " 
the other roots do, and thus regularly harden their vowel-radical yerbs tert - 
in this position (§§ 51, 68). It is only in one or two instances that 
an Intransitive form occurs in the Perfect from roots tertiae u, 
and in these instances the second radical is either an Aspirate, or 
a vowel or semivowel: — "tlHD "to follow"; ^+01, more rarely 
<{/h<D "to lust after"; also \\0(D "to pour out"; (\ ( \\(D "to extend" 
(neut.) ; on the other hand ft* jh<0 "to awake" (neut.) ; 9°VW "to 
melt" (neut.) ; and so too the doubly weak root rhJ&CD "to live" 
(originally hdyewa, more shortly haiwa) ; cf, infra. In roots tertiae 
i, however, the distinction between the transitive and the intrans- 
itive modes of pronunciation is regularly indicated in forms rt£f 
"to pardon"; fltfDf "to name"; frflf "to refuse"; ^if and -^Cf 
"to elect"; &i£ and &XX "to bear fruit"; (ft? "to drink"; fl-fltf 
"to be big" ; fl M "to grow old" ; ChX "to see" ; Cdf "to feed", 
"to herd"; 'JOP "to recover" (n.); Ohd? "to burn". In the Subjunc- 
tive the short e of the transitive form is dislodged by the third 
radical, § 51, and therefore we have j&^A* (for yetle-u)\ J&fri:, 
OTA-, £dft., £M., £TJ4-, £?* Matt. 26,34; and others;— 
£-mu "to weep"; fM& "to dig"; £Mv, Deut. 4,42; £C4>; 
J&Trt. Ex. 32,10; J&AA. "to sing"; £fc<5, £dfl., Ps. 130,4. But 
the a of the intransitive form, as well as the a of roots middle-As- 
pirate, retains its position, and forms a diphthong with the radical 
which follows it; thus constantly with a following l\ — ¥4\i$>\ 
£fli*£ (now and then in the transitive form ^ft*fc); J&*t<J£; 

(*) If it were only (l|\ that had this formation, it might also have been 
accounted for in accordance -with § 68, a [,— an explanation which might be still 
retained, if we consider jEr^Ji to be an analogous formation to J&HK 
(v. §103).] 

— 184 — § 94. 

£-flA£; £W (from W), £T0£; £7U£; £Ch£, £CO£ — 

also with a following u, in which case, it is true, the diphthong 
often turns into the mixed letter 6: £^«f- Ex. 20,17. After an 
Aspirate, however, the diphthongal form is more closely adhered 
to, although it is not invariably retained: £KVh<0*; £flfh<D*; J&h 
OQh. Accordingly the Imperative takes, in some cases, the form 
^As 0&; 8"A*; fl^; 6A.; 1A«; Oft, and in others, the form \\QOh 
(§ 44) and even 4»-*T, Bev. 3, 19 (Old Ed.); «7*£; *flA£; A1«£ (and 
in transitive form ft-fc); £0J&, e. #. John 21, 15, 16 ( a ). But C?iP 
"to see", although it has always jRChjK. — never ¥*Ch+ — in the 
Subjunctive, yet takes the shorter (transitive) form in the Impera- 
tive, viz. Ch*- — The form £hj& or even G?i£, which is read here 
and there, is not a good reading. In the Imperfect the e, which 
should be uttered after the second radical, is regularly dislodged 
by the succeeding vowel, thus: £i«A*, ££iv £lA*, £H4«> £1* 

"to sound", f 0&, f Ms, £A-fc, £<W, £A"l, f-*<5, f OH., eort.. 

From roots middle-Aspirate (by § 45) : ?,\Uh $/}(h, £*Q"lh, P>Kth*; 
£T% ¥>C\ (and ££% § 92), £Arh« (Liturg., from Arhf), but 
GftP has always J&<2,h,? § 92; and in the Berlin Manuscript of 
Henoch [Cod. "Q" in Flemming's edition] J&'B'V. always appears 
for £»Oh\, e. g. 93,8. Now though these forms of the Imperfect, 
from middle- Aspirate roots, coincide with the Subjunctive forms 
of verbs which are not middle- Aspirate, there still is no possibility 
of mistaking the one for the other , because the latter forms have 
always a corresponding Imperfect with a in the first syllable, and 
the former always a Subjunctive with a in the second. 

As regards Doubly Weak Boots (§ 69), T-f f and 0pp have 
been dealt with already in § 93. Of those which are both vowel- 
beginning and vowel-ending, fl)£p "to put in" forms the Subj. 
£££; Imper. &£, a**^, and <D«££ (Herm. p. 81 b. 1. 7); Im- 
perf. J&OM*.; <Mf "to burn" forms the Subj. ?0JE, (§ 44); Imper- 
fect JRlD-^. (the Imper. is not yet vouched for) ; and (Drhf forms 
£fl>**h« (v. Dillmann's 'Lex.' , col. 893). The solitary root which 
has both middle i and final u, viz. «7i,C,fl). exhibits no peculiarities 
w T hich the foregoing account could not explain; it has the Subj. £*hf- 
and £/hffl>-; Imper. AP- and M®' Imperf. f th$>- Boots which 
have both middle u and final i take a transitive form in the Per- 

O [For the occurrence of &(tOh, A'flfl>- v.KebraNaff.,Intro&.,]).XVII.] 

§ 95. — 185 — 

feet: £fl)p "to be ill"; i*»<Dp "to rub the ears of corn", "to ripen"; 
<S<D? "to quench one's thirst", Gen. 24, 22; m<»P (or m<0-f?) 
"to make windings" ;— Imperf., ££<£, £»>% ££% ^m'C (2 sg. 
m., Ps. 17, 29) ; Subj. (not supported for all of them) ££■<!)£. 

§ 95 2. J%e Intensive Ground-Stem is given in the Perfect Tense and 
with three a's, of which the one that follows the second radical is ^^^ 
the essential and determining one, and therefore (according to 2. intensive 
Ludolf and Tkumpp) it has the Tone : &&OB fassdma "to com- gtem . 
plete". As the second radical must be doubled, the strong for- 
mation always appears, even with the double-lettered (jrj> or med. 
gem.) and the vowel-centred (med. voc.) roots, thus: hUH azzaza, 
"to command"; rhfDff haivwaza, "to be agreeable"; flif«|» tayydqa, 
"to investigate strictly"^); and the same formation, of course, oc- 
curs with the other roots: — e. g. (D£(D "to throw"; rhAf "to 
think" ; £Vfl) "to send". But roots which have an Aspirate for 
their last letter take, in accordance with § 45, the form fl-f\th 
sabbeha( 2 ), "to give praise to"; 1*>T'h guagguea, "to be in haste", 
"to be eager"; ROhO sawwea, "to call"; ?OhV yawweha, "to show 
clemency". In the formation of the Subjunctive, the Personal Sign 
is put in an isolated position and is therefore uttered with a Vowel- 
touch (or She e va), because the first radical, along with the first 
half of the second and doubled radical, forms One single unalter- 
able, closed syllable; and, instead of the a of the Perfect, there 
appears in the determining position (i. e. after the second radical) 
in the Subjunctive a toneless e, which is suppressed by a closing 
radical- vowel, thus: £»&R9° yefdssem or, in the case of an initial 
Aspirate, frfvRrfi "to renew" yahdddes; or, with a final Aspirate, 
J&frflfh, £>Y t ?i. From weak roots we have fKlfll, J&fo'J'J, 
J&e-fMl, £<DAT, J&OiJCA, J&XflH>, Vthahft, £fflMJ, £OJflH> 
yew&wwe (Josh. 6, 5): ^fli/&4 i yetdyyeq; £<£.V«> JS-Htf^V f MA" 
yahdllu, £0)4- (fromfll^lD); £RA«> £^A«» PfhA.- Imperative- 
forms are &.K9° fdssem, hHH, (DAT, &&•&, ffl^U, OtOhd, 
fll£4»> &Jh, RA«> £A«- Only, as a result of a shortened and inac- 
curate pronunciation (§ 56), J&m£<JK mj&4 > an< l tne like may have 
the sound of yetaiq, taiq. The middle -Aspirate roots ought 

( 1 ) Thus too IPf J, fhf A, so far as they belong to St. 1,2; not 

°M, rh.A- 

( 2 ) Ludolf, 'Gramm. Aeth^ 11,2. 

— 186 — § 95. 

properly to have formed a Subjunctive after the type J&«h>D£ 
yemdhher, "(that) he teach"; and, in point of fact, in this case a is 
still retained in a number of instances before the double Aspirate, 
in old manuscripts and impressions (e. g. Deut. 4,9, 36; 6,1); but 
even for this case, the expression which is preferred is, in accordance 
with § 45, £,9°VC yemehher, Imper. jF°UC> e- 9- Ps. 118, 26, 64: — 
In later pronunciation, in which the Aspirates came to be uttered 
less and less clearly and distinctly, these forms easily degenerated 
into yemehr, mehr, § 56. 

In other respects these two Moods have nothing peculiar in 
their formation. It must however be kept in mind here, that 
several roots admit Stem 1, 1 and Stem I, 2 in the same meaning; 
in particular, <D1^, twOd, &0£, and some others besides, v. § 77, 
ad fin. Meanwhile, to form the Imperfect an additional a is inserted 
after the first radical; and the double sound of the radical, which 
follows the resulting long vowel, becomes inaudible, and is made 
up for by shading off the a into e (from a + i). Accordingly the 
Imperfect [or Indicative] of this Stem, in all classes of roots, is 
uniformly produced by establishing an e after the first radical, 
thus: ft,^Rr yefesemC), frf^A, fr'lVC, M-Oth, £Y),VJ, 
j&IWMI, J&'BAT, J&'BOHd, £<h.ahX, £m,£fr, £<£>, £2A«, £"£fc, 
£X»A«> J&rh>A«- This e of the Imperf. is at the same time the surest 
external mark of all the Intensive Stems. 

3. In the Influencing Ground-Stem the a which contains the 
force of the Stem bears the Tone throughout, except that when 
influencing the second radical is an Aspirate, it draws the tone in the Perfect 

Ground- t , 

stem. to its own syllable ( 2 ), thus: •*/«!»? Mqaya; but 4rhfl> lahawa. The 
Imperfect [or Indicative] in this Stem is not distinguished from 
the Subjunctive, because the means employed for this purpose in 
other forms (§ 91) are not sufficient to produce a special form in 
this case. The forms concerned therefore run thus: Perf. fl£h, 
Imperf. and Subj. £fl£h, Imper. flCh; in the same way: #0£, 
£#6C, #dG", with final Aspirate: OArh "to rescue" odleha, 

( a ) According to Praetorius, 'Beitr. z. Ass. -1 I, p. 27, this yefesem must 
have arisen out of an original yefissim by a compensatory process of lengthen- 
ing—to which the Tigrina J&^XT* [with an audible doubling of the R] 
points. [For another explanation of this form, derived from an analogous 
phenomenon in Assyrian, v. Bezold, 'Zeitschr. f. Assyr? XVII, p. 273.] 

( 2 ) Ludolf, 'Gr. Aeth: I, 7, 3. 

§ 96, — 187 — 

£OA/h, AAA; and from weak roots: h£&, frflCC, *lCC', IMif, 

£«Prlu, *Prh«; ■f+P, £141, "/*; 1tha>, £<Wh«, Arh- 

8 96. II. Causative Stems. _ m J 

o n. T.andM 

1. In the Causative of the Simple Ground- Stem, the second formation 
radical has a in the Perfect, and so too has the third, in the 3 rd causative 
pers. sing, masc: the first, primarily being without a vowel, is stems - 
attached, by way of closing the syllable, to the formative prefix of 
the Stem. This closed (first) syllable takes the Tone; and only 
when the second radical is an Aspirate (with a), does the Tone 
fall on the second syllable ( a ). The Causative is formed in the 
same way, whether from transitive or intransitive roots, thus: 
ft9°flA dmsala "to declare alike"; h&$£ "to love"; hYltUP* 
akhdda "to convict of falsehood". From roots with final Aspirate 
come: — Mf^h dnMa "to raise"; ft-flGU "to illuminate"'. Of 
all the strong and Aspirate roots, 'flUA alone has the singular 
peculiarity of parting with its Aspirate (§ 47): ftflA abala, "to 
cause to say", for ft»flUA- Besides, it must again be recalled here, 
that roots with an initial Aspirate do not lengthen their Stem- 
forming ft before the mute Aspirate (§46), thus: ft/h^tf , Kh0°& 
(not h(hd0°)- Of the remaining roots, the double-lettered and the 
vowel-ending have a thoroughly strong formation in this 3 rd pers. 
sing. masc. of the Perfect: ft*HM "to read"; ftT*ff "to put to 
flight"; M'Afl) "to cause to follow"; htl*fr? "to give to drink"; 
ftCftf "to show". Specially to be emphasised is ftjPdfl am'e'a 
"to provoke". The Vowel-beginning roots blend their first radical 
with ft into a diphthong : ftOHA& dulada "to deliver" (in birth) ; 
hdh/^h "to answer"; ft£flfi "to dry up" {trans.) ; ft££:0 "to 
make known". The Vowel-centred (med. voc.) Roots for the most 
part, even in this Stem, do not admit the a after the second radi- 
cal, and they maintain the shorter pronunciation of 1, 1, thereby 
isolating the ft of the Causative Stem, while the tone falls on the 
long radical vowel, thus: ,h£, ft,h£ ahora\ C%, ft£ft;, 
(along with which, to be sure, ft/hffi occurs) ; Jfcft, ftfoA- It is 
only those which are at the same time Vowel-ending roots, that 
must of necessity, by § 69, assume the strong formation, just as in 
1,1: ftrhffl) "to enliven", "to vivify"; ftC<Df "to give to drink"; 

i 1 ) [Trumpp, p. 522, makes the Tone in these Stems fall on the second 
syllable throughout, e. g. afqara. tr.] 

— 188 — § 96. 

,ft£"<Df ? ftTfl^P- And y e t there are a few roots mediae u, which 
also admit of the strong formation: p£ "to be blind" and pty "to 
attend to" may indeed form Y\?£ and Y\Pty, but, when broken up 
because of the Aspirate, they may also form ftflfl)^ (and ftfl^), 
and ftflflW* From roots unused in St. I, 1 Ludole brings up 
ft/**<Dfll "t° convey back" and htotd "to insult", though with- 
out supporting-instances. A few roots mediae u, especially those 
which end in an Aspirate or Labial-Nasal, exhibit quite a peculiar 
formation, — shortening their o into a (originally a) and thus 
assuming the appearance of simple triliteral Stems ( x ): pft "to 
come", *r*1i "to be long", and the obsolete root fl*h constantly 
form ft*flft, ft">*V ft*flrh "to permit" (in accordance with § 45), 
for ftflft, ftV"1b — which still occurs: Josh. 24, 29 v. Notes [and 
Kebra Nag. 145 a 17] — and ftflrh ; and they are imitated by (§ 48, 
ad fin.) fn«|», ftfli4> "to confine" Josh. 19, 47, though we have also 
Jt'pa!^, Hen. 89, 15 ( 2 ). In the same way $tn> "to rise up", *fao 
"to sleep" — form Yxtyew and ft)tfD, e. g. Judges 16, 14, 19, for 
which the later manuscripts have ftT^o; cf. also faoD't*= ftfl°'f m , 
h9°h and hTh, ft<X = hGf* 2 Esr. 2, 30 var. On fti*»m (for 
ft/**<Dfll or hY*(n) Y - the Imperative (infra). 

In the Subj. and Impf. of this and the other Causative Stems, 
the Personal formative-prefix J& blends with the Causative ft into 
£, § 47 ( 3 ); but the ft appears again in the Imperative, when the 
Personal prefix has been thrown off. As regards the vowels, e ap- 
pears in the Subj. after the second radical, in accordance with 
§ 91, while the first radical is mute, just as in the Perfect, and 
becomes attached as a closing letter to the prefix-syllable, thus: — 
ffbtyC yafqer, JMl^A yabquel (from ft'fl'feA); from Aspirate 
roots: — Sh9°C y&'mer, $9°ft\C ydmher, ^Vft, ^flCU; but 

(*) Konig, p. 116. Perhaps at one time the first radical was pronounced 
as a double letter, to make up for the u that had fallen out,— so that these 
forms would answer to the Hebrew in j^H, H^H. 

( 2 ) [Flbmming, 'Das Buck Henoch?, Leipzig 1902, in this passage adopts 
the reading fl)ftfll4'? > < ,1> " instead of the reading which Dillmann selected, 
(DhTattypa*: te.] 

( 3 ) According to Praetorius, as cited p. 41 the Tigrina f^'lhA = 
7t5j?^, ^§JQJ has preserved the more original forms in preference to the Ethio- 
pic and Amharic ones. [Farther v. supra, p. 92, Note ( 2 ), as to the frequent use of 
ft instead of the ft (resulting from ftft) of the l st pers. Sing.Imperf. Causative. 
Praetoeius draws attention emphatically to this usage ('Aeth. Gr.' p. 51). tr.] 

§ 96. — 189 — 

from ftflA, ^-flA; — from double-lettered roots, ^l-fl-fl, ,WHh; 

from Kf°bO, P9°&d ydme; — from vowel-beginning roots, ^J&,R"d 
ydide\ e. g. Hen. 106,12, ^D-AE" ydwledC), ?(»•?;&, ^flH/hlf. 

In accordance with these we have the Imperative ft<p4*C dfqer, 
h\9°C, hlfh, Jtf-fMI, h££6, ha^AJt Med. Vowel-centred 
and vowel-ending roots do not admit the e after the second radi- 
cal, thus:— $(\Jt, Imper. fcfl/h from hMr\?t&, $(hR, Imper. 
Y\&*C'i so too ftfll.fl, Tobit 6, 16. But those Stems mediae u, 
which have in the Perfect the short pronunciation ft*flft, Y\$o°, 
form the Subj. usually after that type, ^'flJi, ?&9°, $19°, ^fl/h 
(Josh. 10, 19) ( 2 ), and therefore the Imper. h$9° (e. g. Josh. 6, 3; 
Judges 20, 7), frtih dVe (for a-be', § 43), hit ( 3 ). But it should 
be noticed, as regards the longer or the shorter pronunciation, that 
the Perfects and the Subjunctives and Imperatives do not always 
conform to each other by any means, seeing that e. g. Ixtyav may 
take the form ft^jF 1 in the Imper. (Liturg.), as well as hfy9°, 
and that h.t'h may also take the form ^V-^ m the Subj. In like 
manner hfty or t\d(D$ may form fd^ or fdOhty, and hf**(Dm (?) 
may have the Imper. h/**T Deut 22, 1. Vowel-ending roots give: 
WA- yddlu, ^*, ?6&\ ftl-t, $60., $CK\ Imper. fc£«A« 
ddlu, ft-fl*, M^\ hft-fc, hCK Doubly weak roots yield: ?&£, 
Imper. ftCC; ?&%, Imper. ft/H£; ^flHV Imper. hOh% From 
these forms the Imperfect [or Indicative] is quite simply fashioned 
by inserting the accented vowel a after the first radical, except 
that in roots having a middle Aspirate, e appears instead, thus: 
?&&C ydfdqer, ?h9"C frrh; tmt ?9°X\G ydmeher (kept, by 
pronunciation, quite distinct from the Subj. p9°ihC ydmher), JNflA 
ydbel, ^-M\, $rbt> yd-me-e\ J»f £■£, .frDAJt, but $ahfcll 
ydwehez (overagainst Subj. ydwhez). The Imperfect is formed in 
a similar manner from all vowel-centred roots, whether they have 
the long or the short pronunciation in the Subj.: pdiGhQ, ffitD'h.i 

fdahfa, ^jm-jp, £0<Hf>, > p4»a^J^ , , $a\(H? (Josh. 19, 47), ?(\ 

£ih ^hj&«K* (properly yakdyed, then readily yakdid) ; and from 
vowel-ending roots :— .P+A-, J-M*, ^&A-, £fl-fc, but jCM2/«™-% 

^. e. 

2/fty- 5 *), ?£<£, £<D«fe, ,?aH%. yawel. 

(*) According to Trumpp, p. 529, — to be pronounced yauled. 

( 2 ) Also ^1»4V Lev. 25, 46. 

( 3 ) Cf. Philippi, 'Beitr. z. Ass.% II, p. 380. 

-— 190 — § 96. 

2. The Causative of the Intensive Stem is distinguished in 
form from the Ground-Stem 2, merely hy the prefixed formative 
syllable of the Stem, ft. The latter is always isolated, as the first 
radical forms along with the first half of the double letter an un- 
changeable, closed syllable. The tonef) is usually on the third-last 
syllable; and only when the second radical is an Aspirate, is it on 
the second-last in the Perfect. Accordingly the Perfect is: ft"|fl£ 
agablara, "to compel"; ftAOA aldala, "to lift up" (Judges 7, 20); 
ftVh>W 5 "to make a judge"; fttroH, "to render contemptible"; 
Mftl, "to strengthen"; Jiflif«J», "to assure"; ftl*»}tf, "to 
beautify"; ftAHfl), "to make intelligent". But from roots with final 
Aspirate we have forms like ftfrflrh, "to cause to pay taxes" ; 
ft'W'ft, "to urge to haste"; ho>/»0, "to satiate"; ft<7i>A0, "to 
proceed farther". Seeing, however, that this Stem is rather lengthy 
and polysyllabic in the Perfect, many roots, — particularly those 
of the Middle-Aspirate class (§ 56), — endeavour to replace it by 
St. 11,1, at least in the Perfect, and occasionally even in the other 
formations (cf. § 97,2): thus ftAOA is used in the Perfect in pre- 
ference to htiOti, e. g. in Gen. 7, 17 ; 18, 2 ; ftft<n>^ always, instead 
of hh^d] h^dii' always, instead of h'tth't, "to humiliate", 
but scarcely ft£r<w>i, "to wrap up in clouds" ( a ), for ft&0i>}. M. 
£R frequently occurs in the Perfect instead of ft0^f , "to equalise". 
The Subjunctive has the form ^"MIG ydgdbber; flfto'}'}, pm£»ty, 
$v*\, ^Aflh? and the Imperative the form ftl-flG agdbber, ftfto'J'J, 
ftfll£4v Yu*>\, ft Aft-- But from Middle-Aspirate roots : — Sub- 
junctive JPAflA (properly y ale 1 - el, which closes into yal$% § 56); 
Imper. ftAdA e. g. Josh. 8, 18 ( 3 ). The Imperfect in all cases 
uniformly runs thus: f%HC yagiber \ .PA^A f'b^, ?Wi, 
■F'W&A, y^aht, ^"fcfc, ^A»fl- &c. Noticeable on account of its 

(*) Ludolf, i Gr. Aeth.' 1 1,7. This rule, however, does not agree with 
the teaching of Ludolf about the Tone in the case of St. 1, 2 and III, 2. Cf. 
also supra, p. 150, Note 1. [In fact Teumpp, p. 522, keeps the Tone throughout 
on the second-last syllable, tr.] 

( 2 ) As Ludolf has it in his 'Lexicon? p. 496. Certainly Ludolf himself 
has incorrectly contrived the forms ft/^fljfr "to cause to foam", hTftlth 
"to lead to repentance", ftfD-fll} "to cause to begin"; ftl^ft (v. supra), for 
ftVOlV, ftlftrh, ftfDfllV .M"1*K A.t least the other form of pronun- 
ciation has hitherto remained without support. 

( 3 ) In like manner h^th^ Eph. 5,21. 

§97. — 191 — 

fluctuati ons between II, 1 and 2, is the word ft/*"|£, "to catch in 
the net", "to net", in respect that, for instance, it forms the Perfect 
(Matt. 17, 27), and the Subjunctive and Imperative (John 21,3; 
1 Cor. 7,35; Cant. 2, 18) according to Stem 11,1, but the Imper- 
fect (Mark 1, 16; Luke 5, 10) according to Stem 11,2. Farther 
hP£ and hP& form the Subj. from St. 11,1, but the Imperf. 
from St. 11,2; and a stricter investigation of the treasures of the 
language would no doubt furnish instances of similar fluctuations 
in other roots. 

3. The Causative of the Influencing Stem is likewise distin- 
guished from its Ground-Stem merely by the Stem formative prefix: 
— Perf. M+fl aldqasaC); Subj. ^A4»fl> John 11, 19; Imper. 
KA^ft; Imperf. ^A*ft, John 11,31. Weak roots: ?<Pfc Subj. 
and Imperf. — (and from quadriliteral roots, which follow this Stem: 
?%a— Mark 5, 35; Luke 8, 49; ffqp. Acts 17, 16). In middle- 
Aspirate roots the tone in the Perfect must rest here also on the 
second-last syllable: Kfl'rhft awahada. 

§ 97. III. Reflexive Stems. 


The Stem formative prefix -f* is in the Perfect placed before t. and m. 
the root externally and separately; in the Subjunctive and Imper- °™ aion 
feet it blends with the Personal formative prefix into the syllable Reflexive 
JR^ and this ^ is, in accordance with § 54, assimilated to a follow- 
ing Sibilant or to a mute dental-lingual. In the tense-formation 
here the change of vowels (§ 91) is never carried out in St. Ill, 2 
and 3, and but seldom in St. Ill, 1 (v. infra). Farther the dis- 
tinction between the Imperf. and the Subj. is carried out only in 
Stem III, 2. In Stem III, 3, it could just as little have made its 
appearance, — for the reasons given in § 95,3 — , as in Stems 1,3 
and II, 3. But even in III, 1, where the Subj. has already a after 
the first radical, the Ethiopic means of forming the Imperfect were 
insufficient to create a special form. To lengthen the a would 
have transformed the Stem into St. 111,3; the lengthening there- 
fore remained in abeyance, and the Subj. and Imperf. coincide. It 
might be, of course, that in more ancient times the two forms 
were at least differentiated by means of the tone, e. g. that J&^lflC 
as Subjunctive, was pronounced yetgabdr, and as Imperfect, yet- 
gabar or yetgabar. 

Q-) Cf. supra, however, p. 150, Note 2. 

— 192 — § 97. 

1. In the case of the Reflexive of the Simple Ground- Stem, 
seeing that in the Perfect the first radical is originally vowel-less, 
we might have expected the form -HiA}, like Ml&) in Cans. 
St. 11,1. This form, however, is no longer met with, with the ex- 
ception of ■i*7rf*'h "to raise one's self, "to rise up"( x ): and even 
this exception became possible only through the form having been 
derived, not from St. 1,1, but directly from St. 11,1, hlfh "to 
lift up" — , overagainst which the Reflexive-Passive of fr/**ft "to 
take" is invariably given *Hf/**ft( 2 ). If it is remembered, that »jh 
itself is merely an abbreviation of ft-lh or ft"fr* (§ 80), and that the 
oldest form must therefore have been ft'HlAV, we have the ex- 
planation of the circumstance that this »f does not, like the Causa- 
tive ft, combine with the first radical to form one syllable. Out 
of an original Ji't'Yl &V the form -f-tlftV arose through abbreviation. 
*HlW> in fact, with the tone upon the chief vowel in the second- 
last syllable is the first and most obvious form of this Stem in the 
Perfect. But it has not continued to be the only one. On the 
contrary, in this Reflexive-Passive Stem, the intransitive or passive 
vowel e (§ 75 sq.) has very frequently made good its position, in 
place of the Active vowel a, as in •f'l'fl^ tagabra (for tagabera) ; 
and thereby a change of vowels between the Perfect on the one 
hand, and the Imperfect and Subjunctive on the other, has been 
at the same time secured, inasmuch as the a of the Imperfect and 
Subjunctive answers to the passive e of the Perfect. But which of 
the two forms of pronunciation is to be employed in the several roots, 
cannot be determined by general rules. It was, after all, nothing 
but the usage of the language ( 3 ) which decided for the one form 
or the other. In many roots the two forms are freely exchanged 
for one another. The fundamental difference between the two 
may possibly at first have been, that "h04*fl> for instance, signified 
"to watch one's self", "to take care", while •f'Qtyd meant "to be 

(*) I cannot accept the explanation of this word given by Konig, p. 148. 
— According to Noldeke, GGA 1886, No. 26, p. 1016, "f"T , / M ft is a denomina- 
tive, from a Substantive like '^"i'tJi. 

( 2 ) [For the employment of »f"T'/*'K instead of *f*V/**ft and vice 

versci, v. Dillmann's 'Lex.\ col. 637 sq.]. 

( 3 ) This, however, has not yet been investigated with sufficient strictness; 
and many statements made by Ludolf regarding it, in his Dictionary and his 
Grammar, stand in need of correction. 

§ 97. — 193 — 

watched, or cared for'^ 1 ); but in later times this distinction 
was completely obliterated. However, for brevity's sake, we shall 
call the pronunciation with e, "the passive pronunciation". Ac- 
cordingly we have in the strong verb the twofold form of the Per- 
fect: i-tf»flm "to be robbed"; i**!»fl£ "to happen". From the 
Middle-Aspirate Verb (§ 45) come, for the most part, forms like 
't a lthw tagSMa "to withdraw"; i'MH "to be taken prisoner"; 
1"Vll)A "to be possible" ( 2 ); more rarely with a, i-fl>kft (*="Mlftft) 
"to fight" ; from a verb with a final aspirate the form is always 
•f-ao&h. "to become full", ^ii9°0 "to be heard". From double- 
lettered verbs we have either -\**iWiP "to be sought" ; or more 
frequently, with the passive pronunciation, *Hfl "to be read"; 
+A& "to be banished", in some few instances written "f-fl£ , & 
(§ 55) ; but i~9°d0 tame?a, "to be angry", may, according to § 56, 
by throwing back the doubling of the second radical upon the first, 
be simplified into -f*JPO tamme'a, and then into tarn a. Vowel- 
beginning and vowel- ending verbs always have the strong formation 
in the Perfect: WRO "to become known"; "f-OAft "to be born"; 
-f*0>-Ufl "to be given"; -f«0&fl) "to transgress"; ■f'ID.ft'P "to be 
put in" ; 4*hd<D "to be poured out" ; 'hChf "to be seen". Vowel- 
centred roots, when uttered with a, have the strong formation; if 
given with e, they reject the e (§ 50) and produce a diphthong: 
'tOOih Numb. 22, 3 and M/flHl Matt. 2, 3, "to be troubled"; 
"MJ£ft Hen. 89, 58 "to be robbed"; +iPj&tfi> "to be settled"; very 
rarely the diphthong blends into a mixed sound: •f'YO "to be 
sacrificed" (Org.); i*4?ft(?) "to be disgorged".— The Subjunctive 
and Imperfect are formed from the whole body of the roots 
'strongly', and uniformly with the chief vowel a after the second 
radical, and with a as the readiest vowel for the first. Vowel- 
centred roots must harden their vowel-radical; the vowel-ending 
ones combine it with the preceding a into a diphthong; and it 

(*) As Ludolf assumed. But Ludolf, trusting too much to this as- 
sumed law of his, often enough Bet up a form in his Dictionary like 'I'O^flj 
without being able to give an instance of its use, even when he had frequently- 
met with the other form *f*(l«|»fl in the Perfect (v. Dkechsler, p. 34). 

( 2 ) It is not correct in copyists to lengthen the vowel of the first 
radical before a mute Aspirate, thus: *fr\\fhll "to paint one's eyes", for 


— 194 — § 97. 

is only roots tertiae u which may farther blend the diphthong into 
a mixed sound (exactly as in the Ground-stem, § 94), thus: JK^lflG 
yetgabarC), j&^rtT, ^MH, £rt"7fl (§ 46), £Mip/*% 

j^n-n, ^Hwu-n, £*f*d, j&^ufjt, £^o<»h, j&^*Pd, 

&V09JB>- or £^0^, £*<»££, frH-dh?*. Also the Perfect 
■f^/^ft forms the Imperfect and Subjunctive JR^H^fc, just like 
•f"V/**^» ; an( * m the same wa y "f'ydll and -f-JPfl equally form 
£,'t'0D t }d- The Imperative, because derived from the Subj., like- 
wise exhibits a invariably after the second radical: ■f-'lflG? "f'h'VH? 

-f^A, +i*>P 9°, 1-d.l-ah or i-£*, *£££, -t£h£ &c But 

in the Imperative of ■f*7/**ft the peculiar pronunciation, imitated 
from Causative 1, comes back again, »f*'>/* , ?i, "Arise!". So too 
runs the Imperative of -f9°d0, shortened into ■f-jPd (Plural also, 
•f'9 d(h)- Farther, Middle- Aspirate roots, which have the Passive 
pronunciation ■f ,a iihi* f in the Perf., occasionally take the shorter 
form 'fr'Qihf, tag e MS, Numb. 16,21, 26; 17,10, instead of the 
regular -Mrh/** ; (in MS. F this shorter form occurs in the pas- 
sages named, whereas the other MSS. have ■f'lthf*', a reading 
which is also met with in Ps. 33, 15 and 36, 28) ( 2 ). 

2. The Reflexive of the Intensive Stem, according to Ludolf, 
must in the Perfect have the tone upon the vowel of the second 
radical; in the other forms it rests upon the vowel of the first. The 
Perf. has the strong formation in all roots: 'f'^&rt taqadddsa, "to 
be sanctified"; -Hl-W tdkuanndna, "to be condemned"; i'fflfih 
"to be added to"; ■j'ftd.tD "to hope"; ^QiX "to become equal 
to one another"; •f'OOi^ ta'awwdra, "to overlook"; -Mlf^ "to 
reprove". But from roots with final Aspirate, regularly: — "h<£./**rh 
"to rejoice"; -f-tfoArh "to be salted"; -frfahU "to let one's self 
be pacified". Farther, as the Aspirates, following the later 
pronunciation, readily grew too nerveless for doubling (§ 56), a 
phenomenon made its appearance, which became noticeable also 
in Stem II, 2 (§ 96), viz. — that in the Perfect Middle-Aspirate 
roots fell back from Stem III, 2 to Stem III, 1. Thus ^twOd 
tamahhdra first of all becomes tamahhera, seeing that a Passive e 

( x ) According to Trumpp, p. 527, to be accented yetgabar. 
( 2 ) *f"*3"flfl. i n the Ethiopic Liturgy (ed. Bezold, in Swainson's 'Greek 
Liturgies', London 1884), p. 384, 1. 11 — is probably a copyist's error for 

§ 98. — 195 — 

is at least possible instead of a (v. supra in this § 97), and then 
tamehhera (by § 45), which ultimately drops into tamehra. And 
so we have ^aoVd and 't9°V6 "to learn" ; '^'^rh'f , and -f^/hi* 
"to be made humble"; *fA0A and -J*A0A "to be exalted"; 'frtW£ 
and 'tflVd "to be vainglorious"; i*&-1^ (e. g. Judges 5, 28 F) 
and •f*$: e h& "to remain behind", "to loiter"; "hftrdV "to mount 
upon"; i'tlhli "to enquire about"; i'&Od and -fRd/i "to be 
tormented"; -f-RftA and «W$7iA "to be reviled"; -|-p|J& and 
Hh£U& "to become a Jew". In the Subj. and Imperative, both 
these and all other roots have a after the second radical as chief 
vowel, and also a after the first. In the Imperfect they have e 
after the first radical, and dispense with the doubling of the second, 
thus: £ ; ]h4f&fl, J&^^&ft, i"4*^A yetqedas, yetqaddas, taqaddas; 
^tUOh, JK-^AOA, *A0A; £*<£/?;»», fArUnfc i-^«^A; 
£^fr«pu, £*p<Pu, *p«Pu ; jMh^rnC, £*0<»C, -tOfDC, £fcG or 
£A,£OH, £AG, *rtG or -f-A£a>- ; £^A<:£, J&^O^JS., *0<:£ &c. 

3. The Reciprocity- Stem takes the form in the Perfect 
"f^Afll "to separate from one another", with the tone upon a, 
tafdlataC), but in Middle-Aspirate verbs, with the tone upon the 
penult, -^"/(/A "to be propitious towards any one", taMhala. 
From roots with final Aspirate the form has always e (in place of 
a) after the second radical: 'KP'flh tagabe'a, and more shortly 
tagaVa. In all weak roots this Stem takes a full and strong forma- 
tion: •jr^££ "to be foes to each other"; -J^flO tama'e'a and 
tamcfa "to be angry at one another"; -f^flJ-0 "to flatter one 
another"; 'f-<pflfl "to intermarry"; -MV^ft "to conduct a learned 
controversy"; ■f^lDft "to run together"; "Hif£ "to enter into a 
confederacy" ; -f"«p>f "to play together" ; -f^JlD "to take leave 
of one another". Farther, in the Subj., Imper. and Imperf. this 
Stem has a after the second radical, while there is no distinction 
between the Subj. and Imperf., thus:— J&^AT, ffiPQKi&ldC, 
WPrt-fl, J&^fliff, £*¥}£; -M.AT, i-PWtt &c. 

§ 98. IV. The Causative-Reflexive Stems, as active iv.t. and m. 
verbs, have the active vowel a in the Perfect after the second Vor ™ tio * 
radical, and, like the other Active Stems, change it into e in the Causative - 
Imperfect and Subjunctive. The formative prefix of the Stem htl-t, Tt^l™ 
when combined with the personal prefix, becomes ^ftf- (§ 47). 

0) Cf., however, supra, p. 155, Note (*). 


-- 196 — § 98. 

1. The first of these Stems has two forms of pronunciation 
in the Perfect. In the form which is most obvious and usual the 
first radical, originally without a vowel, is attached to the formative 
prefix -f* by way of closing the syllable (exactly as in II, IX 1 ), thus: 
hWi&ft "to inhale" ; with final Aspirate, htl'fr a Mlh "to take 
(by force of arms)" Numb. 21, 32 ; Kft*f"flX'0 "to pronounce bles- 
sed"; and htl't'fl^'O "to make intercession"; from weak roots: — 
htl'ttD'ihii "to borrow" (Ex. 12, 35) ; htl'tCh? "to appear" and 
"to reveal"; KJH"fl£P "to obtain forgiveness"; from roots with 
initial Aspirate : — htl£*(h$d "to treat contemptuously" (Gren. 29,25 ; 
Judges 16, 10). The tone in these cases rests on the third-last syl- 
lable^), and in Middle-Aspirate roots on the second-last. But, 
alongside of this, — the usual pronunciation, — another has also be- 
come current, which puts forward the prefix titl't in a separate 
fashion, after the manner of the Reflexive Stems, and causes an a 
to be heard after the first radical. In this case the tone must un- 
doubtedly rest on the second-last syllable; cf. Tkumpp, p. 524. 
This form of expression appears oftenest in roots tertiae gutturalis, 
e. g. htl-i'^'ih "to be envious"; hh'l'fi&'th "to ask permission", 
and in roots primae gutturalis ( 3 ), e. g. hft'hhflft "to treat as 
a fool"; hM'MW "to declare bad"; &J|'Mi*»ip "to invent"; 
and here and there too in other roots, e. g. in hh-t*£ih$, a col- 
lateral form of htl't'Cih& "to remove". It is noteworthy besides, 
that from the unused root flflWh, which assumes the short form 
ft'flrh in St. II, 1 (§ 96), hh'\"f\t\\ also is formed in this Stem, 
as well as hh'\'[\a*'t\\ "to ask permission". But the difference 
between these two forms of pronunciation is of no importance in 
the formation of the other tenses and moods. In the Subjunctive 
the first radical is always attached without a vowel to the formative 
prefix >fr by way of closing the syllable: — PWi^tl, ^ftf-fl^d, 
.fitf-Ch-fl, ?tl?-A\tyC, ?tl+tl6, ftl-tCK, and accordingly in 
the Imperative we have fcfl-f-Ch-fl, ftft-M<M, Kfl-MPAC, Ml 
i*ft<5, htl-lrCh,- In the formation of the Imperfect, a (probably 
also accented here) is inserted after the first radical: ^frMfHI, 

O Cf. Konig, p. 148. 

( 2 ) V. on the other hand Trumpp, p. 523. 

( 3 ) To avoid lengthening the a of -f*, — for which reason one says 
htl'frth4 , £ as well as htl^thQC 

§ 99. — 197 — 

£fl-f*n«M, ^fl-M/V, Sh-t-fld, in Middle-Aspirate verbs, a is 
thickened into e: ?tl r t'9 tt\G yastameher (overagainst which we 
have the Subjunctive ydstdmher) ; ^ft^-fld A? fll'tCh* (yastare'i, 
and therefore in some Manuscripts occasionally written ?ll'frd,h m ( 1 ), 
v. St. 1, 1). 

2. The Stem, of this class, derived from the second Ground- 
Stem takes the form in the Perfect, hh'f'OlO', with the accent 
on the third-last syllable ( 2 ) (v. St. 11,2), thus: — asttiaggala, "to 
practise patience". It takes the strong formation in all weak roots, 
e. g. — htl-i'OfW "to brag", "to swagger"; htX'Yh&W "to awaken 
hope in any one"; ftft-Mpfl "to prefer"; ht\'\'(D\\h "to have 
complete trust"; and in roots tertiae gutturalis: 7ifl'N£./* , rh "to 
rejoice" (astafaMeha). In the Subjunctive the a after the first 
radical is of course maintained, and the a after the second be- 
comes e: ftrt-Oirydsta'dggeS; £fl-f"'k£ft, ?tl']0)\} A, ^ft+Ofl., 
^hi-H4-, ^ft+A^/hC 3 ); so too with the Imperative:— htl-^O 
*7/** &c. The Imperfect is formed (as in all the Intensive Stems) by 
means of e after the first radical, while the doubling is given up : 

3. The Stem, of this class, derived from the third Ground- 
Stem forms' the Perfect htl'fr a l(ill, with the accent on the third- 
last syllable ( 4 ); from roots tertiae gutturalis: Jfcft'f^l'flft; in like 
manner hh*P l6O- Por other examples v. supra § 84. The Sub- 
junctive and Imperfect are not distinguished from each other; in 
both e appears instead of a after the second radical: — j?tl't' tn itl6i 
yastamasel, ${\+Wh, 9hWCC, ,?A-HM> $tii-<h$, ftl-t^dd, 
and, accordingly in the Imperative: htl'fr a 1tl&., ht\'\*(\6 &c. 

§ 99. The Multiliteral Verb follows, generally, the same Tei «e and 
rules as the Triliteral in forming the Tenses and Moods. In the m °»tfon of 
Multiliteral verb also, the inner vowel-change between the two Multiliteral 

. o Verba:— 

tenses mvanably makes its appearance with the second-last radical. 
The first two radicals are combined into one syllable, with a be- 
tween them, and they are maintained in this combination, through- 
out nearly the whole of the farther development of the form: in 

O Also ^f|*|v5fi, Herm. p. 85 a, 1. 3; cf. Konig, p. 119. 

( 2 ) In Middle- Aspirate verbs, on the penult. V. however Tbumpp, p. 524, 

( 3 ) Once however f ti'f'Kbl 9* ; v. Dillmann's 'Lex.', col. 1306. 

( 4 ) V. however Trumpp, p. 524. 

— 198 — § 99. 

the Imperfect, however, and in Stems III, 3 and IV, 3 this group 
has to be broken up. Farther, in this group the a-Sound is held 
to be so essential, and a long vowel in the first Stem-syllable so 
reasonable, that this a is not thickened into e before a mute Aspi- 
rate according to § 45, but is lengthened into a according to § 46. 
In the domain of the last two radicals, however, the same rules 
prevail with regard to the treatment of Aspirates, radical Vowels 
and double radicals, as in the Triliteral verb. 

I. The Ground-Stem does not distinguish between a transitive 
and an intransitive form of pronunciation in the Perfect It is al- 
ways uttered with three a' si 1 ), the first syllable either closed, or 
possessing a long vowel having the Tone( 2 ), thus: P/ilQ dangasa, 
"to be terrified"; with an aspirate as second radical: — °lVdXl 
mdhraka, "to take as booty"; with a similar letter as last radical: 
IQh'k, "to destroy" ; with an aspirate in the second as well as in 
the last position : fl'^vfl'^o "to rot" ; with doubling of the third 
radical: &9°M "to extinguish"; with a like doubling when the 
radical is at the same time weak: flrhPf "to clear of weeds"; 
with a long vowel as second radical: "7rti "to decay", ft/lV "to 
persecute", -tf-flrh "to mix"; with a vowel as last radical: &CflP 
"to shoot", ftttytD "to touch the harp"; weak in more than one 
radical : 0fl>"P fl) "to lament aloud", %(D(D "to take prisoner", 1*|p 
"to sin", ft,}<D "to give forth perfume", ft°ti(D "to inflame. 

The Subjunctive is formed by the prefixed Personal signs and 
by the transition of the a which follows the second last radical 
into e: ^^7*7d yeddnges; primae gutturalis: PONTIC; farther 
examples:— £0?UCtl, JW^h, JMl-WK £&9°lltl, j&ftfhft., 

fr^itf, £&,T>, £#fi;h, £&Cft M?*, voahz, mm. or fjt 

<D*fD*, f/h%, J&JWr-j £A" A"- I n accordance with these forms, we have 
in the Imperative: &.1"1&, Q'Wl'K &JP°f|fl, &TJ, fcflMD" (Jud- 
ges 5,12), &c.( s ). To form the Imperfect, an accented a is inserted 
after the second radical, which brings about the separation into 
two syllables of the syllable made up of the first two radicals: 

( x ) [Excepting, of course, the necessary modification of the second a, 
when the last radical is an Aspirate, te.] 

( a ) V. however Tbumpp, p. 524. 

( 3 ) Irregular are: Subj. J&JPtfCh Kuf. p. 122, N. 4; p. 160, N. 11; 
and Imperative a»UCY} la. 8, 1, 3 var.-and J&ft«hf£ from Rrfif f . 

§ 99. — 199 — 

£&Md yedanages, jt,m>UCh, ZlA^h, JMl-Wrt*. £&*">f!Jl, 
£rtJ*fe (Rev. 14, 2), jE-ft^fl,, ?0O>£. But those roots which have 
a long vowel as second radical, like <*?!», &/IY -frhih, can have 
no special form for the Imperfect, because an a inserted after 
that radical blends with such long vowel ; and even roots like 
17P> A"A<D are too sluggish to break up their mixed sound; 
thus we have: £"7f|?, JE.ft.TJ, JE-frfl/h, JE^, £A»A- (Jas. 3, 6), 
£%{D« (which do not differ from the Subjunctive forms, v. supra). 
Seldom is it, — and it is not good Ethiopic, — that roots which have 
a vowel for their final radical omit the proper formation of the 
Imperfect, as, for instance, in the citation by Ludolf from a manu- 
script of the Organon: hlrfri Kjt'0 D f^tir "which does not wither", 
instead of "tavfifc. 

II. In exact conformity with the same rules are also formed 
the tenses and moods of the Causative Stem of Quadriliteral roots. 
Perfect: fttfo'J&fl amdndabai 1 ) "to bring into difficulty"; hWiffi 
"to entrust to"; ft+S^TO "to put the ground in good order"; 
KmhTh "to prepare" ; hf°CClCl "to cause to feel after" ; hClllliO 
"to adorn"; ft7»1ftp "to delay one"; ftl?f "to cause to sin"; 
&&.W0 "to smell at"; h^^O) "to cause trouble"; JiG*lC"1(( 2 ) "to 
appease"; ftftlduh "to sacrifice". Subjunctive: fao'i&'fl, ^"Vi 
6% ?*9°Td, fmh'Th, ?<*>Clltl, ^Ch, JVML, ?%%, fKTh, 
F^oo-, 2&*"iC"l, WAifo, or pffidiiih; Imperative: K^^Jt-fl, 
hWibt &c, Imperfect: ^ao^^fao^fy'i, pfoofd, ?mh?K, 
$a°tfiti, $ht-h, Wl, b^t ?%%, ££>, M* 1 . Quinqueliteral 
roots combine in one syllable the first radical and the formative 
prefix of the Stem, and the second and third in one* with a: the 
second-last radical supports the vowel-change. In the Imperfect 
formation a establishes itself after the third radical, and the syl- 
lable formed by the second and third is thus resolved into two syl- 
lables. Thus : KC< 7D ft< 7D A armdsmasa, "to feel about" ; hty?tt\P>/h 
and K^PrhJE./h "to become reddish''; Jrfm-flmfli "to drip"; fcjj° 
OCOC "to sweeten" ':— Subjunctive: ?C0Ptl9°tl, P&fth&ih, <?"7d 
CC,~ Imperfect: $Ca°(l9°tl yarmasames, ffyfth&ih (Lev. 13,24; 
Matt. 16,2,3), ^mllT-fl, Ps. 71,6. In the same way ftRJPUfP, 
fcfr<wWe, fcfftTUf f , or hft"7Uee "to render flabby"; h&«?M 

(*) V. however Tkumpp, p. 524. 

( 2 ) [A peculiar form for K*J«'1C*V v. Dillmakn's 'Lex.' , tb.] 

— 200 — § 100. 

"to whisper gently", and the two Causatives, formed by ftft, § 85 

ad fin. ; except that here the Subjunctive and Imperfect cannot be 

distinguished: ^A-tfflfl, ?MCC, ^ft/'liTi, also £f|#*. 

iiLT-andM. § 100. III. In the Reflexive Stem the second-last radical 

r ™* ° n exhibits no vowel-change between the two tenses, § 97 ; but, on 

Beflexire the other hand, it has become possible in this case to make a dif- 

Stems of 

Muitmterai ference between the Imperfect and the Subjunctive by inserting, 

Verbs ' in the former, a after the second radical, which is without a vowel 
in the Subjunctive; and it is only in roots mediae infirmae that 
the Imperf. and the Subj. coincide (just as in Stems I and II). 
Thus we have in the Perfect: •f-«H»'>ftfl tamdndabaC); ^A9°rtrt, 
"to be extinguished"; ^TVflV, -M^ft, WhRh, "to worship"; 
i-ao'iiiw "to be tempted"; -f%9°0? , ^M, 'h'PTfh, -f*rt,ftf, 
+fl,Hfl> (§ 86):— Subjunctive: pta*lfsb, £&?°rtfl (Ps. 108,13), 
JE,*"7'*0'J (Ps. 120, 7), ^l^fc, fflhtfi, ^aotftOh, f,&9° 
Vfr JK.^^rt'J, fr^WZi, £A,A£, ^(Mah: Imperative: *& 
9°Ml, "^"Wfll &c. But in the Imperfect we have: — JR^h<w»Vft*fl 
yetmanddab, ££<*>flf|, fr^oo^*}, £^«l£;J«fc, P&hUh £^<*> 
VAfl*, frftaDOfr but jL^^iiTf &c. just as in the Subj. The 
Reflexive Stem of Sexliteral roots has hitherto been found in the 
Perfect only. On the formation of the Perfect of the Reciprocal 
Stem, v. § 86. It deserves special notice, that even the root H.V<D 
resolves the e, which it preserves through all the forms of Stems I 
and III, — into ay, before the inserted a. Of course the Tone falls 
upon the long a, to which this Stem owes its form. There is no 
difference between the Imperfect and the Subjunctive (cf. §§ 95 — 
97), nor is there any change of vowels in the two Tense-formations. 
Thus— J&rtVrtA, Ex. 26, 3; £mV«H», Lev. 23, 22; ££?ftOH, 
frtilhOh, £rthl-£; Imperative: >frh*;hah, 4*ttfrOh &c. 

iv. in IV. The Causative-Reflexive Stem is, in accordance with 

Reflexive § 86, of very rare occurrence. In the Imperf. and Subj. it neces- 

stems. sarily exhibits the vowel-change found in all the Active Stems, 
hence ftl'tH^fa, Jas. 3, 17. 

v. in Y. The weaker Reflexive Stem, which is formed by prefixing 

Eeflex^ve ^"^ (§ 87), so far shows its kinship with the Active Stems, as to 

stem, exhibit the usual difference of vocalisation prevailing in those Stems 
between the two Tense-forms. The Imperfect is distinguished from 

But of. Teumpp. 524. 



the Subjunctive just as in the other Stems of the Multiliteral roots. 
The Personal sign in the Subj. and Imp erf. is connected with ft*J 
just as it is in other cases with ftft and ft. Whence we have, in 
the Perfect: MlrOrC anguarguaraC); in the Subjunctive: f } 
t'CT'C] i n tne Imperative: h'i7 CT , C\ and in the Imperfect: 
j?'}1ȣY , G- With Aspirates and Radical vowels; Perfect: ft'XIdi 
-i\th hlPd&iD, MrnAO, htfltiat, hWlf, Subjunctive: ^70 
jh-fl/h, nPb&i 1 ^fnA^, l r}flA^ > m^; Imperfect: HAiMl/h, 
pt^OJi; and the rest just as in the Subjunctive ( 2 ). 


§ 101. It belongs to the very conception of a verb, as distin- Formation 
guished from a mere predicate, that it not only gives what is predi- Gender"' 
cated, but also, — contained within it or at least indicated by it, — and Nl » m - 

bers : — 

the Person, of whom anything is predicated. Accordingly the General 
Verb furnishes its Tense- and Mood-Stems with Personal signs, Eemarka - 
as the third step which it takes towards its full development. In 
order to manage this step, it encroaches upon the domain of the 
Pronouns, inasmuch as it is just the Personal pronouns which are 
made use of to express the several Persons. The Personal signs 
have originated in the combination of the personal pronouns with 
the verbal Stem. The former in due course coalesced with the lat- 
ter, but in this closer connection they have undergone abbreviation 
and occasionally considerable mutilation. The entire apparatus of 
the distinction of the Persons in Gender and Number, which prevails 
and lives in the language, in the domain of the Personal Pronouns, 
is thus reproduced in the Verb. And just as, in accordance with 
§ 148, two Numbers, the Singular and the Plural, are distinguished 
in the Personal Pronoun, and two Genders, Masculine and Femi- 
nine, in the two pronouns of the second and third Person, so are 
these distinctions repeated in the verb in Ethiopic. 

It has already been pointed out in § 91, that the position 
which is assumed by the Personal sign with respect to the Verbal 

( x ) But v. Trxtmpp, p. 525. 

( 2 ) On the peculiar forms of ft^^rhftrh "tomove(tnfr.)" v. Dillmann's 
'Lex.\ col. 327. On the Passive-Reflexives formed with <f*, like 'frlfll&O, 
v. supra, p. 165. 

— 202 — § 101. 

Stem, is of essential importance in the formation of the two contrast- 
ed Tenses. In the Perfect the Personal signs are attached to the 
end of the Stem ; in the Imperfect and Subjunctive, to the beginning. 
This different method of attachment, however, has caused the modi- 
fication of the originally complete pronoun to have another charac- 
ter in the Perfect than it has in the Imperfect; and accordingly 
the Personal signs actually in use in the language fall into two 

1. The Personal signs of the Perfect^-). The Third Person 
Sing. Masc. is not distinguished by any special sign. Seeing that 
all the other persons and genders in both numbers were denoted 
exactly by terminations, the Personal sign could be dispensed with 
in this one case, by virtue of the contrast. The Third Person 
Sing. Fern., on the other hand, has at, which serves the same pur- 
pose also in Nominal Stems, v. § 126. The Third Person Plural 
Masc. is denoted by u, and the Third Person Plural Fern, by a. 
The former is shortened ( 2 ) from umu, um, un, the latter from on 
(<D*'h'f*'}), an. — The sign for the Second Person Sing, is in the 
Masc. h, in the Fern. \\^. The vowel-change between the two 
genders is the very same as in the full pronoun of the second 
person (§ 148) : the other Semitic languages also retain this change, 
either complete or in traces, h or h, itself, however, is nothing 
else than the second element of the full compound Pronoun ft"}*!" 
or ft"}"fc (§ 148) , inasmuch as (v. § 65), from the original twa, 
from which »f« sprung, h might also come, and has come not only 
in this case, but also in the Suffix Pronoun of the Second Person 
in both Numbers in all Semitic languages ( 3 ). In the Plural also, 
Ethiopic transforms the original sound into k in the same way: 
Masc. h«f»« kemmu] Fern, ft'} ken, answering completely to the second 

( x ) Cf. now with this, in particular, Noldeke, 'JJntersuchungen zur 
semitischen Grammatik\ ZDMG XXXVIII, p. 407 sqq., [reprinted with 
numerous additions in l Beitr. z. sem. Sprachwiss.\ Strassburg 1904: — where 
v. p. 15 sqq.] 

( 2 ) As is still more clearly seen in the other Semitic languages. 

( 3 ) The difference between Ethiopic and the other Semitic languages 
is merely this, that the latter put into the difference of the types ta and ha, 
the contrast between the pronoun used as Subject and the pronoun used in a 
subordinate position, while the former— the Ethiopic language— employed the 
type ta for the separate pronoun, and the type ka for the pronoun when 

§ 101. — 203 — 

element in M^a**, hl^l, § 148. — For the First Person the 
sign in the Sing, is ft«, in the Plural V- The k in M, it would 
appear, is more original than the t, which all the other Semitic 
tongues exhibit (§ 65) ; and certainly the influence of the Personal 
sign of the second person has had the effect of making this A; retain 
its position here more tenaciously^). But all the more was the 
Towel u, — which comes just as readily to hand as I (§ 65), — bound 
to establish itself for the First Person, lest the First Person 
and the Second Person Fern, should be confounded together. 
The *! of the Plural is a remnant of the full Pronoun ">/3hV? 

2. For the Imperfect [or Indicative'] and the Subjunctive Per80nal 
the Personal signs have to be set before the Theme, in accordance the imper- 
with the original meaning of the grammatical form. But as the ctt^imd" 
signs of the Verbal Stems are also set as prefixes, the Personal subjunc- 
signs had to be compressed into the utmost possible brevity, to 
keep the several verbal forms from being overloaded in their com- 
mencement. In Ethiopic, therefore, just as in the other Semitic 
tongues, the prefixed Personal signs are either very short from 
the outset, or have been much abbreviated, and consist of one 
single comparatively strong letter. But as such a letter sufficed 
merely to denote the different Persons, but not the Genders or 
Numbers, the needful assistance was obtained from signs of Gen- 
der and Number attached farther to the close of the form. — The 
Third Person, first of all in the Sing., has in the beginning of the 
form JR. for the Masculine, and ^ for the Feminine, and no farther 
marking in either case at the end of the Theme. The *|h is assuredly 
the same mark of the Feminine which appears in the Perfect, and 
very generally besides in the domain of Nominal Stems (§ 126). 
But, in the same way, JR. is nothing else than the original Pronoun 
of the Third Person (§ 65), and first denotes merely the Third 
Person, as contrasted with the other personal signs ^", ft, *}, with- 

( ) While the t of the Second Persons in the other tongues brought 
about the transition from k to tin the First.— Erman, ZAS XXVII, p. 81, 
points out the Jcu of the 1 st pers. sing. Perf. in Egyptian also. Cf. farther 
HaliSvy, 'Notes semitiques' in the 'Melanges Benier' (Paris 1886), p. 447 sqq. On 

<J instead of yy of the l Bt pers. Sing, in Southern Arabia cf. v. Maltzan, 
ZDMG XXV, p. 197, and Mordtmann, ibid. XLIV, p. 191. 

— - 204 — § 101. 

out distinction of gender (and so in the( 1 ) Plur.). It is only as 
contrasted with the Feminine -]h, that it receives a Masculine 
signification ( 2 ). In the Plural there are appended, besides, u for 
the Masc, and a for the Fern., plainly the same signs of the Plural 
which are found in the Perfect; and in fact they always yield the 
mere sounds of u and a in Ethiopic, while, as is well known, the 
other tongues have continued to preserve, precisely in the Imper- 
fect, their more original and complete form. Seeing that a, by its 
difference from u, of itself denotes the Fern., the change from £ 
to ^h in the prefixed Personal sign is omitted in the Plural; £ suf- 
fices for both genders, as being the general expression for the 
Third Person. To denote the Second Person, the sign ^ is prefixed 
in the Singular and Plural for both genders, that sign being a 
shortened form of ht't, M^**** (§ 148). The *t thus prefixed 
has to suffice for the indication of the Masc. Sing. ; and the incon- 
venience of having in this way the 2 nd pers. Sing. Masc. undistinguish- 
ed from the 3 rd pers. Sing. Fern., which has the very same form, has 
not been remedied in any way in Ethiopic. But the Fern. Sing., 
and the Masc. and Fern. Plural are again specially differentiated by 
appended signs. For the Fern. Sing, this purpose is served by the 
vowel I, which also indicates the Feminine gender in the separate 
pronoun of the 2 nd pers. Sing. ; and to denote the Plural, — seeing 
that the Person has already been designated by a prefix as the 
Second, — the general signs of the Plural, used also in the Third 
Person, are made use of, viz. u for the Masc. and a for the Fern. — 
The First Person has the prefix ft in the Sing., being a shortened 

( x ) In Assyrian, according to Haupt, the type yaqtulu for the Fern, 
occurs much oftener than taqtulu : v. ZDMG XXXIV, p. 757. 

( 2 ) This use of i for the Third Person without distinction of Gender 
points back to a time for the formation of the Personal signs, when <D«ft and 
JRft Were not yet contrasted with each other as Masc. and Fern., any more 

than this contrast is shown in £ftH "now".— That £, \, j is not merely a 
modification of we, will perhaps now be generally acknowledged (v. Dietrich, 
'Abhandl. zur hebr. Gramm.\ 1846, p. 122 sqq.; Ewald, l Hebr. Spr.\ p. 434 Note). 
That Syriac has ne instead, still proves nothing for the softening of ye out of 
we, but only that Syriac had in general at a very early stage lost the demon- 
strative word J&ft (as follows from the want of % in the formation of the 
construct state) and that another demonstrative element came to be used in 
its place (§ 62). 

§ 102. — 205 — 

form of ftV "I", and the prefix *> in the Plural, a shortened form 
of 7/hV "We" ; and these two prefixes are severally quite sufficient, 
as there is no distinction of Genders in the first Person. 

§ 102. The attachment of these Personal signs to the Stem of Attachment 
the Tenses and Moods is regulated in part by the vowel character sign"l°the 
or consonantal character of the first letter of the Personal signs Perfecl 
to be appended, and in part by the conditions of accentuation ( 1 ). 

1. Three of the Personal signs of the Perfect have a vowel 
commencement, viz: at, it, a; the others begin with a consonant. 
At one time all were certainly accented, but the majority of them 
have become tone-less. However, it, a, kemmu, ken, as a rule, 
keep their accent, and at the same time generally attract the tone 
of the word, since the actual word can have only one principal ac- 
cent. The others have all become tone-less; but those which begin 
with a consonant, throw their accent no farther back than upon 
the syllable immediately preceding, — which invariably is either 
closed, or furnished with a long vowel or a diphthong; and only 
the vowel-beginning at, not forming any closed syllable before it, 
leaves unchanged throughout in the Perfect Stem the accent pos- 
sessed by the Stem at first. But even the Personal signs u and 
a, which usually attract the tone to themselves, give it up to the 
foregoing syllable, if that syllable has a Stem-long vowel, or an 
unchangeably long vowel (as in "fcflv, 1°^)- The nature of the 
attachment of these Personal signs, for the rest, is very simple. 
Seeing that the last radical in the Perfect-Stem is originally vowel- 
less (§ 91), the signs which commence with a consonant are ap- 
pended to it in such a way that a closed syllable precedes them, 
while those which begin with a vowel are attached so as to draw 
the preceding third radical into their syllable. If the third radical 
is a vowel, the consonantal-commencing signs are simply appended 
to it as a new syllable; but, before the vowel-commencing ones, 
the vowel of the Stem must be hardened into a semivowel, and 
joined to the syllable of the Personal signs. These explanations 
may clear up the inflection of most of the Perfect-Stems; e. g. *■}<£, 
nagdrat, nagdrka, nagdrki, nagdrku; nagaru, nagar&f), nagar- 

(*) On the conditions of accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 525, and Konig, 
p. 160 sgq. 

( 2 ) [Trumpp, p. 525, followed by Praetorids, 'Aethiop. Oramm: p. 46, 
puts the accent on the 2 nd last syllable in the 3 rd p\.:-nagdru, nag&ra. tr.] 

— 206 — § 102. 

kemmu, nagarken, nagdrna. Or from ftJl^Ghfl? astdrkabat, 
astarkdbka, — astarkabu, astarkabkemmu. But we must again call 
attention here to the fact that the four Personal signs of the 
second Person and the sign of the first Pers. Sing, assimilate their 
h to a preceding radical 1 or «j», e. g. QC% 'ardggi, for OC^XK'-, 
'l&tyti ' nadaqqemmic, for V&4*h< ,D * (§ 54) ; and that when two h's 
or two V's meet together in such circumstances, the letter in 
each case is written once only; aogh\l mdhdkka, \\&*i kaddnna, 
£<Yl, Gadla Ad. 135,19; \\\ konna 1 st Plur., ibid. 23,9; 25,10; 
Hen. 103, 11; [K<w»fr, e. g. Chrest. p. 98, 1. 24; Kebra Nag., 90b 8] 
(§ 55). 

The following peculiar Perfect-Stems deserve special notice : — 

(a) Perfects which have the semi-passive vowel e {instead of 
a) after the second radical, viz. St. I, 1 in the Intransitive pro- 
nunciation, and St. Ill, 1 in the pronunciation »M»fl^, — transform 
their e into the stronger a (60) (*), in all those Persons where it 
stands in a closed syllable with the accent; thus though we have 
*Wllfr and 4"M14«, 'M'fl^, we have also IflCh and ^iflCh, and 
they maintain this a also in both forms of the Second Person 
Plural, where the accent rests on the Personal sign ; thus we never 
have 7'(1C*1<» D - or "M-nCtl?, but always lOCh" -, 'frMChTr, 
and from tifrh — ItWlll, ^h-flft** -. 

(b) The Perfects of the Stems 1, 1 ; III, 1 & 2 from roots mediae 
gutturalis, in the semi-passive form of pronunciation 9°ih£, ^"Idti, 
't'R'hili ma y retain this e-form throughout the whole Conjugation, 
thus, e. g. 9°foCh, -frldlftl, -hXTiAh (v. Table III); and, in fact, 
this must be done by the Perfects of those Simple Stems, which 
in the Ground-form admit this Intransitive form alone, like A.U'K 
for instance. But many admit in the first Stem the a-form of pro- 
nunciation as well as the e-form (v. § 76 ad fin.) and besides, 
in the case of all of them, both pronunciations are possible in 
Stems III, 1 & 2 ( 2 ). Accordingly one may quite as well say <w»#hCh, 
"hlOTf h 5 "t"ftft AH &c Different manuscripts vary between the forms 
very considerably, in the case of such words ( 3 ). Such types, however, 
should in the first place be pronounced meherka, ia-ge-ezka or 

( x ) Cf. Philippi, l Beitr. z. Assyr: II, p. 378 sq. 

( 2 ) 'fr't'th'fr' however, appears always to keep the e-pronunciation. 

( 3 ) V., e. g., Gen. 16, 13, Note. 

§ 102. — 207 — 

more shortly, tag-ezka, ta-se'-elka, although it can, hardly be 
doubted that the later Abyssinians, who gave a soft pronunciation 
to all the Aspirates, like mehra, tage'za, tase'la, said also mehrka, 
tage'zka, tase'lka (v. § 46 ad f.). — Roots tertiae gutturalis, in all 
the Perfect-Stems, restore the a after the second-last radical, before 
all the terminations which begin with a consonant, but, in accordance 
with § 46, it must be lengthened into a: tf»Aft, ""AMl; Vflrh, 
Mfth; flArfi, flA/Ml; hl-Uh, K*7flMl; fciWlrfi, fatf/hil, 
IQ't'hi IV'^'htl &c., while, before all terminations which begin 
with a vowel, they retain the e of the second-last radical: "I^^hK^h? 
Th^K-, itth &c. 

(c) The tri-radical roots mediae geminatae, in the semi-passive 
pronunciation of the Perfect of Stems I, 1 and III, 1, take, no 
doubt, the contracted form \f$,, *f«jQ«, *f*Wl before all termina- 
tions beginning with a vowel, instead of nadedu, tanabebu &c. ; but, 
before all terminations beginning with a consonant, where a must 
appear instead of e (v. supra), the two repeated letters are always 
kept separate by this a, thus 'f-Jfl-flYK *f"ifl*flh0 D " &c. 9°dO, the 
only Ethiopic root which has the same guttural as second and third 
radical, is regularly conjugated in the Perfect of St. II, 1, h9°dO, 
h9 al i&\l &c. ; but, in accordance with § 97, it may have in St. 111,1, 
either the full form 't9°dO, or the contracted •f , 9°0. The former 
is conjugated •i*9°'}dh, •f*9°b(h &c, but the latter like a Perfect 
of St. I, 2 of a root tertiae gutturalis, thus i n 9°0, 'fifth, 
-t9°(hC) &c. 

(d) Boots mediae infirmae, whether they be tertiae gutturalis 
or not, in all the Perfect-Stems which have the mixed-sound pro- 
nunciation in the Ground-form, retain this pronunciation through- 
out all the other Persons, like th£, rhCh; flft, flfth; k'F'fri 
Kfl°^h ; Kfl.lvKfl.^h; M Unna, "we have become" Hen. 103, 11. 
But when they have hardened their radical vowel into a semivowel 
in the Ground-form, as in mf 4», h(l<D£, 'f*£fl>(V or have a diph- 
thongal pronunciation, as in 'frghiD'fl, ^wf^tm, iahausa, talaima, 
they carry the hardened pronunciation right through the whole 
formation, thus mf**"*-, hdMCh 'V6,(Dt\X\- l'ihO){\\\ 1*V>¥9 h. 
Yerbs, which in Stems II, 1 and IV, 1 have the shortened form 

( x ) Thus, according to Ludolf; but "f"9°ddh also appears, e. g. 
Ex. 32, 12. 

— 208 — § 102. 

Y\ty0°, tfHth, htl't'dth, are conjugated like the Perfects of the 
Simple Stem: M9°h, KflAih, htH-dhh. 

(e) Vowel-ending tri-radical and multi-radical roots must in 
all Perfect-Stems (v. supra) harden their last radical into a semi- 
vowel before those terminations which begin with a vowel; but 
before all those which begin with a consonant they must sound 
that radical as a vowel. Since farther the second radical has 
generally a in this case, u or i as third radical combines with this 
a first of all into a diphthong: -f-Afl^h, lV£h, flA£h from fl£v? , 

*hH^Vfl*"Yb> ftlflflflMfl"? an d the diphthong is usually retained. 
But those roots at least which end in u may modify the diphthong 
farther into a mixed sound: •f*A°h, 't'&A'Xk'i rhP"Yl«, 0°1\lFXfr 

Gladla Ad. 21,21; and the verb Oii(D "to be", in particular, very 
commonly does so ; thus we have not only Vft°\\, U/Mfl" "? UA°V &c. ; 
but even OA°"lh instead of OdOi't', inasmuch as one may, in accor- 
dance with § 91, say Uft» for UtltD itself. Less frequently the mixed 
sound appears in roots which end in i, as in "T^tl" "? Josh. 24, 22 ; 
Judges 10,14; and in -Mill-, Judges 16,17; Ex. 29,17. Multi- 
literal roots have the mixed sound more frequently than have the 
Triliteral, because the Stems which are formed out of them are 
longer and are therefore abbreviated as much as possible. — Tri- 
literal roots tertiae infirmae, and which at the same time are mediae 
gutturalis and have an intransitive form of pronunciation, take a 
peculiar conjugation, like CM "to see"; Cdf "to herd (a flock)"; 
Ohdf "to burn" (f |Jf , 1»flf , 9°VtD, ft"/hfl)> When terminations 
beginning with a consonant are applied to these verbs, types would 
arise in the first place, according to what has been said (v. supra, 
under &), like re-e-i-Jca, but the e is regularly thrust aside by 
the radical (§ 51), and thus we have re-i-ka, CKM &c.( x ) (v. 
Table III). It cannot yet be said with certainty, whether those 
roots, which end in u (9°V(D, ftihO)). likewise follow this formation, 
seeing that they have not yet been supported by instances in the 
Persons concerned. It is possible that in these Persons they pass 
into the a-pronunciation ( ftrhO-h) Even Chf in St. Ill, 1, before 
terminations which begin with a consonant, falls back into the 

C 1 ) Cfc«£Yb Hab. 3,2, 7 Cod Laur.; Ch&YlP Amos 9,1 Cod Laur.: 

ichtu f ° r chAu Kebm Na 9- 25 > N ° te 23 -i 

§ 103. — 209 — 

a-pronunciation, so that although we say *f»Cftf , i'CM &c we 
have 'h^hj&h & c - — Doubly weak roots like rh£fD, ^<Df, 7»p, 

in accordance with what has been said in § 69, present no special 
features: ,h?<D*h, l&fM, ><t$M &c. 

8 103. 2. The attachment of the Personal signs in the Sub- Attachment 
junctive and the Imperfect [or Indicative]. As regards, first of all, s ign e s r i° na 
the Personal prefixes £,, *lh, ft, and *}, the manner in which J& is the lm v*r- 

feot — [Indi- 

set before the Stem has already been dealt with in §§ 92 — 99; cative and 
and all that has been said of £ holds good of the other three also. t ^ unc ' 
Whenever the following radical has a syllable-vowel of its own, — 
as in the Imperfects of all Ground-Stems, in the Subj. of St. 1, 2, 3 
of the Triliteral Verb and of St. I of the Multiliteral, as well as in 
the Subj. of St. 1, 1 of Vowel-centred and Vowel-beginning roots 
of weak formation — , these prefixes are uttered with a fugitive e, 
and with a only when the following radical is a guttural, according 
to § 44. We have therefore not only f OC% PCJlfCj but also 
PfhTf, P0& from fDvhtf, ffhdti- But when these prefixes form 
along with the first radical a single (closed) syllable, as in the 
Subj. 1, 1 of most of the Tri-radical Verbs, they are uttered with 
the full vowel e. Farther, in all Reflexive Stems formed by »f«, the 
Personal prefix closes with this *f«, — which gives up its a — , into 
JE^ ( x ), in which proceeding the rules, explained in §§ 54, 55, must 
be attended to. Finally, the prefixes combine with the ft of the 
Causative Stems II and IV, as well as of the Reflexive Stem V, 
into Jf, £*, ft, «?. The Personal Suffixes ^which are the same in 
the Subjunctive, the Imperative, and the Imperfect) consist of mere 
vowels i, u, a. They draw the tone of the word to themselves 
throughout, thus: £l»(K-, *hV7<5, £<£,£"? yegabru, tenagri, yefe- 
sem&( 2 ). As vowel-suffixes they attract the final letter of the Stem 
to their syllable, and when that letter is a vowel, as in roots ter- 
tiae infirmae, it must be hardened into the corresponding semi- 
vowel. But although the final letter of the last syllable of the 
Stem moves forward into the syllable of the termination, and the 

( 1 ) Differing thus from the method followed in Arabic, which here also 
shows itself richer in vowels. — The shortening of »f« into *J" is the less sur- 
prising, when according to § 80 this -f* itself must in earlier times have sound- 
ed it or et 

( 2 ) Cf., however, Trumpp, p. 526 sqq. 


—, . 210 — § 103. 

last-mentioned syllable attracts also the tone to itself, yet the for- 
mative or radical vowel of the last syllable of the Stem (which 
now stands in an open syllable) is kept unaltered, as in £A0ft, 

^Aflrt.; m°, £*•*"•; £AJt, *A3.; £-}«7C, £7°K-; J&nAA, 
.fcOArli.; £<UM°, ^X ,fl 7; H^C, ^*7^ &c. Also, in cases 
where the formative vowel has been absorbed by a vowel occur- 
ring as third radical in the Ground-form, as in Jjfltl,,, £"lhA"» 
£»T*1.i it must again appear, after the radical vowel has been har- 
dened into a semivowel: — £flh^, ^"IhAfflL, "3h1*7P.- In old manu- 
scripts, however, types are found like J&'flh^fc for ^'flfafc Abb. LY; 
4 Esr. 6, 25; [£fUu£ &c, v. Kebra Nag., Introd. p. XVI;] £"/*& 
Amos 6, 15 Cod. Laur. ; £fl*fc£ Amos 9, 14 Cod. Laur. ( a ). In altering 
the syllabic relations the following has to be noticed : If the last Stem- 
syllable has the formative vowel e, as in J&V7C> or at least if it 
had it or should have it, as in J&'f'/V-, and if this last Stem-syllable 
is preceded by an open syllable with a short vowel, — either with a 
(£V*7G, £i*A*), or with e (^*7C) — , then this a or e attracts to 
itself the first letter of the last Stem-syllable,- — when along with 
its e it is being isolated — , with the result that that letter gives up 
its e and becomes attached to the preceding syllable as a vowel- 
less closing letter ( 2 ): £i*7G> ^ild yenager, tenagrt; "ilC, Trl^ 
neger, negrti; ftl't'dXl'fl, Jftl'i'dYlOr yastardkeb, yastarakbtif). 
Farther, if types like £tf»A?i> £V<»-5F*, J&<w»£T ? are at least 
against analogy (§§ 43 and 50) pronounced yemal-'e, yenaum, 
yemait, the forms tytwfoh,, ff/ifShO°*, ^»ff°^(n* are, on the 
other hand, necessarily pronounced temal-i, yenaumU, yemaitu. 
Verbs tertiae gutturalis : In all those cases in which the last Stem- 
syllable should have the formative vowel a, these verbs lengthen 
it in the Ground-form into a: &9°Xh, 9°%h, &tra°lft\, J&^rfC/frh, 
je^A^/fi, £*\?flfc, i-Pdh, f.h'&A&A &c. But if a Personal 
termination is applied, and the Aspirate is drawn into the following 

O In Dillmann's 'Chrest. Aeth.\ p. 147, Str. 3, 1.. 2 the MS. offers 
&h£* in preference to ^ftp«. 

( 2 ) Cf., however, Trumpp, p. 526 sgq. 

( 3 ) [Or more shortly:— In Imp f. and Imper. forms, of the type yenager, 
mger, the obscure e of the last stem-syllable falls away before the increment 
of the personal vowel-suffixes i, w, a; e. g. *^V*7C tenager (2 sg. m.) becomes 
^hi*7<5 tenagri (2 sg. f.). te.] 

§ 103. — 211 — 

syllable, not only is the reason for lengthening the a removed, but 
by § 45 this formative a must pass into e, and then the second- 
last radical which introduces this e, — in the special cases which 
have just been more precisely determined, — loses the e entirely 
and becomes attached, as a vowel-less letter closing the syllable, 
to a preceding open syllable which has a short vowel, thus: ^9° 
8"/i«; 9°Kh* mes-u for me-se-u: — J^^Ah*, yetmal-u for 
yetma-le-U: W^/fJi, tt&S*' di, tetfaSSehi &c. (*). Only the few 
Subjunctives and Imperatives of vowel-beginning or vowel-centred 
roots of weak formation, which have been described in § 93, — viz. 
£?fc and ?fc from <Dbh, and £flft, Oh, JWft from &h and 
H°h, — preserve the long a throughout the entire Conjugation, in- 
asmuch as it serves at the same time to compensate for a rejected 
radical letter (v. Table III), j&flft, £«% and f|ft are formed 
after the analogy of Ji^X and flft. 

Double-lettered Verbs (jry). If in the Ground-form of these 
verbs the two like letters are separated merely by the weak vowel e, 
and the first of them is preceded by an open syllable with a short 
vowel ( 2 ), then in the case of forms which are increased by personal 
terminations (cf. supra) the two like letters are brought together, 
without any separating vowel, and they are in that case generally 
indicated in writing by one letter only. The assumed conditions 
in the ground-form are exemplified in £}*fl*fl, "3"fl*fl, ?}&&, ?tl 
+^/ M / M , ££<K>AJl, ,p0»£ftA, but not in j^Ml, ^h-??, fay*, 
hh-'it, because in this case the first *} has to be pronounced as 
a doubled letter. The above forms, when increased by personal 
endings run thus:— £*fh ->ft«, fr^, fh+lw, £&<*>fr,?0D£fr, 
but also with the letter repeated, as £V'flfl« (v. § 55) ( 3 ). The 
Imperfects and Subjunctives from h9°60 and ^f°60 — , $9° 66 
and ^ao^6 (§§ 96, 97) cannot yet be all substantiated, but they 
present nothing in their inflection, which might not be understood 
from the general rules, e. g. ?9°6(h Numb. 16,30 ; Deut. 31,20, 29; 

i 1 ) [Or,— Forms like 9°1$\-\-n pass theoretically through the following 
changes:— mesa 1 + u=mesa + fo*=mese + fa^mes + h*=9°9\h*' tr.] 

( 2 ) Cases like J&^u*. for J&'V/**!**. Cod. Pocock., Ps. 77, 9 rest on 
copyists' errors.— Notice the Suhj. ^JflA-flA. Fal. f. 51 (<£«».', col. 1235) 
from a multilateral root. 

( 3 ) V., on the other hand, Konig, p. 95. 


- 212 - § 104. 

Hen. 69,1; or ffinoQO* John 7,23.— In like manner Imper. 
i-9°d (§ 97), i-9°% -t-9°(b, *r°i\ or ^9°li% i-9°6tb, 

The Conjugation of Verbs tertiae infirmae presents no dif- 
ficulty, seeing that I, u, as well as the diphthongs and mixed 
sounds ai, au, e, o may be easily resolved into their corresponding 
semivowels, and that, according to § 52, all the groups of sounds, 
which occur in these cases, viz. yl, yu, yd, wi, wu, wa, are admitted 
in the Ethiopic language. The first Imperfect of "flUA (§ 92), £fl,, 
which is employed as an Aorist, forms £fl,, ^fl,, ^fl,A.> ML; £(l»A*> 
£(1A ^(Ifr, ^fl»A, t(UC)' The second Imperfect JM1A, as 
well as the Subjunctive £flA and the Imperative flA, together 
with the Imperfect of JnOA, £fa A (§ 92) follow the ordinary rules : 
£flfr, J&-0A-, Pnto, flA- &o. 


cusses of § 104. Overagainst the Yerb stands the Noun {Naming - Word), 

Nouns; and ^ ^ t k e jjf own i n the narrower sense of the term, which is derived 

Methods of ' 

stem-For- from roots conveying a notion or conception, and the Pronoun, 
which is derived from demonstrative roots. The formation of Nouns, 
like that of Verbs, passes through stages three in number: 1. The 
Nominal Stem is formed from the Root ; 2. the Stem is then dif- 
ferentiated by Genders and Numbers ; 3. the words thus elaborated 
assume special forms, or Cases, according to the special relations 
upon which they enter in the Sentence. This formation, however, 
in the case of Pronouns, differs in some respects from that of Nouns 
properly so-called; and farther, amongst Nouns themselves the 
Numerals have much that is peculiar, and in some points they 
share too in the peculiarities of Pronouns. Accordingly in the ac- 
count to be given of Nouns, we distinguish these three classes : 
1. Nouns, in the narrower sense of the term; 2. Pronouns ; 
3. Numerals. 

O Of. Tkumpp, p. 526. 

§ 104. — 213 — 


Nouns are divided according to their signification, first of all 
into Words of Conception, or Conceptional words (Abstract Nouns), 
such as bring forward in the form of a Noun, an idea, an action, 
or a property purely by itself, like Belief, Killing, Quickness, — 
and into Words of Statement (Concrete Nouns), which state the 
notion as incorporated in some being or thing, and attached thereto. 
Concrete Nouns themselves are again divided into Self-dependent 
words (Substantives), which give a name to a person or thing in 
accordance with a conception or notion perceived by the mind as 
having been realised in the one or the other, i. e., Names of persons 
and of things, and words which are not Self-dependent (Adjectives), 
but which state a conception as being realisable in a person or 
thing, and therefore always involve a reference to a person or 
thing, to which they are ready to be attributed, i. e. Descriptive or 
Qualifying Words. These two distinctions between Nouns, in ac- 
cordance with their meaning, are not in themselves very stable. — 
An Abstract Noun may, by a slight alteration of the sense, be 
turned into the name of a thing or a person (as e. g. Clothing may 
first of all mean the act of clothing, but afterwards also the dress; 
and in like manner, First-birth may come to mean the first-born); 
or it may take the place of a descriptive word (as in : 'God is 
truth') ; and a descriptive word may easily become the name of a 
person or a thing. Nevertheless, that fundamental distinction must 
be adhered to in treating of Formation, seeing that for the proper 
understanding of Stem-formation the main consideration is, — what 
was the original meaning of a word, and not what is its derived 
meaning. Special classes of Nouns, besides, are formed by Infini- 
tives and Participles. They are distinguished from other Nouns 
by issuing from the Stems of the verb, and not directly from the 
root. They are accordingly more closely connected with the verb 
than is any other Noun (Verbal Nouns), and they set forth the 
conception contained in the verb in its Stem- determination^), 

0) But the Participle and the Infinitive in Semitic, as is -well-known, 
accompany the Verb no farther than up to the distinction between the Verbal 
Stems. They do not share in the Tense distinction. 

— 214 — § 104. 

either as a purely Conceptional word (Infinitive), or as a Descriptive 
or Attributive word (Participle). Of each of these two classes there 
are to be found, in those Semitic tongues which still retain their 
full wealth of form, as many forms as the Verb has Stems. But 
Ethiopic has sustained serious loss, at least in the domain of the 
Participle. It is no longer capable of forming a Participle from 
every Verb in every one of its Stems ; and only from a few Stems 
of comparatively few verbs has it retained the Participles, as the 
scattered remains, so to speak, of an earlier stage of formation. — 
Still, it makes up for the Participle in another way. Infinitives 
are more regularly formed; but as they constitute a special Class 
of Nouns, we shall deal with them, only in concluding our survey 
of Nominal Stem-formation. On the other hand the description 
of the Participial forms, which are still retained in a dispersed 
condition, has been embodied in the account to be given of the 
other Nominal Stems, — for the reason, mainly, that such forms 
have, to some extent, assumed the meaning of ordinary Adjectives 
or Substantives. 

The means employed in the formation of Nominal Stems 
have already been enumerated (§ 74), viz. : Inner vowel-change ; 
Inner increase by doubling individual radicals; and Outward in- 
crease by attaching formative letters or syllables. And in particular 
the feminine Nominal ending is made use of, even in carrying out 
the formation of the Nominal Stem itself and in establishing its 
meaning, inasmuch as Conceptional words and the stronger Abstract 
Nouns are readily conceived as being of the feminine gender. The 
Inner vowel-change, is unlimited; but as regards multiplicity in the 
forms produced thereby, Ethiopic is inferior to Hebrew and Arabic, 
first of all because it has now only two short vowels. It has not 
even kept all those forms, — still in use in other tongues — , which 
it might have done, even with its more slender stock of vowels, 
but it has been content in this matter, as in others, with what is 
most necessary and essential, and has allowed whatever else once 
existed to disappear. Thus in many cases older forms, or common 
Semitic forms, are now represented merely by a few fragments 
from ancient times, or by words brought in from a foreign source. 

Nouns in the narrower sense of the term (apart from Parti- 
ciples and Infinitives) are derived either from the root (Primitive 
Nouns), or from other Nouns (Denominative Nouns). Of the latter 

§ 105. — 215 — 

class Ethiopia has a large number. In particular, conceptional 
words, words denoting properties, and their relative attributive 
words, are often derived in this way. Individual Nouns, besides 
Infinitives and Participles proper, are also formed from derived 
Verbal Stems, chiefly when the Verbal Stem expresses a simple 
idea and makes up in this way for a Simple Stem which is wanting. 

In reviewing the Stem-formation of Nouns we start from 
simple and original forms, and advance to Compounds (in which 
several formative expedients have been co-operating) and to Deri- 

The simplest and most general method of formation is that 
which makes use of Inner vowel-change ; for every Nominal form 
has definite formative vowels, which convey its meaning. Inner 
increase of the radicals constitutes the second stage of formation ; 
and External formative devices furnish the third. In all three 
stages, however, the vocalisation is of essential importance. Its 
nature cannot generally be described beforehand; but when com- 
pared with the vocalisation of the Verb, the peculiarity of that of 
the Noun is shown in a preference for longer, weightier and broader 
vowels Q). 

Like the Tenses of the Verb the Nominal Stems in Ethiopic 
once also ended in Vowels; and this vowel-ending, through the 
change of vowels happening in it, served at the same time to denote 
the different relations of the Noun in the Sentence, viz. the Cases 
(v. § 142 sqq.). This vowel-ending, however, without assuming 
which a series of Nominal forms could not have been accounted 
for, was, in accordance with § 38, given up at an early stage, at 
least in the Ground-form of the Nominal Stem. 


§ 105. 1. The simplest Nominal formation consists in the ^ Iirst and 
establishment of a short but accented vowel after the first radical: T f implMt 

' • - ' ' Formation: 

The second radical is vowel-less ; and the third, which once had with ac- 
the general vowel-ending of all Nominal Stems, was, later on, given ^^vowei 
without a vowel (8 38) ( 2 ). This form stands in direct contrast with after l8t 

° ' v ' Radical. 

( x ) On the Tone-relations of the Noun v. Trumpp, p. 531 sqq., and Konig, 
p« 154 sqq. 

( 2 ) Cf. Trumpp, p. 532; Konig, p. 145. — Corresponding forms appear in 

Hebrew TJ7D, 1BD, Bh]3; Arabic Jois, Jdi", Ju3, Aramaic y^o, V^fiD? «*o|ja. 

— 216 — §105. 

the coinage of the root as a Verb (where a vowel follows the second 
radical). It has at first always the force of a pure Conceptional 
word, like -fl^h "gap", 07* A "corruption", Gh'h £* "fewness", 
(OCR "breadth". But by virtue of farther modification of the 
meaning (§ 104) these Conceptional words were often employed to 
designate objects and substances in which the idea becomes realised, 
so that this form goes on to furnish expressions for names of things, 
names of persons, plants, animals, and the like, e.g. A*flt) ("cloth- 
ing") "dress", V^ft ("breath") "soul", -OC^ ("cutting") "brass". 
fl> A£* ("birth") "son", a>Ch "moon", hC/" "belly", hA*fl "dog" &c. 
Many very old words especially, the roots of which are no longer 
used at all as Verbs, like 0$/} "eye", are formed in this way. But 
pure Adjectives are not expressed in this form( x ). The vowel which 
is established in the first part of the form is either a or e in Ethi- 
opic. Into this e have been taken the u (o) and i (e) of the allied 
languages ; but in a few roots beginning with Aspirate-gutturals an 
original u has, in accordance with § 26, endeavoured to save itself 
by taking refuge in a Guttural or an Aspirate, like 7*CJ "threshing- 
floor" (rp), -M£- "Stem" (t^), tf-AA "dye for the eyes" (jJajT). 

«|x.f|<p "costus" (.feuls), «fx-C "cold" fij5), tf-A "totality" (te)(*). 
Any essential difference in meaning between words with a and 
words with e is, generally speaking, no longer discernible. When 
this form has been produced in both modes of pronunciation by 
one and the same root, these modes often have also different signi- 
fications attached to them, in such a way that in some cases the 
word which contains a has a more active meaning or one more 
connected with a person, — while that which contains e conveys a 
more passive meaning or one more suggestive of a thing, as 1*flC 
"slave", *7»flC "business"; ^«7Jt "foreigner, 1«7£* "journey"; but 
also with other kinds of difference, as in — : TrYxti "youth", V?ift 

Q) For J&jP*"}, ,K"iCj 6*19° never mean dexter, posterior, laevus, 
as Ludolf thinks, but "the right, back, left side"; and *%£ "good" oy&. 
is doubtless merely an abbreviated form of *xi>. and thus belongs originally 
to a different formation. 

( 2 ) Farther ^-Qt, +*W, «f"-R*A, «feA <h, frCV, WhAl, ^A«^ \ 
also *&*•$%? "leg". — The vievf propounded above is also approved of by 
Tbumpp, p. 532, but contested by Konig wrongly, pp. 45, 52. 

§ 105. — 217 — 

"smallness" ; A-flA "rope", /h-OA "cunning"; ^A "judgment", 
d/tth "solution". But frequently both forms are used with like 
meaning, as Cth'fl and^/h-fl "breadth"; C9°th and^jp/h "spear"; 
dC4» and OC& "reconciliation"; 4»frG and $KC "citadel"; 4»*>?i 
and 4»-}h "envy"; *<£$» and "j,^ "chest", "box"; ^ffA and 
"feffA "leaf"; -^At* and -VA^ "number"; RAfc and frAft 
"hatred" ; /J^ and £■'*'} "well", "weal" ; — for seeing that on the one 
hand, a may be softened into e (§ 18), and that on the other, Aspirates 
and Aspirate-resembling letters (like «J» in the examples adduced) 
have a preference for the a-sound, this alternation between a 
and e in certain words is easily explained, and there is no need to 
assume the existence of two original forms. Finally, we must not 
fail to notice ( a ) that several of these words which have a are 
nothing other than somewhat maimed forms of original Participles 
of the type JJ-flC- This is the case possibly with 7-QC "slave",— 
originally "a worker", and HCJfl "friend" &c. On the pronunciation 
of these words cf. supra, § 38. 

A Middle-Aspirate exerts no influence on the e-formation: 
— TfMl "wolf", 9°6C "a time", JPft^ "a hundred"; but in the 
d-formation it lengthens that vowel into a (§ 46): — Ptxfl "quar- 
rel", «^/h4» "mockery". - 

Boots mediae geminatae in both formations leave their 
double -letter unresolved ( 2 ) : — £v»fl "heart", /h«7 "law", /*"} 
"beauty" (*LL), tfi "tooth", Tffr "a skin", "bottle" (J-p, £-fl "a 

bear" (J j), *Ml "pit" Ci), <£^ "piece" and "gift" (Judges 19,5; 
Jas. 1,17), 9°^ "husband" (PI h0»;Hh); d\K "arrow" (fn), wty 

PV, ift "leaf of paper", flh "emptiness", }£■ "flame", ^ "vapour", 
"smoke" (JLiSl), £4» "little one", 0C "enemy", mA "dew", m¥ 
"an infant" (*]g) (frequently employed in the Abyssinian Chronicles). 

From Vowel-beginning roots this formation is always strong: 
&V1 "right side", p.flf) "firm or dry land", "continent", 0>«flT 
"interior", <D^£- "fewness", <DA£- "son", W^C "sinew" (1$;). 

In the formation from roots mediae infirmae the vowel e 

0) V. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' § 146, Note. 

( 2 ) Accordingly *p7 must also be read for T'J'J in Ludolf's Diction- 
ary col. 562: *fc"} "length" might be merely a lengthened form of ^"J, but it 
may also come from a root *kl=jjn. 

— 218 — § 105. 

(§ 50) is displaced by the radical vowel, thus: — rh.fl "reproof", 
of, } "cunning", "comrade", 4»JP° "revenge", h/> "art", m«fl 

"smoke" {^o\ (jLljo), A«r1h "dropsy" (oul), 9jx "filth" (n«S), 

M "length", 0,«7 "baseness"; v*b "tinder" (c^li)( 1 ). On the 
other hand, the vowel a forms with the radical vowel a diphthong, 
which is often retained, especially in words from roots primae or 
tertiae gutturalis, but which often also blends into a mixed sound : 
— !)££■ "plunder", flj&«p "sword", »}£A "power", rhj&4» "shore", 
ft£1 "flood", Rj&A "street", IDJE/} "wine", OJZ,? "eye" (0£«7, 
££T HjK-^, l£-fl,' !»>£&)> OID-Jt "circuit", HO>-«7 "pair", Afl>«A 
"table" {'tabula'), UOhd and HflHk "jests", K(D«A "vapour", flfl>«T 
"scourge" (4>O>«0, hO>-C); or "&T "price", fl,^ "house", £,C 

"cloister" (J«S), "fcft "mead"( 2 ), %£ fidoi; Sap. 13, 18, ?»^ 
"death", fl*»4» "warmth", #JT» "growth", p-JP° "today", ^ "bird", 
?F> "tree , -J/h "dawn" (yfc, fiC, "»A, ^C, M°, KC, KT, CA) 

But together with these genuine Ethiopic forms, there occurs also 
another pronunciation, — one with long a, — particularly in some 
very old words. This a proves in most cases to have been simpli- 
fied from o in the Ethiopic and Arabic manner (§ 18) ( 3 ): ^»£v 

"word" (cf. supra), S\C "race" (not p.Q, Ph "breeches" (cf. &°S); 
often under the influence of an Aspirate: y^ "sweat", t{fi\ "mourn- 
ing" (whence Od.(D and tithtD seem to be derived), fl<> "span" 

(cLj, ep), *jy "year", t\b "hour" (as well as fl 1 }^, jLtll, proper- 
ly "moment", ntfltf). — O n the other hand 4-A. "good omen" appears 

to be shortened from 4*?tA (Jli), and *Jfl>« "curvature" from a 

form like !._& and jj«^; finally ^ft "hut" seems to be originally an 

Arabic Participle (jl|5 (c/". &*jua<5), or a lengthened form of &f|. 

jBoofe tertiae infirmae neither reject their last radical, if 
we except a few very old words of uncertain derivation, nor intro- 
duce the vowel-pronunciation, but on the contrary invariably harden 

0) f|fl*"*P Can tic. 7, 3 cannot be a Substantive, as Ludolf assumes, 
but is a Part. Fern. ; ROhft "invitation" is derived from the Intensive Stem 
of the verb. 

( 2 ) Perhaps also %,&* "salt", root "2 or ^yo. 

( 3 ) V. Ewald, 'Gr. Ar: §§ 73, 387. 

§ 105. — 219 — 

it into a semivowel, and thus possess a thoroughly strong formation. 
This formation, however, has its explanation solely in the assump- 
tion (§ 38) that at one time all nouns, including these, ended in a 
short vowel ; and it is precisely in words of this formation that such 
vowels must of necessity be given utterance to, in order to render 
them pronounceable ( x ). The forms of this sort, known as yet, are: 
/**Cfl*" Serw e "root", *lROh "representation", Itfah or ft'y* "bro- 
ther", K"T* "a lane" (= K"lOh p«jf), /h*^ 'an odoriferous wood' 

(cf. (j£a.); fl/hfl** "extension", ftRah "wilderness" (.Jo), 0"hOh 
"emulation", ^ft£ "face", Arh£ "beauty", VU£ "recreation", 
"refreshment". Obviously this formation has become very rare ; 
and there is no example of it where the word has the vowel e and 
itself comes from a root ending in i( 2 ). The rarity of such words 
might occasion astonishment, were it not sufficiently explained by 
the circumstance, that when the final vowel had been dropped in 
the later pronunciation, the whole of this formation was allowed 
to fall out of use, and, — so far as pure conceptional words ought 
to have been formed in it, — was replaced by another formation 
(§ 106). Farther, a few very old words appear, which have only 
two radicals, but which, — sometimes before a Suff. Pron. and in 
the PL, sometimes in derivatives, — pass into tri-radical roots with 
final u. They are therefore to be enumerated here, although in 
stray cases the tri-radical root is only derived from them, and 
not they from the root: 6f£ "man", ftJP 1 "name", ftJt "hand", 
66 "tree", <p-0 "female breast", ft^, fl^ "papyrus", &9° "blood" ( 3 ), 
IK "face", ft<£ "mouth", faR "arrow", ft-fl "father", A\9° "father- 
in-law". As regards their formation, it is not indeed certain that 
all of them have been formed precisely according to the first form 
here assumed by us; but in their type they resemble mostly those 
words which belong to the first formation; and since their true 
genesis, from its extreme antiquity, can no longer be established 
with certainty, and at all events cannot be classified under any of 
the modes of formation still in force in the language, we have set 
them down among Nouns of the simplest form. 

An onomatopoetic word of this formation is %6 "raven" 

Q) V. however Trumpp, p. 532. 

( 2 ) For Chf* is an Infinitive and of quite another origin. 

( 3 ) Whence DTK seems to have been derived. [—A doubtful derivation.] 

— 220 — § 106. 

[also 7*7% a word of similar meaning Kebra Nag., 122 b 17, var.]. 
The following foreign words too have been altered in accordance 
with this form, viz.: — XflR "India", KCK "Greece", <£f»fa 
"passover", tltfi "Xivnov", -f-JE, or ^£ "brimstone" (&siov) &c. 

Several of these forms, especially of those which have received 
the signification of common Nouns, passed over to the feminine 

type, like *if,ao^ "tent" (SUJX), R"*7V^ "bat", fttpft "wallet", 

(xLU), 7i^ "garden", WYft "galbanum", di'PH' "bile" (for 
rhJPlD^), Ml^ and flMh "street", "lane", (related to ftf- 

v. supra), «i t h : 1r "door" (&£l£.), T*5. "lime" (sCj), and several 

others ending in a (§ 127). 
2. second § 106. 2. The Second mode of formation consists in the 

Formation: establishment of an accented short vowel, or a tone-long vowel, 
accented after the second radical. Words of this form are Verbal Nouns. 
orTonellng They give evidence at once of this relationship of theirs to the 
vowei after y e rb by the position of their formative vowel after the second 

2nd Eadi- . 

cai:- radical, inasmuch as the Verb has its essential vowel precisely in 
that place. In meaning they are either conceptional words of an 
Infinitive type, derived from the old Imperfect, or Descriptive 
words, derived from the Perfect f). A subdivision naturally takes 
place into two classes, according as the words issue from the Im- 
perfect or the Perfect. 
conception- (1) Conceptional (or Abstract) words derived from the Imper- 

ii words f ec j. — corresponding to Infinitives and Substantives of an Infinitive 

derived as x ° 

verbal form in other Semitic languages. The old Imperfect, i. e. the Sub- 
file r ° m J unc ti ve (§ 91), in Ethiopic has for its vowel e or a, the former for 
imperfect the Transitive Verb, the latter for the Intransitive; and these two 

tive form):— VOWels must turn up also in the conceptional words derived from it. 

with (a) Conceptional words, hoivever, with an accented e after 

TranSi^e ^ be second radical are no longer met with. The e proved too weak 

after to keep the tone ( 2 ), and so they passed over in a body to the Femi- 

but now 'nine form (§ 104), — as when, e. g., instead of fl*flC seber, we have 

^ndin^'i" ftHifr (sebrat, the accent going to the 1 st syllable) "breach", and 

and Accent it was only by this Feminine-ending thus assumed, that they were 

i8t°s y i^bie. ke P t fr° m being confounded with the First Simple formation by 

O V. on this point Ewald, 'Hebr. SprS § 148, a. 
( 2 ) Just as it also lost the tone in the Subj., § 92. 

§ 106. — 221 — 

means of e. This Feminine-ending at, less frequently a, (§ 127 b) 
is very common ( 1 ). It is the form in which Nomina actionis, in 
accordance with their meaning, almost invariably appear, such as 
$.?ft "running", "career", Cfrfl 1 ^ "discovery", Cltt^ "piercing 
through", or Abstract words of Quality like llild't "drunkenness", 
CTfl^ "dampness"; rarely, Common Nouns like /hlfK^" ('lair') 
"stall", f^rO^T ('apparition') "spectre", ft^dlh ('excavation') 
"hole", 4**A<£/1^ (^he being uncircumcised') "foreskin", fhA+'lh 
('circle') "ring", *p*0«4»3- "oppression". When nouns of this type 
and those of the First formation are both developed from one root, 
then the former always signify action pure and simple : — HLfJt 
"plundering" (!/££■ "plunder"), A-flA^ "putting on clothes" 
(A'flfl "clothes"), jPAft^ "Ming up", "being full* (9°&h "ful- 
ness") &c. Such words are also formed from Middle-Aspirate and 
Final- Aspirate roots, although these have the vowel a in the Subj.. — 
like tlfh't : t "error", 4tfiA3* "fermentation", Oh^h^ "butting", 
'frfch'l' "striking", "stroke" &c, and in the same way from many 
intransitive roots. From roots mediae geminatae this form always 
runs like ftm^ settat "rent", "gap", l£^%"fever", -Jfl^ "touch", 
T-ffy "flight", ("escape"), /ȣ%> "flying" (of a bird), faaDfy 
"blackness", Hnk v , tp'tfr ii piece , \ "fragment", aoQ^ "anger" 
(§ 44). Roots beginning with u have often the strong form in such 
words, even when the Subj. has the weak, as in Ohthtl't "flowing", 
ah«llfr "throwing", "cast", W*lhfr "butting", W$Jt "accusa- 
tion" (v. infra), but in most cases they have the weak form: — 
Afc^ "birth", C£^ "descent", C4»3* "spitting", &A^ ('duration') 
"day", £-«H* "fall", flfc* (§ 44) "exit", and analogous to it flh* 
"entrance" from flft (§ 68). In cases where the two forms,— 
strong and weak — , both occur, they have different meanings: — 
df ^ "brand-mark", (D*t>?1* "burning" ; «7ff^ "anathema", <D*«9 
H^ "excommunication". Several others of these words are given 
with an intimately attached feminine-ending (§ 128): — TVIh "be- 
ginning" (Wptf* "the commencing"), $»/*»^« "strife", "Ml^ "a 

0) In Hebrew, forms like filW, H»2n, Alb &c. correspond, Ewald, 

l Hebr. Sp r : § 150; in Arabic, &Xxi &c.— On Tone-relations v. Tbumpp, p. 533. 

—According to Konig, p. 77, these- Feminine forms would belong to Nouns 
of the First formation. 

— 222 — § 107. 

sudden occurrence", Aftfh "loan", IMI^ "gift", in which the a of 
f (Ml has held its ground, by virtue of the Aspirate. 

Forms from Roots mediae infirmae exhibit invariably ( r ), in 
accordance with § 50, the vowel-pronunciation of the middle radical: 
tfo-.j.^- "dying", fad^ "going", 4un>*l* "standing", frlfr "blind- 
ness", fri^r "baseness"; "^m^ "turning", ^m^ "deceit", *%ao^ 
('installation') "office", %(& "emigration", Qdx^ "redness"; and 
only those roots, which are, besides, tertiae infirmae, have forms 
with a diphthongal pronunciation, like thfrW^ "life", Tfl^f^h 
"distortion". On flft^ v. supra. 

In the case of Boots tertiae infirmae this formation is all the 
more in use, that the employment of the first, simple formation 
for these roots has greatly declined (§ 105). In accordance with 
§ 40, the type is either 1CP ^ "election", Chf ^ "face", "aspect", 
ft^f'l- "irrigation", dCf^" "equalising", fl^P^ "avarice", ^A. 
ID^h "succession", 0Afl>'Th "apostasy", frdfD^ "outpouring", TJC 
fll^h "dispersion", — or jP°ft,^ (as well as JPftf^h) "evening", 
'J&zih "poverty", dfofy "recompense", jP°Stf- ('solitude') "monas- 
tery", ^T^ ('sending') "way"; and in several words the two forms 
are used indifferently, like 4*^? "h and •iMl'ih "service", C9°? ^ 
and G"*^ "throw", C4»f ^ and C«fe^ "enchantment", ^fl)^ 
and <£#^ "lust" ; c/". supra p. 80. With ft prefixed (§ 34) : ?rfl 
&r)T "alternation". A few words which have an Aspirate (§ 44) 
or «J» (§ 48) for their initial letter exhibit a in the first syllable 
instead of e:— dtf°? %> and ffi"M* ".calumny", Ufo^ "weariness", 
d\°ifr "joy", 4*?M* and fc-Jfc^ "ardour" (Numb. 25, 11 Note), 
ih^d^ "contempt", tyf/fr and«|>^ "density", "hardness", <£$%• 
"bet". Of a more Arabic character is the form( 2 ) rhflif* "lie", for 
rhftlD'h from the root difiW, which, according to Peaetoeius, 

'Beitr. z. Ass. 1 . 1, p. 34, possibly comes from J*~>. Cf. infra also 

§ 128. 
with § 107. (b) The formation with an intransitive a is still 

"aTfter Ve retained in a variety of fashions. 
2ndEadicai. ( a ) T ne seC ond Radical is pronounced with( 3 ) a, the first, 

O Ludolf, 'Lex. Aeth.' col. 564, adduces 1»fl)-«W>^-, but without a pas- 
sage in support. 

( 2 ) Ewald, 'Gr. Arab: § 410. 

( 3 ) At least originally having the Tone; cf. Trumpp, p. 533. In Arabic 

§ 107. — 223 — 

ivith fugitive e. This type is formed only from intransitive or semi- 
passive verbs and is therefore by no means very common. To it 
belong words like 1ft£ "shortness", dtf»4» "depth", 4»fll"> "thin- 
ness", (hiP? "ugliness"; and from roots mediae gutturalis (§ 44): 
Wfhfy "laughter", R,h<P "census", ^rh-fl "width", hrhJt "denial", 
£"Vfl "hunger"; from roots tertiae gutturalis 'tpV "vigilance", 
tl6*th "fatigue", ^"Jh "lack"; in words mediae geminatae, the 
doubled letter is always opened out: Tfl"fl "wisdom", ftfl-fl "round- 
ness", ^oiT "thinness"; tertiae infirmae: Ml£ "vileness", d(\fi> 
"magnitude", or, by the diphthong becoming a mixed sound, ft-f^ 
and ft-fr "drinking", R% "bloom", $£ "fruit" (|)fc, <^&, &&), 
perhaps also Ufl "copious dew" (of obscure derivation)^). Roots 
with initial u usually make the feminine take the place of this 
form (v. § 106); yet to this form belongs £& "spittle" (on the 
other hand we have C4*^h "spitting"), and in like manner ,K\R" 
"foundation" (probably VlT)C). From a root beginning with i 
comes £flf| "aridity", because this i is never discarded in the 
Subj. From roots mediae infirmae this form is exceedingly rare 
(flfflG "blindness"), and is replaced sometimes by the Feminine 
formation, as with roots just mentioned, and sometimes by the 
First Simple formation. "Words of this formation now and then 
change it for the First Simple formation, still keeping the same 
meaning: «7H<£ and lift: "density", JiflJt and ft-fl£' "folly". 

(/3) The a may be lengthened into a( 3 ). The words concerned 
are thereby more detached from their affinity to the Yerb and are 
raised from Infinitives into Substantives proper. They are not so 
much an expression of the action itself as the result rather of 
the action, and are mostly names of things. Examples: *h^ < £ 
"remainder", ftJjC "drunkenness", A*?*? "custom", ffl} "child", 
Tf?{P "rain", ft;f«»fl "book" [Arabic loan-word, u>US"], MC 

wOiJ and the like correspond (Ewald, 'Gr. Ar. 1 § 240), and in Hebrew the 

intransitive Infinitives of the First Stem. 

O Of. Barth, ZDMG XLII, p. 352 sq. 

( 2 ) That there is a word AK* = 03 A£? * s not perhaps made clear by 
Gen. 17, 12, but without doubt it is so by Gen. 17, 23; Jer. 2, 14; Kuf. 
pp. 54, 59. 

( 3 ) [V. now on this formation and its passive meaning Noldeke, 'Beitr. 
z. sem. Sprachioiss.\ p. 30 sqq.] 

-^ 224 — § 107. 

"piece", ftV£«*fl "chip"; mediae gutturalis: p*A\ty "mockery"; 
tertiae gutturalis: R(\ft\ "morning", Cflrh "gain", ^43% "sputum"; 
mediae geminatae: A"?? "pain", *}*!£■ "fever", th^C "heat", 
p*°ib "roughness"; mediae infirmae: rh*PC "portico" ("corridor"), 
*j<pjp "sleep", A*Pft "sense", d<PA "foal", ft^ "a costly vessel", 
^P^A "vial", tyjtJi "vomit"; tertiae infirmae: 'fU)JP. "weeping", 
fl»h£ "drink", /* , ^»^ "torment", T*P£ and m^JR "colic", *}«P£ 
"vessel", »flfta>« "slumber", <£;!-<!>« "desire", *J^»CD- "tone", and, — 
by rejecting the (D* according to § 53, — **l\ "covering", dy "lot", 
<£<; "way", p 3 ? "flesh" (VT^uOC 1 ), d*i "money-debt", <£*; "re- 
compense"^). A word with ft prefixed (§ 34) occurs in ftA;^ 
"dress" ( Vvxb). Traces of an original u in the first syllable are 
shown in •ty.%R' "ring", "clasp", tf-tf-C "infula", ^"TA "louse". 
This formation appears now and then side by side with the First 
Simple formation: \\t\ft\ and hArh "outcry", ft?}A and ft"hA "the 
young" (both of men and lower animals). For one or two Feminine 
forms of a and j3 v. § 128. 

But these forms may be still farther extended by pronouncing 
the first syllable with the more definite vowel a. This is the most 
usual method of forming Common Nouns, as well as conceptional 

(y) The type which has a in both syllables ( 2 ) is to be re- 
garded, sometimes as a farther formation from (a), inasmuch as 
one or two words still admit both forms indifferently, e. g. (i*l9° 
and ftljT* "barley", — sometimes as a development of the First 
Simple formation ( 3 ), with which it alternates still more frequently, 
e. g. V*dty and W&& "rising", d9°C and rt<w»C "productiveness", 
(H»A and H4»A "mule", ^^p, i-C*P and ^l^ "remainder" 
(*«!£• and *«?£■, OM and O'il, 0&A and 0£A, 0*fe7 and 
Bi^Tf, I-IIT and iflT Sir. 34, 20), while even in other languages 
words of the First formation often correspond to them: £A*7 :6b, 
OC'd SIXK 4 )- Accordingly it cannot any longer be determined in 
all cases, which syllable , supports the tone : In Ludolf's view it 

(*) Cf., however, Konig, p. 116 sg. 

( 2 ) In Arabic J^c, ^*z\£.; in Hebrew "D^ answers at one and the 
same time to our forms (/3) and (y). 

( 3 ) Cf. Ewald, 'Gr. Ar: § 240. 

( 4 ) V. farther, however, Zimmern, 'Zeitschr. f. Ass: V, p. 385. 

§ 108. _ 225 — 

is always the first; cf. however Tkumpp, p. 534. Upon the whole 
this formation is very common, especially from strong roots : (]£,£• 
"tail", &£h "horse", laofr "camel", flAfl "fig-tree", HWl "tail", 
VIC "city". Words beginning with are often inaccurately writ- 
ten with °i\ ^Aft "spelt", (ijjlft), < J4"fl and 04*11 "ascent" (&Ia&). 
Tertiae gutturalis: f<Ptf "uprightness", «Md "pechtsculum" , but 
.also 1UV "full-moon"; vowel-beginning roots : miiTf "boundary"; 
mediae infirmae: UfA. "stag", £fl)A "district", Rcd*} "castle", 
(hPC "air" is a foreign word); tertiae infirmae: tn>QO)' "Spring", 
&.OID* "viper" (*); but also with mixed sound: 7fl "side" (no doubt 
for TJfl; cf. aa, Ja-^J, 0ft "hip" (perhaps for 0tf«); from roots 
with final i, always with mixed sound: A<£, "side", A<C "seam", 
£<B "disease", -^A» "song". A t^-containing guttural as first radi- 
cal does not occur either here or in (b). — Feminine forms in this 
formation are comparatively rare, § 127. 

(d) The form with long 'a in the second syllable and short a 
in the first is not common( 2 ): fl'JA "festival", t l\t\'i\ "reckoning", 
M9° "peace", £19° "thunder", £«*»£« "will", *\Pfi° "field" ( 3 ). 
Mediae geminatae: hfl-fl "circle"; mediae infirmae: rh'PjEj "gloam- 
ing"; tertiae infirmae: «|»A£ "abyss"; but with the (D* rejected, 
when that is the last of the root (§ 53) : ftJ3 "favour", "grace", 
flfj "desert" (*). 

§ 108. 2. Descriptive Words derived from the Perfect (Verbal Descript: 
Adjectives and Participles). This family of words, still largely repre- de X°ed 8 as 
sented in Hebrew and Arabic, has been dying out in Ethiopic, Verbal Ad- 
just as in Aramaic), — with the exception of the form employed Participles 
for the Part. Pass. A periphrasis, effected by the Imperfect of * r °™ the 
the Verb, or in some other way, became more and more prevalent 
as a substitute for the Simple Adjective as well as for the Part. 
Act.; and the old Adjective-forms were given up. — Others have 
been retained merely because they have become Substantives. 
The original vowels of the Perfect are universally lengthened, to 
distinguish these words, as Nouns, from the Verb ; and therefore 


0) Y\&Jtt**i "sweet odours" and "sweet odour", seems to be a Plural. 

( 2 ) In Arabic *SLl, in Hebrew tityf, TDiS. 

( 3 ) In the case of roots tertiae gutturalis this formation cannot be 
distinguished from the preceding. 

( 4 ) Otherwise with Konig, p. 117. 


— 226 — § 108. 

ther vowels i and u as well as a are separately maintained, seeing 
that the long vowels % and il never lose their identity in e, though 
the short vowels % and u may do so. 
with a in (fl) The formation with a in the second syllable is now but 

2nd syllable. wea kiy represented. The first syllable has e in the Adjective proper^). 
These words have to some extent the signification of Participles. 
The following occur ( 2 ): fafdh "living", 'VJJ'p "few" (if not origin- 
ally "fewness", § 107), TM«P (=TfA«*h) "enduring", &£>$ "naked"" 
(if not a substantive, cf § 156), T^£ Olti) "raw", tpV "a- 
waking", "1^*7 "abandoning", a**p fa = ffv-g/h "fettered", <j;5ft- 
"tender", "delicate", *)££• "trodden down" Is. 18,2 var., <?&*¥» 
"possessing" or "possessor" (Hen. 14, 6) ( 3 ). But even these few 
adjectives, which are still in existence, have a marked leaning to- 
wards the Substantive use. They are not generally co-ordinatedt 
with a Substantive like pure Adjectives, but are placed in a more 
independent position, like a Substantive in apposition, and they 
sometimes subordinate themselves to Nouns in the Construct State, 
or complete themselves with a Suff. -pronoun. — Some words also- 
which belong to this class, but have become pure Substantives, 
have been retained as a remnant from more ancient times, like 
fi^jK. ('high') "heavens", 0*h& ('glittering') "sun", (but often 
0rfiJ&), ?\?¥> "artificial flower", perhaps also <P4J& "abyss" (cf. 
§ 107 ad fin.). Several also of the short words, mentioned in the 
end of § 105, belong at bottom to this formation, 
with I m (b) Tlie formation with i in the second syllable is more frequently 

2ndSyllable ' employed for simple adjectives than any other: a number of these 
adjectives have become Substantives. This form comes oftenest 
from roots with an intransitive meaning (*). More rarely the words- 
concerned have a purely passive sense, and then the formation, 
coincides with the one with u( 5 ). The first radical is given with a, 
to distinguish the words as Nouns proper from Participles ; but in 

O In Hebrew, ^ and tfH]?; in Arabic ^J^., ^U^, J|pJ. 

( 2 ) For the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 534. 

( 3 ) 1119° * 8 not gibbosus, as Ludolf thinks, but "hump" (Ajjj) t 
§ 107. [In Hen. 14,6, Flemming adopts the reading TC^fc & tt °'' while Dill- 
mas'st preferred *¥&*$". tr.] 

(*) And then Hebrew adjectives like JJ^ and $W answer to it.. 
( 5 ) Like T|3B. 


— 227 

the case of Roots mediae gutturalis, with e (§ 45) ( x ). From strong 
roots: diW "new", lhj> "godless", +m/> "thin", ^C "short", 
ttUC "foreign", h^r "red", RA.jP "black", Iti/P "thick", £m/J 
"swift", fl/V/1 "sharp"; mediae gutturalis: Crh/fl "wide", AV14» 
"old"; wetta geminatae: ao£C "hitter", 4»A.A "light", 0H/H 
"strong", mlUl "wise (^«fe4», *fe^C, ftfl/fl, &4#, § 136, 1, 
*fem«T); mediae infirmae: V^^f "long" (and also, owing to the 
Aspirate, *<P1, § 44), +P.A (e. #. Gen. 30, 35; and Ze6r« 
A%., 12b 11) and (§ 52) +JK-A "red"; from roots with final i: 
0fl«£ "great" ; in the case of roots with final u this formation does 
not occur. Substantives: 4»A.ft "presbyter", rh3.£* "iron" ('sharp'), 
h^tC "the first day of the month" ('superior'), ft^ ('thin') "cake" 
and "small coin", mli. (§ 52) "goat" (n£ta), AV^4» and the common 
contracted form (§ 47) A.* "elder", "old man", 'dthji "vinegar"; 
— farther, words originally possessing the force of a Part. Act., 
or forming an expression for the Agent ( 2 ): Vfljl "prophet" 
('speaker'), rh(U (§ 52) "warranter" "manager", $£9° "gleanings", 
0&C "juice pressed out", *YR/} "iron" ('cutting'); or words with 
a passive sense: fc'J^V "dough" (§ 45), iw>rt«/h "Christ". The 
forms which have ft prefixed (§ 34): ft*?^ "Lord" and MlMt 

"garland", "crown", JoJJft (K^bs) come perhaps from Stem 11,1. 

tlV oxtvog, \\°V^ KVfJLivov (where h=/cu) are foreign words. 

(c) Tfte formation with u in the second syllable is by far with u m 
the most common, and has still such force in the language that it n SyllaWe - 
may be derived from the majority of roots ( 3 ). It has first a strictly 
passive sense, and, when derived from verbs of Active signification, 
it serves as Passive participle, e. g. flTdv*? "written". The first 
radical, — properly vowel-less, is always spoken with e, (with the 
exception of &tf«»-f| "dark"). This comes about, partly in accord- 
ance with § 60, partly because this form, as being an expression 
of the Participle, stands close to the verb ( 4 ). It may also be de- 

( 1 ) For the accentuation cf. Teumpp, p. 534. 

( 2 ) Ewald, l Hebr. Spr.' § 149, e. 

( 3 ) For the accentuation cf. Teumpp, p. 534. 

( 4 ) It answers completely to the Hebrew Paul When Ludolp, 'Gr. 
Aethiop.'' I, 3, maintains, that the second radical is doubled, he is evidently 
astray, and is as little to be relied upon as he proves himself otherwise to be in 
his statements about doubling:— For instance, he pronounces V*l£, JE>i*7C 


— 228 — § 108. 

rived from roots, from which only Nouns are formed, e. g. /^(hC 
"grassy", Afl"fl "prudent". It is even taken from Derived Stems; 
an( j ? — as no other type is available, by which to form Passive Parti- 
ciples of such Stems, than that of the Pass. Part, of the Simple 
Ground-Stem, — it is taken according to that type, except that in 
the process the Derived Stems renounce their Stem-peculiarities, 
e. g- 99^9° "complete", "accomplished" (from fassama), /**«&£ 
"tormented" («f«|»f), <p«fcG "beloved" (h<£<££, Pass. *\*&fr£), 
ftYK> "praised" (fromfcftfoo^), ^ip.^, "delighted" (from ^/^fh 
St. Ill, 2); but cf. § 111. From strong roots, as well as from As- 
pirate roots, Double-lettered, and Vowel-beginning roots, and from 
those which have a middle I or a final i, this type is similarly formed, 
— that is to say, strongly and fully: A< n *'Jt "learned", hfrC 
"bound", 7rh-A "destroyed", yfah "Ml", Vf'V-'J "condemned", 
*>J?.J& "impoverished", JJ°£T "turned away". On the other hand 
from roots with final ii, in accordance with § 52, there emerges 
always the type A'flfl*" lebeiviv 6 "skilled in", AA0>* "apostate" &c; 
from roots with middle u the type JPflB.^ meivut "dead" is possible 
certainly, and frequently occurs still; but in accordance with § 52, 
especially in later times, it usually passes into 9°(D M 't' mewivet : — 
*f°(D*ty "warm", 9°Oh}i "conquered" &c. As is proved already 
by several of the examples which have been adduced, this type is 
formed not only from verbs of Active signification, but also from 
Intransitives ; and in fact it is very frequently formed from the 
latter class of verbs, either with the force of a Participle, or directly 
as an Adjective: ftVh'H "lying", /*'4-G "flying" ('occupied inflight'), 
CBhft "running", UA<»* "existing", C(M1 "hovering", flH4-£* 
"descending" G. Ad. 129, 26, frJVfc "engaged in a campaign", 
9°fc\l "subjected", Tfl*d "prepared" (intr. and pass.), ffffl-G 
"laden", ^oo-JP "ill", /hH"J "sad". It may even, like the Reflex- 

itaggara, yendgger, while he omits to notice that in forms like ii^g*, § HO, 
the second radical is doubled. The Intensive forms b^>, ^tSj?, ^t9j? &c. 
{Ewald, l Hebr. Spr. : § 155, d and 'Gr. ArS § 248; Hoffmann, 'Syr. Gramm? 
p. 241 ; [and Noldeke, 'Syr. Gr.' (English Ed.) p. 73]) are paralleled in Ethiopic 
rather by IflG- The manner of formation of the Part, Pass, in the case of 
Verbal Stems externally increased, and Multiliteral roots (§ 111), tells deci- 
dedly against a doubling of the second radical, as also does the peculiar fashion 
of this formation in the case of roots mediae infirmae. 

§ 109. — 229 — 

ive-Passive Stems, gain seemingly active meaning ( x ), e. g. K"V-/h 
(from SVJrh " to expect") not "waited for", but "engaged in waiting 
for" ('lying-in- wait'), fl>*Yl«A "confiding in", #<f.ip "given to evil- 
speaking", "blasphemer", ,£"V> "safe and sound", but also "whole- 
some" (Gr. Ad.), M-TI( 2 ) not only "kept a prisoner", but also 
"clinging to", i. e. "holding something", with Accusative (Hen. 56,1)( 3 ). 
— In the great scarcity of simple adjectives, it has to supply Ad- 
jectives too, such as JPfrh "full" (and "filling up"), »flH«'V "much", 
faO "idle", frfr-fl "strong", Tlbd "steadfast", *74-9° "terrible", 
£fl«fl "arid", fl4Wl "careful", "heedful", *\$*b "violent", T£$ 
"sharp-sighted" &c. Substantives of this form are very rare : •Ih'MJ 
"watchful" and "watchman", "J?-/** "king", #£■<!*■ "adversary" 

(jtic), 1£G "proselyte", -fK-G "silver" ('white'), 4\th-h "leaven", 
fffl-C "muddy" and "mud", ?*>.£• (from 7*?£\) "trunk" (of 
a tree), fl>-f|>"J "beginner", "novice". For a few Feminines 
v. § 128. 

§ 109. 3. While the essential vowels in the Second Simple 3. Third 
formation (a, i, u) have been lengthened out of originally short °*™^' 
vowels, as kindred languages show, a Third series of Simple Vowels 

. long from 

forms comes into being, by stronger vowels — or voivels which were the flrst.- 
long from the first — becoming established in the Stem. To some 
extent they may be regarded as new and stronger forms derived 
from words of the Second series. 

(a) By the establishment of a long a after the first radical, with a 
which is followed by the appearance in the second syllable of the Eadicai 
shorter vowel e (§ 60), a type of word arises, of a strongly active (and g after 
sense, which signifies the one ivho does (the Agens), and which ac- 
cordingly is employed in the other Semitic languages as Part. Act, 
of the First verbal Stem. In Ethiopic this form, however, can no 
longer be derived from every verb. It has almost died out, in fact, 
and is now represented by a few words only, which are used as 
Adjectives and Substantives, but not as Participles (*). The follow- 

O Cf. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' § 149, d; Hoffmann, 'Syr. Gramm.' 1 p. 177; 
Ewald, l Gr.Arab:§2U. [Cf. also Noldeke, 'Syr. Gr. 1 (EnglishEd.) p.223s#. te.] 

( 2 ) Like WIN Cant. 3, 8. 

( 3 ) [Flemming reads here IDj&Wli": OD'frlVQ't's (0001*1*1 £ instead 
of Dillmann's a>?i'V-H*>s 0° u i a i^. tr.] 

( 4 ) For the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 535. 

— 230 — § 109. 

ing still occur as Adjectives: %&$ "just", l^b "straightfor- 
ward", "upright", ^7 "sound and well", ('escaping unhurt'), (\^ff 
"useful", fl^ "other", "different", Arh£ "beautiful". — As Sub- 
stantives: $<?h "sinner", JiU"> "priest", «fflH> ('sacrificer') "idol- 
atrous priest", frfrh "helper", <PCh "heir", pah?" "sponsor", 

"patron", flflA "lord" and "rich", AV9° "ox" (cf. nr\b, ^), 

"VfJfl** "glass", <»VJ& "water" ('fluid' l/"5); and doubtless too those 
words in which (§ 105) a long a has been shortened, like K'flJt 
"foolish", "fool'^ 1 ). This type is quite commonly employed in the 
formation of Numeral Adjectives, § 159. 
with u (b) In contrast with this form, of active meaning, effected by 

or i after meaiis f l 011 g ^ new anc l stronger forms arise, of conceptional 
(and a after words, by means of a long u or I, derived from the Passive vowel 
lst) a or i, which has become established in the second syllable, and 
which is preceded in the first syllable not by the colourless e, but 
by the more definite vowel a( 2 ). This form is also very rare in 
Ethiopic( 3 ); with u w r e have: *h4«G "heat" (different from /h4«C 
and &<£.£>, ih&.C "wall", "defensive-work", £ft«fl "North" (region 
of the £"»fl) ; with I: *Ti^<p "the current year" (properly "Autumn", 
the time in which fruits are 'gathered'), perhaps "1<5¥ "net" (with 
which one 'sweeps together') and J\(UG with long a, "the hinder 
space", "adytum", (of the Temple, T2H) ; and with an e shaded 
out of I: JJ%'i "spectre", "evil spirit", and a few Feminine Stems, 
§ 127. But what is most important is, that this form is the one 
most usually employed in Ethiopic in the derivation of Verbal Ab- 
stracts or Infinitives from the several Verbal Stems, § 124, — which 
Infinitives only very seldom indeed are used as Noun-Substantives, 
like h a Vi "belief, fD-rh/H "river".— For one or two Feminines 
v. § 127. A few Numeral-forms, having a inserted in their first 
syllable, make their appearance as new derivatives from Verbal 
Adjectives of the type «7fl«G (§ 107): v. § 159. 

An additional number of words are to be found, apparently 
of simple formation, which cannot be explained from any of the 
usual word-types, and either depend upon obsolete formations or 

(*) Also £Ohth "placid" (v. Ludolf, 'Lex.'), if the reading is correct. 

( 2 ) For the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 535. 

( 3 ) It occurs more frequently in Hebrew, Ewald, 'Hebr. SprS § 153. 

§ 110. — 231 — 

upon a corrupt pronunciation of antique words, or words adopted 
from foreign languages. Examples of foreign words occur in 

«5A9° "world", "eternity", jjU, tbty; C !! "pomegranate", 

'^l5j; flhC "sugar", yti; flAd "rock", £j> or £&i; M? 

"South", ^^S, |OVi; fl.*A, ^oi^, totf; "oven", ^p\ 

W, -5.0*7,^11^; -^VC^Ll^ "denarius"-, £«f»C, ^ 3 {'mitra') ; 

fc"£1, )&K; «Hld ('hood'), *££, J^Aojd; fl)P>A, ^lE, raco£; DA* 

and fl/V^ 1 "marble", (jjJIJ. — Words of obscure derivation and 
formation: "^^JR "a costly garment"; If fl£ "a kind of hawk"; 
«f0»1 "chest", ('ark') "shrine", ('reliquary') ; #flC "darkness"; «f£l 
"shoe" ; £&A "letter of the Alphabet" (ao£fr "earth", "dust of 
the ground"; -flrhiC "land", "country", "the earth") and others. 


§ 110. 1. Formations from Simple Tri-radical Boots and i. From 
Verbal Stems. faTv«w 

(a) From simple tri-radical Verbal Stems, attributive words stems: 


•are formed by the doubling of the second radical, — which process words, 
here indicates the intensifying of the notion, — but in other respects, f ^^ v 
in accordance with the adjective-formation described in § 108. 2nd Bad., 
The first (closed) syllable invariably has the vowel a, the second bea ring a 
the tone-bearing main vowel a, — just as in § 108, (a) (*). The other after 2nd 
vowels, which are generally available for the formation of Adjec- after ist. 
fives (§ 108), and are also represented in the other Semitic langua- 
ges ( 2 ), are wanting here in Ethiopic (unless it be that among the 
words cited in § 108 (b) & (c), a few have been admitted which have 
their middle radical doubled). To this formation belong, first of all, 
Adjectives which express qualities of a more intimate and firmly 
inherent nature, or properties possessed in a higher than usual 
proportion: — From strong roots: &.6+V "timorous" ('who is contin- 
ually and easily frightened'), £*>£• "anxious" (G. Ad.), ftV4» 
"longing", +(\d "masculine", "manly", fly?° "dumb", fl^rh 

0) Cf. Trumpp, p. 536. 

( 2 ) Ewald, 'Hebr. SprS § 155, 'Gr. Ar.' § 248; Hoffmann, 'Syr. Gr.\ 
p. 241 sq. [V. Noldeke, l 8yr. Gr.' (English Ed.) p. 71 sqq. tr.] 

— 232 — § HI- 

"bald", M9° "pleasant", TiR "manifest" ;— Denominatives : ffiC 
"hairy", «fcA¥ ('having the foreskin') "nncircumcised", «|»21A 
"covered with foliage" (Deut. 12,2). — From roots mediae infirmae: 
^A "strong", "active", f *PV "meek", iP^-fl "grey-headed", %?<£ 
"stammering", 0^*7 "abominable", "hateful"; tertiae infinnae:. 
tytpah "malignant", h^W "energetic", fflfJ5 "distorted", Uh£ 
"lazy", hffc "poor", A'hJE- (together with Arh£ § 109) "beautiful", 
**»«?£ "beautiful", "good". And farther, this form serves also to- 
express the 'doer' ('who does anything frequently or continually', 
—'who does it as his occupation' &c.) :—1(\C "workman", flfi'fi 
"day-labourer", £Afl "neighbour", "foreign resident" ('metic'), 
&$•$, "drinker", H ? (§ 53) "whoremonger", "whore"; from ft*7G 
"foot" hPC "pedestrian". The most of the words which have 
this meaning assume farther the extraneous termination i (§ 117); 
several have even both forms: R<5W1 and ft^fl. "carpenter", rhW 
and thXd, "steersman" ; from rh4»A "field" rh^A and gh^d. "a> 
Adjectives (b) A still more vigorous reduplication, — that of both the 

BeXpHcT- l> as t radicals,— is employed, just as in Verbal Stems (§ 77), for 
tion of both t^g derivation of Adjectives from roots which denote colours and 
Bads., with savoury things, in order to indicate resemblance thereby C): The 
% (0T ^ in last and main syllable has % (perhaps also a) ; the other two have 
syiiabie 8S and a , just as in § 108, (b) ( 2 ) : %(}¥:%¥: "whitish", aoOC%C (also, in 
Jhlr two. abbreviated form, ao^C) "like honey", i. e. "sweet", ^<w>A"t.A 
"green", frfl^-fUS" "foolish", £«w>7«T> "very gloomy", fhliltl.? 
"mournful", aolaflatf "small", 0ft-flX/fl "very hard", £flC(l.G 
"back-prop" (also "supinus", v. Gloss.). The only Feminine forms 
as yet known are typih&ftxtfr "reddish" (doubtless from ty$ft&.!h 
§ 36), and fl/J./hCM' "glittering" (from fl/wh^/h or fl^A^/h). 
2. FromDe- § HI- 2. Formations from Derived Verbal Stems. Several 

ri steH*- al ° f tne Nominal forms described in §§ 105—109 belong to these 
conception- formations, and at the same time retain the peculiarities of the 
from 2nd Stems from which they are produced. Of course the First Simple 
stenTwUh formation (§ 105) is entirely wanting in such Derivatives ; for the 
a after 2nd one vowel after the first radical would not suffice to sustain these 
strongly ac- longer Stems. But the forms given in §§ 106 — 108 may more or 
centedFem.- i esg re p ea t themselves in this Class. 

ending a- 

(!) Exactly as in Hebrew : Ewald, l Hebr. Spr.' § 157, c. 
( 2 ) Cf. Trumj-p, p. 536. 

§ 111, — 233 — 

(a) Conventional words from Derived Stems exhibit different 
forms according to the Stems from which they come, (a) From 
the Second Ground-Stem (I, 2) conceptional words of an Infinitive- 
character are formed by means of a after the second radical, and 
the Feminine-ending a strongly accented^), which at the same 
time generally prevents the lengthening of the foregoing formative 
a. The first syllable, — a closed one, — is also pronounced with a( 2 ). 
This form, however, is no longer very common: <7*»h*5« "tempta- 
tion", «HlA "meeting", HA4- "correction", hflfl "transgression", 
Qaoff "injustice", ('wrongdoing'), 0ftfl "distress" ('a making dif- 
ficult'), /t»0H "odour"; and in like manner from several roots not 
in use as Verbs in Stem I, 2: gh r t'^ m "judicial investigation' y 
{'cognitio''), *\v*°i "inquiry", ih^J- "wonder", "miracle"; perhaps 
also some Names of things: — like «I»RA "crown", {'garland", hfl>A 
and h*PA — [for a form V»A v. Kebra Nag. p. XXX a] "rear", "hinder 
part", 1&A "carcase" ('a stretching out'), &<w»*? "cloud" ('a veiling'). 
Several others among the Intensive Stems have given up this trouble- 
some formation, and have reverted to the form of Nomina Actionis 
which is described in § 106, but have assumed the heavy feminine- 
ending a, by way of distinction from the forms taken from the 
Simple Stem: ">ft*h "penitence", <P/*Mi "joy", ifn.'p'J "displeasure", 
tpT} "pleasure", /hA,? "faculty of thinking", "intellect", ahGh°t 
"clamour", T-T-h "zeal", "haste", jp , {F»«} "consternation"; instead 
°f jP'A.'h "taste", Deut. 32, 28, the majority of manuscripts 
have 9°&(h. Quite isolated stand KGhb sewwe "invitation", 
and fdfrV't' ydwwehat "mildness" ( 3 ). From Causative Stems 
also, the Abstract-formation with a after the second-last radical, 
and with the feminine-ending a,, was no doubt at one time in 
greater use, but in ordinary Ethiopic it is now retained only 
in hChP ('to show') "example", "form" (and perhaps in Yxti^^t 

O Cf. Trumpp, p. 536. 

( 2 ) These forms are paralleled with tolerable exactness by the Aramaic 
Infinitives of the Pael and other Stems (K^lf j? &c.) as well as by Hebrew 
words like Hlj??. Ewald § 156, d. 

( 3 ) ftA"^" "prayer", inherited from older times, is the Arabic 8aJLo> 
in Ethiopic we say ftAP "to pray", not RA<D- 

— 234 — § 111. 

From Qg) From Reflexive-Passive Stems formed by prefixing ^C), 

passive the Nomen actionis was once capable of being formed from the 

stems; with Subjunctive, retaining at the same time the vowels of that mood( 2 ); 

Eadthel8t but this formation has died out. The only forms still known are 
syllable ^aotfQ tamdhhar "study", and, from Multiliteral roots in like 

being < 

formed by manner : ■f'^fl A ('mediation') "mediator", *f*'}n»f'jF ('covering 
by a i8t°Bad over ') "bridge". On the other hand the type with long a after the 
second radical, before which *fr retains its a and attracts the first 
radical to its syllable, is very common, but it is formed only from 
St. Ill, 1, to which also St. Ill, 2 has to be transferred. It is in 
this fashion that Conceptional words of a Passive sense, which may 
also be Names of things, are expressed ( 3 ): ^TihC "remembrance", 
■f'lflG "performance" ('work', 'deeds'), ■f , <Pft9 "completion", 
-t-ll4~tti "delay", tf-ft-^/h "floor or story (of a house)", -t/^Afl 
"third-floor", ^**V**?/1 "quintupling", "number five"; mediae gemi- 
natae: "f"Pfl"fl "astuteness", -HMMl ('crowning') "pinnacle"; 
Vowel-beginning: •f'Ohtfti "addition", •f m Ohi{*f t "exchange", •f'Oh 
i\h "praising"; mediae infirmae: *t9°$T "alteration", ■f-{J°J?*> 
"fraud", -J- 4f» < P9° ('setting up') "basis", "framework"; from Roots 
with final u we have, it is true, *f"»flj0 , <0« "gaping", "ajar", but as 
a rule the Oh is thrown off(*): ;*•&"? "affinity", p1& "frater- 
nity", "relationship", *J ? ft4« "hope", ■f'.R'A "dignity" rpv&y; from 
Roots with final i, only the feminine form »f*lD-fc*|h "orgies" (for 
•f'ah'i$?lr or i t*ifr m€ ifu. : t) is as yet known. Sometimes the a of the 
first syllable elevates itself ( 5 ) into e, especially in names of things: 
^hflU "command", ^Chh "what lies at the head" ("bolster", 
1 Sam. 26, 7, 11), ^Cpfy "what lies about the feet", (and perhaps 
*ih*>4«1 "wetness of the ground", "marshy quality of the soil", 
uligo, and *\r'}$* l "firebrand"), also -J^flA "mediation" (from 

( 1 ) According to Praetorius, "Beitr. z. Ass? I, p. 38 sqq., these Nominal 
types, formed with t prefixed, should rather be assigned to the Intensive Stem. 
Cf. also KoNig, p. 81. 

( 2 ) Like J.>Ji3. 

( 3 ) [A comparison with similar formations in Assyrian makes it highly 
probable, however, that these nouns have nothing whatever to do with the 
Verbal Stems III, 1 or III, 2.] 

( 4 ) Like AsJq Ewald, <Gr. Ar.' §280. 

( 5 ) Cf. Konig, p. 123. 

§ 111. — 235 — 

■f'T'flA). — Nomina adionis are very seldom formed from other verbal 
Stems in this way, with long a in the last syllable: from St. IV, 1 
comes hll : t*'i4*tl "breathing"; from St. 1,3 (in accordance with 
§ 60) fr;^ "participation", or ^foU (Ex. 36, 31) "fastening 
together'^ 1 ) (with e shaded out of a); but generally such forms 
from St. 1, 3, as well as from 1, 2, III, 3 and IV, 3, have in addition 
an external ending (v. § 120). 

In the formations, however, which come from Passive Stems, 
— as we see in Hebrew and Syriac( 2 ) particularly, — the Passive 
vowels u and % were also permissible. In Ethiopic it is the Sub- 
ject of the Passive proceeding, rather than the proceeding itself, 
which is expressed by this method, — so that this form has much 
more to do with Qualifying-words : *Mlrt.£V and ; HlA.£v "what is 
cooked", "dish" or "mess" (Gen. 25,29—34); ^A'TUt "disciple" 
(probably a foreign word). But the intimately attached Feminine 
termination ^ is usually associated with it ( 3 ), before which, in ac- 
cordance with § 36, ^ or u is shortened into e. In this way a new r 
class of Abstract Nouns and Names of things is derived. In the 
first syllable a was originally kept up (e. g. in »|"$V M A^h Gen. 
31,27F, *frah&£ Gen. Comm. p. 5, -f^'OC^ Amos 8, 6 A, ^9° 
Ohtx^ 4 Kings 13, 17, -frah^ as well as ^Oh^ "tradition"), 
but in later times it was universally thickened into e, before the e 
of the second syllable. The form is pretty common, v. for instance 
^hl'flCl* "production" (G. Ad., as from -f**7ft*G "what is pro- 
duced") tegbertC), ^thC^^ "abstinence", ^JPfJC^ "doctrine", 
^S^A*!^ "principality", ^'P/**^ "enjoyment", ^A/**^ 
"divergence", ^fl^A^ "fraud", ^"ldC^ "lamentation", ^Mft^ 
"assumption of human nature", ^TfjPJt tezmed (§ 54) "race", 
"family"; particularly from Numerals, like Th/^Aft^ "what is 
threefold, Trinity" ("tripling"), and others, § 159 ; Vowel-beginning: 
^flMflA^ and -frftA^ "trust", ^flB-A^T (§ 54) and ^AJt 
(Gen. 15, 2 F) "race" (pronounce teivled or tided) ( 5 ); mediae in- 

O Quite peculiar is <PJl "lustre" (from *Phf), as well as l$\ "strife" 

( -kw ). 

( 2 ) V. Ewald, : Hebr. SprS § 161, a; Hoffmann, p. 243. [Cf. also Noldeke 
'Syr. Gramm: {English Ed.) p. 76. te.] 

( 3 ) Somewhat as in fi#2rVn, (Ka&jlJ. &c. 

( 4 ) On the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 536. 

(°) Although Ludolf I, 5 tells us to say teioeld. 

— 236 — § 112. 

firmae: ^b&tfV "aspersion", ZjffHahQsfr "self-conceit", h'^^l^ 

"wiles", 't'dp-'i't' "camp"; tertiae infinnae (in accordanc with § 51): 
^fl/jh "propliecy", ^CdJ^r "ornament", ^'hA/fr" "dross", ^flfl/lh 

"pride", ^/^T-'T" "incarnation". 
Qualifying (5) Qualifying or Descriptive words from the derived Stems 

^ °. r ,. are upon the whole of rare occurrence: — the majority of Parti- 
words from ciples and those words which stand for them are derived by means 
stems ; with of external prefixes and suffixes (§§ 114 and 117). But the Pas- 
it after 2nd S ive-Participle formation, with u after the second radical (§ 108, c), 
besides its use in the first Stem, is at least admissible in several 
of the other Active Stems and is very common in the case of 
St. I,3C). From Stem IV, 1 we meet with ftft^CVMl "absorbed 
in a matter", and from IV, 3 htl't"b(['lti "gathered together", in 
which the foregoing a of the Perfect Stem is in this manner re- 
duced to e, and, — in accordance with §§ 18 and 78, — a to ft. 
Following the last rule St. 1,3 produces ft-4-Vl "blessed", ft«<-C 
"founded", fl-'fc'b "sharing in", A»fr,£ "shaven", T-fl-X "gathered 
together", dfOrC "coloured", V-f"4* "unbelieving", "doubting" (but 
also /^JR, in accordance with § 108 c). — tft'Qi-'t' "transparent" 
( l^fl<i < l'> cf. supra p. 135 sq, and infra p. 238) may also be referred 
to this class. 
3. From § 112. 3. MulUUteral Roots are, for the most part, formed into 

Boots*- Substantives only, rarely into qualifying words. Farther those 
simple Substantives are mostly names of things, seldom conceptional words. 

Conception- n , . 

ai words -Lhe iemmme-endmg (except the ending a, § 127) is rarely attached 
ofThu^!- to ^ ese f° rma tions, already rather lengthy. A large number of 
Multiliteral Nouns have been imported from foreign sources, or 
else have an origin which remains obscure. 

(a) Simple Conceptional words and Names of things, derived 
from Quadriliteral Roots, are formed for the most part in such a 
way that each pair of radicals is brought into one syllable. A like 
process is followed in the case of Quinqueliteral Roots, the first 
radical being attached by way of prefix in front of the first com- 
plete syllable. When a long formative vowel is inserted, it bears 
the tone; but when only short vowels are used, according to the 
later pronunciation, the tone falls on the first closed syllable. 
(a) When l oth syllables have short e( 2 ) (so that the word answers 

( x ) On the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 536. 

( 2 ) In hatf*jfl "stone", "rock", the a of the first syllable seems to 

§ 112. — 237 — 

somewhat to the form l-dC § 105):—- fl£"fl£- "plague'^ 1 ), -J«p when 
7<H "drizzle", <M4*-fl "furniture", ^ffA ; 'fox", ^^li "hedge- ^ 8 £ e 
hog", £"|*7A "virgin", ^:hW rpayeXafag (Deut. 14,5), HCtl! short i 
"lentils", RtlP'T! "mud-heap". — A conceptional word of this form 
is 0>«A0>*A "perturbation". Quinqueliteral: £*<|> , -'J£ , 4 M ' "axe", 
£ , A4 , A4 > "violent agitation" ('earthquake') "quaking", £"*fld 
tf-A, £/ni>tf*A and .R-XlflYf'A "den" or "cage".— Foreign word: 
F?CV9° "dirhem". (/?) TFftera both syllables have short a: A\9° When 
J,5T» "gourd", 0^.0^ "pavement", MTJ-Tf "carpet", +A+A labies ha™ 
"precipice", diTfrhTf "pool", ^5^^^ "pool" (probably written short d. 
with long a, merely in error, § 48), fta>*Aa>- "ladder", ip^i*^ 
"network", «fefl«feft = 4»-f)4*-Jl, ClCClC "booty", fl-JflA "chain", 
#A&£* ("eyebrow") "orbit of the eye", tWittC "hog" (Hen. 89,10), 
IrtflA "hair-comb", rh^TH "eyebrows", «fe*>*|fr "lock (of hair)", 
W&Si "lip", O^flC "sea-monster", *K>hC "topaz", ^CWl "eye- 
lash", rhClff "crocodile", \\Chd "almond-nut", flm-^A "javelin", 

0£T> "tub", ("pitcher") (xSLflu|), fl)£mA loptcag, '/£hA ^5, 

[from the Assyrian ikallu, Sumerian e-gal,] <w»^OA "fat", llh"fl 
"star". A conceptional word of this type is tf»Gftft "feeling", 
"groping". To this division farther belong, according to § 71: — 
Ml "lasciviousness", ££ft "frost", «fr«Hl "scabbard". (y) When when 

. , „ „ il the last Syl- 

/7ie Zas* syllable has a, ana the first either a or e: — < P£«'fl Jab i e has a, 
"scorpion", fl«?<\T "a costly garment" (isi^), AWt 2lTdTl 
(j8aL&), "Satan", tf ;*-? "shoe-tie", «fe^A "flour", /h'JflA "saddle 
for a "camel", /h^O-fl "berry", fcC^ "weed" (Matt. 13, 25), WC 
«7d "elbow", J^-JOTf "beam", RlP^l "margin", «T»4-A "brick", 
Xl<hZ\ "burnt-offering"; dT-tlfC "absinth", £-{P£-"7 (§ 47) 
"hair of the head", 4*-J|#ft=«I*-fl<f M -fl, hC^ft "charta". 

Words of obscure formation and origin are met with in fl/h 
<.f) "reed-pen", Mft/P "mouse", £.Clf "cock", Wp9° "rue", 
flA/i"J "veil", ^AiHtK" "spark". — Foreign words: 9°/^(n.C 
Mvoryptov, 4»^^.A " candela" , <£!.%$ nxvboxetov, OTbl exQpa, 

~y&S,X£. &C. 

occur by way of compensation for an Aspirate (tf*/)h1rf*/lfi cf. supra p. 133); 
but cf. Praetorius, 'Amh. Spr.\ p. 152. 

C 1 ) On the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 536 sq. 

— 238 — § 112. 

Descriptive (6) Descriptive (or Qualifying) Words, and Substantives 

Jbltentives derived from them. The Quadriliteral Verbal Stem is employed 

derived i n its readiest dissyllabic pronunciation, viz. with two short a's, as 

from them. . _ 

a qualifying word; or else, — when it has to be more exactly dis- 
tinguished as an Adjective, — an a establishes itself after the second 
radical also, and the word becomes a trisyllable (*) : (flT'T "firm", 

"massive", (,Jaj£), MM and &1M "lean" (Gen. 41,4 sqq.), 

h»i*»W "speckled" (Gen. 30, 32—39; 31, 10—12, in later 
manuscripts VWitffl); WPd "rugged". Or otherwise, the last 
syllable takes a lengthened a, and the first is then pronounced 
either with e (as in § 108 a): $:\l$*9° "bereaved of parents" 
( , =RYl'P9 a ), or more frequently with a (as in § 110, 1 a): ih'ihtl 
"lame", JUTAT "blear-eyed", AMft (Constr. St. AftAft) "stam- 
mering"; and with final u discarded (§ 53) 9^di\ or %Oi\ "white". 
tvitlfl (discarding the Oh, § 53) "four-footed animal" ('going on 
four feet') ( 2 ) has become entirely substantive. The most common 
of these forms is that of the Passive Participle, with u in the last 
syllable (§§ 108 and 111,6), before which the preceding syllables 
retain the shortest possible vowel: A9°/V"9° "tender", h\C^9° 
"unfortunate", t'lvWUty "stained", $P"Hfl«C and aoflfcC "destroyed" 
(A-lK-fr, 9°AifrTr, 1-dfrtl,, F'hwh, ¥Afr*P), 
<»-Afll.A "unstable", TfJM "derided" (from fil»)\ from 
roots with long vowel as second radical (§ 20): — o»-fr'} "corrupt- 
ed" (<*7ift), tfo.'fe/h "captive" Cpfyth), -fcfrai "mixed" (^hth), 
XTfi "erring" (Iff), «£*£ "avaricious", A.A-JK- "separated"; from 
roots with u as last radical (§ 52) : OhC'lUB' "young", jP'Jfim- 
"tempted", What* "agreeing" (ah&^-Oh, jP'Jihm-, MW, Kb 
£0* "bleached", "white"; with i:~ Td'frfi "deluded". This 
Participle may also be derived from the Reflexive Stem V, some- 
times in the form ht'hCtbK "dancing", Mlfrh'ti "veiled", M 
T««7fD« "erring", MtybRa* "devout"; sometimes discarding the 
initial ft (§ 87):— *JK*'fl4-4» "transparent", 'J^T'fe'P (G-. Ad.) 
"delirious", TrTWfcfr and KTHUA-A "dissolute" ; and with still 
more marked abbreviation: 7YhA "giddy" (from htfrtiti)- Some- 

( x ) On the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 537. 

( 2 ) [Probably to be compared with DID; JLjX3QQ.ffl>, fcTDto; and, it may 
be, with Assyr. sisu (although the i there cannot yet be proved to be long); 
v. Littmann, 'Zeitschr. f. Assyr." 1 XIII, p. 155, N. 1.] 

§ 113. — 239 — 

times these formations assume the meaning of Substantives : — <££ 
4-C "crumb", fl?fl«ft "lung", Ki%?£, "aberration" ; fern. J^Ctf-YHh 
"hinge of a door". — The form with I (v. § 110, b) is preserved in 
a few Verbals only, which have taken a Substantive colouring: — 
AftUtT "the index of a balance", }<Pfc<p "drizzle", h?&<h "border", 
fl'Jfl.A "spikenard^ 1 ), *HUA«A and VHIM.A "dissolute", "a 
debauchee" ( VHOiiii) 

(c) Stronger Conceptional Words (Nomina Actionis) arise stronger 
from Multiliteral Boots, having long a in the last syllable (cf. ^wordsT 
§ 111, a, 8) and a in the preceding one: "ipft "sin", lVfl«Vn <- Nomina 


"marriage (lOtT from repeated cohabitation), i*»'fl w /'fl "trellis", wit h « in 
"basket-work, or lattice-work", "th't'h "eloquence" (CD/^ft), ?ft the last 
9ft "shoots" ((llfih — Q^SKS 'descendants'), ft/hft/h "dropping", and « in 
froo-flf, "mild gravity", tMft-fl "marriage-feast", ££■££* "ex-^J™ ;*" 
cess", H^fiti "soft whispering", frft^ft'P and }fli*fl A )*fl "drops", 
rh^A^VA "greenness", IflTflT and ^-flTflT "colic" (Kuf.)\ 
from one or two Causative Stems (§ 85), discarding ft: — (l$6*C 
"horror", fl/'HTf "spasm", ft$£'(Ih "lamentation"; and frequently 
from Keflexive Stem V, discarding ft: — Y)pR*y£ "thunder", 
Vh"CV^C "whirlpool", Yfr*CftC "murmuring"; V^CJX" "wanton- 
ness", Vft'fl^ "brilliance", tf?Oh "hesitation" VMa>* >4»A^*A, 
i+T^T, WlAOA *MA, i*lC?C iHUAA); also WbPOh "ab- 
erration"; more rarely with the pronunciation "}"fl ft fl (\ "tremulous 
movement", "^TftfAA "buffoonery", Tfl/h'VTh "motion"; as also 
from the Simple Stem: rt^fljK. "food", A.A£ "separation". 


(a) Forms reached by means of Prefixes. 

§ 113. The formation, employed in Verbs and associated with the 
with the Imperfect, which is effected by prefixing ye or ya, was at Preflx ^* 
one time extensively used in Nouns, particularly in Minao-Sabaic, 
but also in the other Semitic tongues ( 2 ). In Ethiopic it has died 
out entirely, and is now represented by a single word only, handed 
down from remote antiquity, viz. £Cfl/h or fC'tlih (ya lengthened 
by the tone, for ya) "giant" (root rO"l, £»flrh)- In the same way 

C 1 ) 9°MWi "poor" is a foreign word. 

( 2 ) Ewald, 'Heir. SprS § 162, a; 'Gr. Ar: § 281. Dietrich, l Abh. zur 
hebr. Gramm? p. 140 sqq. 

— 240 — § 113. 

the formation of Adjectives, — with the force of Intensives and 
Elatives, — which has come into wide -spread use especially in 
Arabic ( x ), effected by prefixing J\, was evidently at one time exist- 
ent in Ethiopic; but, except for some scanty remains, it has wholly 
disappeared. The following appear still, viz. ( 2 ): — hlfUd "tear" 
('flowing'), K'JT^'d "marrow" (properly, 'the best' or 'purest'; cf. 

Jb), Mff-fl and KH.'fl (§ 40) "the South" C^l), hHtn>C 

"purple" (Jill), Y\t\&C (Deut. 28, 22, !l^>t)( 3 ) 'a malady', pro- 
bably of 'the liver', with which is to be compared H<p<5« "yellow 

colour", as a fern, from uuo\, and in like manner, perhaps, H*fl^ 
"skin" (root Aa**), because the plural runs MflJtfl^- And farther, 
this form perhaps includes jft"J4'X" "door" ('being ajar', 'gaping', 

from (jdiiS, unless it is rather to be derived from (j^S* VII "to 
come by a crack or hole"). The words JiftfrA "cluster of grapes" 

<^i?, JIXSJ) and fcfrfld^ "finger" (fla^g, Zjc\) are very old( 4 ). 

hC?"(i 'the name of a planet' is a foreign word; h'^A "louse" 
is merely a dialectic variety of q^ey fa ; — hCth't "yoke" is 

s^K 5 ). [Also hll/h^?, htlth-t? "hail", "cold" probably 
belongs to these formations] ( 6 ). 

Eorms with »f* prefixed are, in accordance with § 111, 

systematically derived from Reflexive-Passive Stems ( 7 ). 

with the On the other hand the prefix ma, largely employed in all 

'ttPmti-' Semitic languages, in the sense of "he who" or "that which" (from 

cipies from the Interrogative Root, § 63), is very extensively made use of in 

Derived ....... 

Active Mhiopic also, m the derivation of verbal forms, and especially 
Part Tot P ar ticiples, together with Adjectives and Substantives which re- 
living e in semble Participles. 

last Syllable i tv j. £ ti xi ■ • i -i • 

and part. !• ^ irst ol all, this ma is employed in the formation of Parti- 

Pass. a. c ipi es ^ which then are farther made use of (just like those described 

in § 109, a) partly as Adjectives, or oftener as words which indi- 

O Ewald, 'Gr. Ar. : § 251 sq. 

( 2 ) For the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 537. 

( 3 ) [For uc^ftcf. Littmann, 'Zeitschr. f. Assyr: XIV p. 84, Note 1.] 

( 4 ) On these cf. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' § 147, b. 

( 5 ) Cf. Ewald, 'Gr. Ar.> § 243. 

( 6 ) [Cf. Dillmann, l Lex.\ coh 331.] 
< 7 ) [But v. p. 234, Note ( 3 ).] 

§114. — 241 — 

cate Persons. But Participles of this sort, formed with ma, are 
never derived from the Simple Ground-Stem, (the Inner-formation 
being found sufficient in the case of that Stem, in accordance with 
§ 108 sq_.) C), but only from the Derived Stems, and of these again, 
only from the Active Stems, not from the Keflexive or Passive. 
The latter, in forming their Participles, avail themselves of the 
type described in § 117. Prom the Active Stems themselves 
an Active Participle only is derived. Such a Participle is still 
very common, but Passive Participles here are seldom met with. 
This formation, however, is no longer by any means so vigorous 
as to make its appearance in the case of every Active verbal 
Stem. It is only in the case of a few Stems of certain 
verbs that Verbal forms, reached in this way, have continued to 
maintain themselves in the language, just like the Participles of 
the Simple Ground-Stem. As regards the method of formation, 
the formative prefix is invariably uttered with a, thus — ma; and 
this a holds such an undisputed sway, that even in foreign words, 

of Arabic origin, the Arabic # is replaced by tf»,— as in aoMaoR 

"Muhammad", tf»f»A0° "Muslim", <w»H^-7 ^yi, (by 9°, however, 

in ?tA9°6 ; h*M aJ-JiJ)). 0** is always applied to the beginning 

of the Stem, exactly like the Causative h; and the latter is put 
aside, without a trace left, whenever no has to go in front, and 
then no takes its place. Just as it is with the Subjunctive and Im- 
perfect forms of these Stems, the last syllable in the Active Parti- 
ciple has the vowel e, and in the Passive the vowel a. And farther, 
the Adjective-ending % may also be attached to such Participial 
formations; cf. infr. § 118. 

§ 114. (a) Prom Stem 1,2 come, for example ( 2 ): — aoQfb Participial 
(mcfammes) "he who acts unjustly", aP£faC "interpreter", tn>& %^*™_ 
'fid "he who makes four persons in the Godhead", ao*\f**fi "casti- From 
gator"; — mediae gutturalis: — 0D9°OC (mamehher) "teacher" 
(§ 45); mediae geminatae: — oofa'}'} "judge", //*MiAA "dealer 
in unguents" ; mediae infirmae: — <w»A(I>*G (masawwer) "protect- 
or "> "°^Ohtl "physician"; tertiae infirmae: aoiPCf, an( * o°V>& 

( x ) I am not able to admit the objections raised by Peaetorius, i Amh. 
<Spr.' p. 158: OO^fxil "young" is actually a Substantive==="sometln«g small". 
( 2 ) For the accentuation v. Tbumpp, p. 537 sg. 



St. I, 3. 

St. II, 1. 

"magician", aof^lOf* "he who bestows", aofiTOh "lie who ac- 
cepts" (§ 51). These forms also occur occasionally from roots 
which are not in use as Verbs in St. 1,2, like tfollATi "hinderer". 
A Substantive formed in this way is #w>m'fl4 , "glue" ('causing to 
adhere'); t/DiPtj^ "the best" (of a thing) is commonly used as a 

(b) From St. I, 3 come, for example, — ao^^y "quarrel- 
some", "passionate", (cf. ^Xs, III)( a ); aoq<£<p "heretical"; aoq 
TJTI "consoling"; m»%6l "horseman" (Deut. 20, 1); o*><tVF> 
"comforting"; tfofl^ "bewailing" (Matt. 9, 23). In <w»yXA "ful- 
ler" the short e has been lengthened into I. 

(c) From St. 11,1 this form is pretty common: — aaTf°ty 
"Baptist"; «7»£*'Y'} "Redeemer"; tf»ft*b"} "prince", "chief"; <n>C 
#J£" "terrible" ('causing to tremble'); avf&C "grassy", "produ- 
cing grass"; Cfo-fi'hh "rugged", "stony ground"; avfCfatf* "dark", 
"a dark place", &c; — primae gutturalis: "VftJPC "acquainted 
with"; — mediae geminatae: aogf *} "astounding" ('causing as- 
tonishment'); 0D&GC "a mischief-maker" ('one who stirs up dis- 
cord'); — tertiae infirmae: aogfaffh "hypocrite" (also ao&fiiOh 
St. 1,2); OD<pd& "physician" ('healer'); tn>f£C¥> "fruitful", tfutf-fl. 
(and tfDft'flJZ.) "having the same name". "7^ "a heathen seer" is 
a curiously shortened form, from o*>Ch^ ( 2 ) (§ 47). 

(d) From St. 11,2 these formations are rare; besides, they 
coincide in outward form with those which are derived from 
St. 1,2, e.g. m»ft'flrli "tax-gatherer"; //"A'flCW* "teacher"; aow 
*}£ "beautifier". 

(e) The Reflexive Stems do not form this Participle: they 
stIV,1,2,3 'may form their participles in another way (§ 117), or may pass 

into the Causative-Reflexive type and then adopt Participles be- 
longing thereto. But the form is in frequent use from St. IY, 1, 
2, 3. From the Perfect-form of St. IV, 1, JtfH*Grh4»:-— ^ft-HP 
ZhG "he who craves mercy for any one" ('intercessor'); <w»ft'f"fl < I H 'd 
"beseeching urgently"; tf»f|'f*flC£ "he who implores forgiveness". 
From the type of the Perfect htl-tdth^'- — <w»ft i f , tf»jRT "one 
who is prone to change his mind" Of«tf»£m 'to face about'); tn»ft 
*M/*Y** "inventor". From St. IV, 2: «n»/|f|)V "patient"; 

St. 11,2. 


(*) V., on the other hand, Praetoritjs, 'Beitr. z. Ass. 1 I, p. 25 sq. 
( 2 ) (T., however, Dillmann, 'Xea;.', col. 168.] 

§ 114. — 243 — 

< yo A'f'fl^A. "avenger" ; <w»ft'f"0'9A "a fraudulent person"; ooft^ 

ffl&C. "augur" (*fr(j\?£);~ mediae gutturalis: tfnfl'Hfd'} "horse- 
man", "knight" (-Hrfl». From St. IT, 3 : <w»ft-Mi/A "easy to 
be entreated" ; tfofti^A? "peacemaker"; 0*>tl'frA\9 o 9 o "anxious", 
"troubled about anything"; trotl'frtl&ty "mocker" (^^A4»); "°h 
r fr$ t £>9° "vindictive" ; <w»ftf-<PJ^J& "accuser" or tf*>ft'f ,< P3r "actor", 

(/) This Participle is also formed by the Active Stems of From 
Multiliteral Boots. From St. I, — which, in the construction of its ste ^, 8 ve of 
syllables, corresponds to a St. 1, 2 of the tri-radical roots, — come Muitmterai 


0°(h'H(P' "on© who ransoms", "redeemer"; aO't'CT'9 "inter- 
preter"; 0*>m7rty K & "soothsayer"; tn>'b>'}R:p» "delaying" (^ From 
St. II: — 0D&'} tf }b "terror-inspiring"; «w>«»7dA£ "tyrant" (from 
h^d AP » ^dA*^ 0A?) 5 or o°tlPll'W "who or what causes numb- 
ness or stupor", "stupefying"; t/ot^Oh "vagabond"; tfo{\^^»ah ( 2 ) 
"one who chants a dirge". Also there occurs from the Weak Re- 
flexive St. V, ao'yfr'GT'G "murmurer". 

Along with these pretty common Active Participles, a few 
cases also are met with, — though it is but rarely, — of Passive 
Participles, which have been formed from Active Stems by vowel 
change. Of this sort are ( 3 ) (belonging to St. II, 1) : - — tf 7/3fi*f*^* 
"witness" ('one who is interrogated'); *p£ft "heir" ('appointed 
heir'); a ^hc°'i "worthy of belief", "veracious", "to be relied upon" 
(the active form being a ¥h9°'} "he who believes", fidelis) Deut. 7,9; 
Matt. 24,45; Luke, 19,17, — for which in other passages 9°K< ni *J 
stands (from an original m»} t ao'}, according to § 45); a»$>Q*\ 

O <n>7 ,, "J v j& "impious 11 , if correct at all, would be a much shortened 
form of m>n^ or UO%%. 

( 2 ) Ludolf: fl , »A4**lr*0*"' 

( 3 ) On the other hand m>AM] "messenger"; Ti^G "f riend "> 
"client",— are, in their origin, names of things, § 116; and so too must be 
regarded tfO^Tifr "masted", originally "the mast" (Judges 6, 28 F. Note), and 

" D *fl*h'i m (Josh. 8, 33) originally "unviolated" (root <^.S\^ Ho be pure'). 
<*° tf l££L "subduer", m^A-fl "fisher" (v. Ludolf, 'Xex.'), and ^d^-fl 
(Ex. 22,8) "depositor" must rest either on incorrect readings, or on a tampering 
with the original forms *7»*7CGj < |D *?A'ft) "ibtyH -~ The word <n»<j»'j;A 
"murderer" in the iSalota Beqet is a Hebrew formation and a foreign word; 
cf. Dillmann's l Lex\ col, 441. 


— 244 — § 115. 

"pressed together", "narrow", aotyo'} "a narrow pass" ; <w»R'flrh« 

"obliged to pay tribute", "liable in taxes". 

prefix ma, § 115. 2. The prefix ma is farther employed in a non-personal 

m ^ of meaning, — to form names of things, or to express something hi 

Names of which the root-idea makes its appearance ; and it is but seldom, 
express and then only by transference of the notion, that such names of 
tfce piace of things can take a personal meaning. To be more particular, this 
formation is employed to designate — (1) that, in ivhich the action 
is accomplished, or the place of such action; or (2) that, with which 
it is accomplished, or the implement suitable for the action ; or (3) 
that which is made or produced by and in the action, or the pro- 
ducts of the action, objects of every hind, and the action itself. 
This type is almost always formed from the Simple Stem, — seldom 
from derived Stems or from Nouns. The prefix ma is joined to 
the first radical, forming with it a single syllable. As for the rest, 
different pronunciations have become established for the different 
classes of w r ords thus formed. 

(a) Eor the purpose of expressing the place in which any- 
thing happens, — an a which follows the second-last radical, and 
which was originally short, is lengthened, while the a of the forma- 
tive prefix is reduced, before this a, to e( x ). This is a very com- 
mon formation, e. g.\ — 9°^^ "the East"; 9 a d6*>(\ "the West"; 
9°iti6*9° "temple"; JP°/*'<P0 "altar"; f a l\ 0f lil "hearing-distance", 
"reach of hearing"; jP'H-C "pudenda" ; y'VVTi "oven"; jPh^Ti 
"confines"; 9°Wi "court of justice"; JP/^T "market"; JP-fl 
ffy "night-quarters"; 9°fa<PC "path"; f°C°i^ "pasture"; JP°J|;J'£ 
"watering-place"; JT'h'Jfll* "place where anything is poured out" 
(Lev. 4,12); 9°l^Jf^M "place of refuge". From vowel- commencing 
roots, generally in accordance with § 49, appear tf°*?K "place of 
exit" (Dfrh) OV'UQ "receptacle"; tf*-$>p> "court of justice"; 
0V*PC " a stone's-throw" (tf^AJt? tf°"'h'lf , o°'4*Q ; less frequently 
— jP'O-'JA "prison" (lit. 'place of detention') (and tf»-^A Acts, 4,3) ; 
?°flW|ft "place for praise". Even from roots middle-^, by their 
passing over to the vowel-commencing class in accordance with 
§ 68, we have the forms tf^flft "entrance" (e.g. in Hen. 73, 3)( 2 ) as 

O It is thus the same form, which serves to denote implements or tools, 
in Arabic. On the accentuation cf. Tbumpp, p. 538. 

( 2 ) [Flemming adopts here also the reading 9 a *f\ t ¥t\jO m - " TE -] 

§ 116. _ 245 — 

well as 9°*Wh (e. g. in Judges 1, 24 and Josh. 13, 5), and im-^c 
"space", "path" {e.g. 4 Esr. 13,46 ed. Laur.), as well as JPA'PC- 
But from roots mediae infirmae the form tf»J|7 "place" is unique 
in its class, and belongs rather to Arabic (*). 

From St. IV, by reducing a to e in the other syllables as 
well as in that of the prefix, we can have such forms as jPfl^ft^JR 
"place of intercession"; JPft^flC "market"; JPft^fl^/h "exten- 
sion"; 9°ll : t"b(\'h "assembly" O, § 18), or even, in a remarkable 
way, with the Passive vowel u in the last syllable ( 2 ), JP'ft^'Ml-ft 
Hen. 46,8; 53,6 ("assembly" = 'the totality of those assembled'): 
cf. also tf'>ft'/"fW;0 "intercession". In derivatives from Multiliteral 
roots,— as the first and second radicals together form only one 
syllable, — the prefix ao or rather 9° is separately attached: jP*jF° 
/h?*} "place of refuge" (from "7A0V); JPtf-fl^G "rubbish-heap"; 
9°6TfPd "place where one reposes": VPahfozfrOh "place of safety". 
This formation is employed throughout to convey the idea of place ( 3 ). 
a 7'V^C is not "an inhabited place", but "provision for inhabi- 
tation" ('house', 'tent' &c.) or "dwelling". For the rest v. § 116. 

§ 116. (b) For the purpose of denoting implements and ves- to ex- 
sels, products and materials of every kind, even the action itself '^""J^ 
pure and simple or the nature and manner of the action, the Pas- or the 
sive vowel a or the Active vowel e, after the second radical, is in the Action, 
general sufficient without being lengthened, while the formative ° r ! he 

° ° ' Action 

prefix ao retains its natural pronunciation, with a( 4 ). The a-pro- itself:— 
nunciation in the second syllable is rather more frequent than the 
one with e. Many words have both. No difference in meaning is 
caused thereby, but it may be observed that all those words which 
have only the e-pronunciation, may be regarded as Neuter parti- 
ciples with an Active signification (§ 114). Many of these words, 
in both the modes of pronunciation, have farther assumed the 
closely attached feminine termination ^jh: — Others appear both 
with and without the ^\ 

O Ewald, l Gr. Ar: § 387. 

( 2 ) As if it were a Participial formation. 

( 3 ) tfDfll^ is a foreign word, tX^U»Jo, and the pure Ethiopic 

word is JP^/IJ^J^. 

( 4 ) V., however, Konig, p. 121 sqq. 

in 2nd 


— 246 — § 116. 

Formation (a) Formation with a in the second syllable. From strong 

with^a roots? an( j rootg me fc g em: 0D£tflf) and iwAflfl^ (mdlbas and 
malbastO) "clothing" ; tfD'JllC "throne"; <»d?£$ "half"; iWi&tl 
"spirit"; <w»ffrfi<h "book"; tf»«7flC "tool" ; r/nfth'fl 'memb.genitale 1 ; 
(Kuf.)C)\ aofhli "triplet" (or "a third", a species of measure, 
not thoroughly identified); tfnft'fl "ledge", "projection" (/&flfl): 
0°foMl ('sending') "messenger", "Angel"; •yhg.JC "tower"; "?<> 
hh "pelvis". — Oscillating between a and e are: — o°t\^C and 
<7»fl4*C "ship" ('that which is hollowed out') ; tmluxq and <w>V*"7 
"bolt"; //n-flrtA and /7"'ftftA "kitchen-pot"; ao^/ft and aO'RCfc 
"lightning"; tfo^A? and nvtytlf* "divination"; "ftM-fl and <»7d 
ft«fl ('abandonment') "widower" and "widow". With and without 
the Feminine-ending: — tn>lld.C and ffDtl&C^ "measure"; tfPjlJR"? 
and ao\l&'} : ti' "covering", "ceiling". With Feminine - ending 
alone:— tfDjfl^A^ "portion"; ttotytPQ^ "infliction"; <w»Cfl'flih 
"net"; ^AMl^* and ^Afth^ "business" (besides tfDAftJ)^ 
"letter"). In triple form:— «7fl<w»4», «7dJP4», "700 o «j^h "depth"; 
"7d4»¥, "Tdfc'h, fl 7**¥ ; ih "offence ", ^KrtC, "foflC, "IhiiC* 
"tie", "string"; «%!!?, ^fcTf}^, "Wilf}^ "corner". —Eoots 
tertiae gutturalis do not in general lengthen their a before the 
vowel-less Aspirate (in accordance with § 46), but thicken it into e, 
because a long a would transfer them to the formation described 
in § 115: — <n>AVl?i "image"; ^thtld "young of the herd"; aoj£ 
tyA "consecration"; aoCRh "remedy", "aid"; ao'c^h "needle". 
Only a few lengthen their a and then they may reduce the a of 
the first syllable to e: aoTfll^ and jP'JH'V "sprinkling", "sprink- 
ling-vessel"; jPfl ?^ "what is heard" (and "hearing-distance"). 
aofvtp/t in the sense of "sacrifice", usually becomes feminine </o/ M 
tpd^ or JP/ M< Pd, and thereby coincides with o / M< Pd "altar" ( 3 ). If 
they have to retain a, they generally take the feminine termination : 
tfDTOI^ "knife" [cf.Keb.N. p. XIV]; tfoft^fl't" "obedience", &c. 
— In formations from roots beginning with u, the mixed-letter pro- 
nunciation always makes its appearance, in accordance with § 49: 
Will "favour", "grace"; *J°4»C "chisel"; fl"»«|£- "flood"; T^T, 

( x ) V., however, Trumpp, p. 538. 

( 2 ) But jP»ftfl»fl "couch". 

( 3 ) For this reason copyists often confound jF°/* , <P^and <H»/ M *Pd"lh; 

v. for instance Gen. 12, 7, Note. 

§ 116. — 247 — 

aot£<r and 0D&? "chimney" ; *pv>Cfr "saw" ; Witt "sling" : tertiae 
gutturalis: H°»ih "antiphone"; q°^h "apron"; flo.f ( x ) and <p?ft 
(§ 47) "gift to one who is going on a journey"; 'pmlti^ "veil". 
For *PQ&^ "day" (Amos 8, 9 A) tfo0A^ (ao^^) (§ 44) is 
usually given. In formations from Roots mediae infirmae, the 
consonantal pronunciation prevails: tntftatG and emftiDC^ "car- 
rying-pole"; ^Af-n "well-bucket"; aoftffofr "beaten or made 
road". aofrC "a litter", "lectica", must, however, be noticed (for 
t^KiDC § 40), as distinguished from aoftOiC "carrying-pole"; 
noticeable, farther, are tfDflh "gift" (not derived from flfc, but 
from its St. II, 1 tiHh) and (f»(\,1v'l* "authority", 'facultas' (from 
ft-flrh from flrh). <w»/Wl "basket" (or 'box for unleavened bread') 

(cf. uM is formed just like <tȣG- Words from Roots tertiae 
infirmae usually contract ai and au into e and b: — ooft^, "awl"; 
^rhft, "axe"; <w»/**^J& and <w»/*»^ "medicine"; <^>C' , I , "key"; 
**Vd^ "lock" (of a door); tfD^ft- "rank". Occasionally, however, 
the diphthong is retained; for example, in the following forma- 
tions from Middle- Aspirate and Doubly Weak Roots:— tf»G0£ 
"herd" (Matt. 8, 30 sqq.) ; <p£j>, "composition" ; <*d<P<D£ "instru- 
ment of torture". Feminine forms take the mixed sound always : — 
""CVlh "herd"; ooft^ "mirror"; "TAft,^ "song", "ode", 
"psalm"; r/oftfi-l* "window"; aoRfc*^ "weight"; "VH^ "a 
light" &c. 

This form occurs from Multiliteral roots but rarely, as in 
Wfrntifa "curtain" (from ft7fnA0); tf»-f«CKfl "whatever is 
near the head" (as "a pillow") (from ^ChU, whence also ^Chtl, 
§ HI); ridMfo* "waterfall" (also tfo-JQ" G. Ad., from Mfl 
/h'flrh); WibW "axis" (Sir. 36,5, from MMlCD); <w»M">ft^ 
and r/nJrt'J^V "fan" (also "aspergilla"). — A foreign word of this 
type is found in ao'iq'i "machine" (judyyavov). 

(/?) Formation with e in the second syllable. It has been Formation 
already observed that the most of these words may be regarded .^J 
as Participles, employed in a non-personal signification: — tfD^hC Syllable. 

i 1 ) In like manner perhaps <7D*} $* "double birth", "twins", for aoy°^, 
is for <W»JP»^K (from ao^fi= tMT\), -^whence l7D*Jrf«fl) is a farther 
derivation. So too, probably, by throwing off ffh, we have OOCfi "espousals", 
"wedding"— (Root not 0<Jf, but £Q(ja, cf. JWi). 

— 248 — § 116. 

"a wonder" or "miracle" ('what causes wonder') ; fofothty "anchor" 
('that which enables a ship to cling to something'); tn*fy^°^ "a 
tie" or "connecting strap"; tfo'J'VG "pair of bellows" (also, "a 
pump"); <w>^4*J^ and aoQtfrg "need" ('that which makes one 
miss something' and 'that which is missed'); 0Dgty°<j° "miracle" 
('that which causes astonishment'); «w , ft*»fl'fl "narrow pass"; ffi>R 
Aft "what is hated" &c. The Feminine forms of this type are 
frequently Abstracts: <w»AdA'Th "height"; <w»'flOA^h "contra- 
diction"; tfo*}*?/**^ "kingdom"; fWy^Afl^ "third rank". 

This formation does not appear to be in use from roots 
mediae infirmae. From roots tertiae irifirmae it takes the form 
aoQ'tah "what gives pleasure", "what is wished for or is con- 
venient"; tf*»fafrj& "spade"; troRC£> "crocus"; avCtl (instead of 
0°Ct\<&*) "harbour". Oftener, however, it is found with the Fern. 
termination: — tf0*Jft«*]h "temptation"; twRfa't' "price"; tf^VlA/ih 
"a talent" ; tn>\\6fr "spade" ; aotyQ,^* "pot". From Multiliterals : — 
<*>A.A/> "joint", "limb" (A.AP). 
Prefix ma (y) Alongside of these two leading types of Names of things, 

reduced to _ ag con t ras ted with designations of locality — , only a few other 

me in 1st ° ^ J 

Syllable, forms of words appear which call for separate notice. In the forms 
W V. "' 2 ' nd ° r of several names of things which take a in the final syllable, this 

syllable, a has been lengthened, and the a of the first syllable has been 
reduced to e, so that these words have the same form as Names 
of Place: jP"7flC "mode of acting", "actions"; {F'Gh'fl "means of 
livelihood", "mode of subsistence" ; jP*'>'7A'7 "a band" ( i caterva , )\ 
9°Ch?> "the sight" (Deut, 28,34); <m-^J& "vessel"; tf»-A£* not 
merely "fatherland", but also "derivation"^); and f°lrfy ii S2)utum" 
(for meruaq) with u thrown out, from gty = (D£*l> (§ 68) ; in the 
same fashion also ^"/C "hatchet". In the case of some others, 
although they keep a or e in the last syllable, e takes the place 
of a in the first:— jP°CT , 'H "staff"; {P*ft*C£ = "ORCF* (v. supra) ; 
9°hdi'ti (a conceptional word, of Infinitive form) "the extracting" : 
So too with a few fern. Substantive -Numerals, § 159. Farther, some 
words, originally Participles, have become Names of things : it is 
thus with <n>hf £■ [along with <w»h££", in Kebra Nag., p. XXX.] 
"footstool", Part. Pass, of St. I, 2 ('that which is trampled on'): so 

( x ) On the other hand JP°£»^fl is a foreign word, ChlO; and jP'Jfl'fl 

is "a place for reading" :— (a) 'A reading-desk', (b) 'a lesson'. 

§117. — 249 — 

too with ao^UJ ^ "horror"; oopf} "hook" (Matt. 17,27), a 
PartC 1 ) from St. I, 3 or II, 3 (h^m*/), ^h-^tf-C "wheel" ('rol- 
ling'), a Part, from St. V of the Multiliteral ft«Ch«»^, with tone- 
lengthened a. Also, in a few Common Nouns derived from St. 1, 3, 
the Stem-peculiarities have been retained: aotfl^ "razor" (from 

IftP); ^'WllJ&C 2 ) "ox-goad" (from pmf, cf. iki*.). An Abstract 
form from ^.'fld "the fourth" is found in ao^'dd't "a square" 
and "squareness". <n>"Htfi»«£ "psalm" is an Arabic Part. Pass.; 
in like manner tf»"J^.£v "female head-dress" is a foreign word 

(JojJLo). As to certain peculiar feminine forms v. infra, § 127. 

(b) Forms reached by means of Affixes. 
§ 117. The greater number of those words which have been Denomina- 
formed by means of Affixes are derived from other and simpler Adjective- 
nouns, whether these are still preserved in the language or not Formation; 

with ter- 

(Denominative Nouns). In meaning they are either Relative De- mina ti n %. 
scriptive words, or Abstract words, and only very seldom mere 
Names of things. The Affixes themselves are, it is true, of many 
forms and fashions, but they are essentially traceable to two sorts 
of terminations having a pronominal origin. The basis of the most 
of them is constituted by an Adjective-termination common to 
Semitic tongues. 

1. "We start our description, for the reason given, with the 
Adjective-Formation. The termination of Adjectives is taken from 
a very ancient Demonstrative root 1 ("he") and the Relative ia 
("who")( 3 ), § 65, and originally it has the form iya or aya (="he, 
who"). In the other Semitic languages it was abbreviated, some- 
times into t i*-^-, ■£—), sometimes into ai, e (— — , '' — ( 4 ) [As- 
syrian, — ai or, with contraction,—-^]): In Ethiopic it attained a 
triple form, as i, ai, and — with an intervening letter separating 

( x ) If it be not an Inner Plural. 

( 2 ) Unless it stands for jF^m^- 

( 3 ) The propriety of comparing this termination with the Relative 
Pron. is shown by the fact, that in Ethiopic another Relative Pron. with the 
force of a Genitive sign is placed before Substantives to form Relative Ad- 
jectives: H0°'id*ft "who (is) of the "spirit" = "spiritual". 

( 4 ) Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.\ § 164, c. 

•— 250 — § 117. 

these vowels (§ 41) — awl. The last two forms have pretty much 
the same meaning and are occasionally exchanged for one another 
in the same word; but it is seldom that % on the one hand, and 
ai, awl on the other are interchanged. — Each has its own ap- 

(a) The termination I is chiefly employed to form Nouns 
denoting the Agent, from simpler nouns connected with persons. 
It is comparatively seldom in use for the derivation of simple Ad- 
with i (a) Especially is it attached to those Nouns of the type *fflC 

at Noun^ of gubbar, which denote the Agent (§ 110, a), and in that case its chief 
tho Type use is to distinguish a Substantive which indicates an Agent from 

from any of a mere elative Adjective, e. g.: — rh/J-A. "husbandman"; VJ3"/. 

the gt ^ red "king"; (Dti\ "procreator"; £<Pft, "runner"; **}<£ "hunter"; 
thtyP, "liar"; £h& "seer"; fi]?& "sword-bearer". But several 
words of this type have also a purely Adjective-meaning: aoA\& 
"merciful"; fl#*V. "useful"; Vflfl, XoyiKog- ihl^ "sickly", "sur- 
ly"; P*P£ "gentle"; Offa "astray" (G. Ad.), &c. The Ending 
itself in these formations is always accentuated, according to 
Teumpp, (p. 539): harrdsi. 

While, however, the simple type, without any Ending, is 
formed only from the doubled Stem, that which is compounded 
with the Adjective-ending may be formed from any of the derived 
Stems, and then it takes the place of Participles, or is exchanged 
for them without any essential difference in meaning. Just as in 
the Adjective-formation (§ 108, a and § 110, a), the second-last 
Radical has always a (with the tone); in other respects the pro- 
nunciation of the Perfect-Stem is maintained with a. Prom St. 1,3 : 
VHH, "comforter"; VMi "unbelieving"; "1&6 founder (*). From 
St. 11,1: h^P& "fisher"; K°IflK« "traitor"; MM<5 "bringing a 
glad message"; ft">flfl. "reader"; hT/k'fe airsGTraofJisvo; (Lev. 22, 
24, Eoot ,jJo); ftO/i. "he who introduces" (from h'tlh from 
flh) &c. But from Roots tertiae gutturalis, as a is not merely 
lengthened, but also, in accordance with § 45, dulled into e, 
we have K'JfcVU 2 ) "awakener"; h'ti'W'XC) "multiplier" {abzehi), 
and from St. 11,2: ftft^A. "he who removes or expels". 

(i) ^(^^ is peculiar, if correct at all. 
( 2 ) According to Lttdolf's 'Lex.\ 

§ 118. — 251 — 

From the Reflexive Stems III this formation comes all the 
more frequently, that they do not form any Participles with *w> 
prefixed. Examples, — from 111,1: 'fvh'PA. "that which stirs"; 
+«* , ^ a ?„ "set up", "brought forward".— From III, 2: 'tdS'Z 
"sent"', -t-OP^L "patient"; ^a\$& "augur"; 1*MH. "obedient"; 
•fOPO. "robber".— From 111,3: -f'M'fe "mocker"; 'f-'PTfl. 
"player" ('actor'); W&fa "co-heir". From Stems IV, 1, 3: hili* 
*?&% "intercessor"; YxMC/S't, "interpreter"; htll'P'ilh. (be- 
cause tertiae gutturalis) "convener". 

From Multiliteral Boots: St. I: ^flfc "perishable"; fl/h;J**g 
"solitary"; rn^^»*fc "inquirer"; -£firh« " one wn0 mixes"; fl,H12 
"redeemer"; fA'C "shepherd"; flCfl*5 "robber"; ^9°^ A. "de- 
stroyer"; HCflfi. " calumniator'^ 1 ): — St. II: K ?^ "spoiler"; JiR 
Tf'hdu " one wn0 brings a burnt-offering". 

§ 118. (j3) In like manner this % is frequently attached to with % 
Participles, — formed by means of ao, — to raise them to be Partic i ple8 
Nomina Agentis ( 2 ). It has the tone. This formation occurs most formed b y 

_ _ means of 

frequently in the case of Participles of St. 11,1, in which at the ma, turning 
same time the e of the last syllable of the original Participle pas- *"™ i "*° 
ses into a. This a is but seldom lengthened into a, — and that in Agentis. 
the case of Middle-Aspirate roots (§ 48): tffl^AA. " one wno ^ ac i" 
litates"; tfD^flA. " one who wounds"; *w>Jf°Atl« "one who fears 
God"; "fthl-A. "destroyer"; 0Df£*l>6 "lover" ; "V/hfE "life-giver"; 
<w, J^"ii "saviour" (=ao^^'}), and many others; — <w»»fl^A, "who 
makes rich"; 0Dtl<h'k "who leads astray' (along with the form 
0°ll{t\'t) ( 3 ). But e remains unaltered in Derivatives from roots 
tertiae gutturalis: <w»»flCVL "enlightener"; <w»"J/*'/i. "one who a- 
rouses"; ao'iftfa "purifier"; tfo^^rh. "opener" &c. We have, 
however, tmC^Ou "assistant". In most of the cases in which this 
outer formation occurs, the simple form of the Participle is no 
longer in use. 

( x ) On the other hand %<P<£ "taken captive" (in Passive sense), from 
$<P and awl, belongs to § 119 (Ex. 12, 29). 

( 2 ) The doubts entertained by Praetorius, ZDMG XLI, p. 689 (cf. also 
Konig, p. 124 sq.), appear to me to be without foundation. 

( 3 ) tfO'Jft'fc, <W*'HA«(» perhaps rest only on copyist's errors; <W»JtA^ 
might have taken that form of pronunciation by way of assimilation to the 
Adjective- Ending divi. 

— 252 — § 119. 

From the other Stems the outer formation occurs with rather 
less frequency. — The original pronunciation of the Part, remains 
unchanged. St. 1,2: <w»^OHrt« {=a°&.(D*t\) "physician"; St. 1,3: 
a°fvH% "exorcist" (Hen. 8,3); <w>flArh« "liberator"; tfD^TfH, 
"comforter"; St. IV, 1: tfnfU^/^rh. and 2: 0t>tl'frd.S > 'tK "one 
who bestows gladness", "comforter"; 3: aofi-f P'dh^ "one who as- 
sembles" HftA-K?-flJO. From Multiliteral roots St. II: tf»"tf* 
T/i. "one who prepares food" ; aon\^tf> (and in shortened form 
0° g ¥ f i t E L ) "worshipper of idols". 
with % (y) I is frequently used, to derive Relative Adjectives from 

at pro e er t0 P r0 P er names. In the case of Names ending in a vowel, the I is 
Names and generally hardened into y (v. numerous examples in Numb. 26). — 
sonai Words More rarely this i is employed for the purpose of deriving Adjec- 
and Names ^ ves or Norn, aq. from Substantives : a*>fl(\d "destroyer" (from 

of Things. -j i — 

tf»1lflC); -l^ZSX "the last" (4-ftW); h^°% (Aramaic) 

"heathenish"; Otto. "Arabic", "Arab"; f\fo& and nAC£ "pearl" 
('sprung from the sea'). It is not seldom attached, — superfluously, 
to all appearance, — to certain Personal words and Names of things, 
of the masculine gender :■ •flftrt. "man" ('bold', 'warlike'); ftflflj 

"Nile river or flood" (i^GlX 1 ); tl£rt« "serpent" ('cunning', 
jA^K 2 ); -f-hH, "river" (V'ehhM) [?]; Olfld "sea-monster" =07 
AC; Odd "West" (Ex. 26,20,35; Josh. 5,10); StfftA. "cymbal" 
('tinkling'); h&t-tl. "rider", "horseman". Probably thCI "ram" 
(Hen. 89, 43) had also at first the form ditt*, and properly d\Cl* 
is the form of the constr. state or the accus. Farther ^At "a 
youth", "servant", "boy" is perhaps to be judged of in the same 

fashion. Feminine Stems take e instead (from iyah, jb«_ § 40) : 

M<k "hawk" as well as K'HHh; TCI "throat" (v. also § 127, c); 

or et Qb__): f\ft<k^ juvydXy (cf. ^.jJ)( 3 ); HCfl.^" "carpet" (&^); 

more rarely It: hHiHiJt "stinging nettle". 

§ 119. (6) The stronger ending «w(*) serves the purpose of 

(*) [A name generally given to the 'Abyssinian Nile', v. l Lex'. tr.] 

( 2 ) [In 'iecc.' Dillmann prefers the meaning 'twisting', and chooses the 
etymon ^l5"(mid. ., not mid. ^). Others think the word might be of old 
African origin, tr.] 

( 3 ) [Cf. also Dillmann's l Lex.\ col. 64. tr.] 

( 4 ) According to Trumpp, p. 539, to be accentuated as dwt.—As to the 
origin cf. Konig, p. 130. 

§ 119. - 253 — 

deriving new Adjectives, and words indicating persons, from Sub- Adjective- 
stantives (and Adjectives). It is true that in Ethiopic, Adjectives ^TteTi- 
may with almost greater ease be indicated periphrastically by nation am, 
means of the Genitive relation of Substantives; and, in ordinary ^^^ 
prose at least, this periphrastic indication of an Adjective is more s ^stan- 
in use than the express Adjective-formation. The faculty, however, Adjectives, 
of deriving new Adjectives by means of that ending has remained ^^ ^ 
active in the language. It is always possible to frame such an ad- words indi- 

i • ■ in n v eating 

jective from any and every word; and, m poetic and learned die- Persons, 
tion, it has often been practised. In such cases the interior vowels 
of the fundamental word remain unchanged, and the termination 
has a merely external attachment (contrived, — for fundamental 
words which end in a vowel — , in accordance with the rules de- 
scribed in § 39 sqq.). In this way relative Adjectives may 'be formed 
even from Plural forms, Foreign words and Proper Names. For 
example,— {P»£"^«e "earthly" (9°£C), ftth^t "pertaining to the 
sea"; ^tW^ "worldly"; /hTifl'C "layman"; &£tl<£ "horseman", 
"knight"; 6.$$^ (from £^) "robber"; 1fl^«E "workman" 
(worn, unitat. from coll. *IflC); 06*11 "hostile" (from 0C); even 
from jvfl "father", a feminine form Mll^ "ancestress" (Gr. Ad.); 
from f»p, ;»?<£ "fleshly"; from flfflfl, QlfUfit "lion-like"; 
h'iM'Z "animal" adj. (K7M); tmCtHl "sponsus", i. e. 
"bridegroom" (from aoC3). From Nominal Stems increased ex- 
ternally: tfnfl+A'E "relating to the cross" (tf»ft4*A); avTitAtl 
"spiritual"; (llW% "Sabbatical"; hh9°G?"£ "scientific" (from 
Inf. hh^Gfy ; KtlM^ "maidenly" (from Jf}«7AS" "maiden- 
hood"). From Plural forms; h'(\?p' i £ "domestic"; £OP,p<£ 
"gigantic"; Jf|Cft'Wi ,< E "Christian" adj. From Foreign words 
and Proper Names: tf»ltlfl*g "monastic"; hf^frftfl "Jewish"; 
dfU.<C "Hebrew"; tD'iZ^ "Evangelist"; even MtUh'dih.&'B 
"relating to God"; ft^A ' h^WzC) "human" ; HAMATE 
, 'eternal". Farther, this termination may be applied to Adjectives: 

O iM&i means "progeny", and "hODghpOh or fttfD : fapOh 

means "mother of a living one", i. e. "mother of the living".— Accordingly 
hfltl ! TtlffOftlPO)* signifies literally "progeny of the mother of the living", 
that is "the human race", "homines". From this compound substantive, the 
adjective, given in the text, is formed by attaching awl to the second 
member, tk.] 

— 254 — § 120. 

tyfiAl} "relating to what is holy"; •fl^-^flj "appertaining to the 
blessed"; to the Interrogative fcft (§ 63):— h?<£ and ft££ ('of 
what kind') "like", "equal"; also to words which are only used as 
Adverbs or Prepositions: h^Mj "external" (K'hft); AflA^ "up- 
per"; pthp'll 0) "lower". A foreign word of this kind is met with 
in f'ih^'g "sailor", "shipman", i/ccvryjg. 
shorter The shorter ending at alternates at pleasure with awl, at 

Ending ui, i eas t in Numeral Adjectives (§ 159), but otherwise it is retained 

alternating , ■ «. ■ -■■•.« ■ <* -i i 

with aw;;, only m a few words:— p*dip'f, and ?•&?*<£', AoA£ and AoA*C; 
at least in ^([fi^g, and -f*Q0;J"*e "masculine" ; h^jK- and hp<£; $&&*?» 

A^rtives. and £^<e "the last"; ££;*•£ alongside of Afp^ "robber"; 
06*?, as well as 0<J.<g "hostile"; h^PJR, as well as hdP'G "old": 
Also, p'Cftf' "corn" (§ 47, from p'bCfl 'covering with hair') ; 
4»t*»4.£ "Holiest of all" (Ex. 26, 33), properly 'the (place) which 
is devoted to the service of God' (cf. *2»aoU). 

Somewhat irregular forms are exhibited by: — $CP$* "flowery" 
(from ft"i); T-foW "treacherous" (from T^/H - ); tf-WflJ "judi- 
cial" (from tf-VJi); (Kfl,^*£ and) ft 0.4*% (from htUC) "old". 

■2. Abstract § 120. 2. By attaching the sign of the Feminine to these 

r N °afr 0m Adjective-Endings, a number of Endings are produced which are 

words with used to indicate Abstract Nouns. 

Endings, by (&) I 11 very rare cases the termination yd has this meaning 

appending ^ ^ e f orma tion of Collectives (v. 8 140). Somewhat more fre- 

Eem.-Sign: , . 

**it, quently the termination it() is employed to form Abstracts or 
sometimes Collectives, chiefly from verbals "in i: h^9tj^ "the portion which 
has escaped (disaster)" or "remnant" from V4«ftJ( 3 ); "llAA'Th 
"people travelling or passing by" ; in the same way ^p%/t (e. g. 
Judges 19,17); 0t\hA "army"; mift "townspeople" (Col. 3,11): 
Farther $*>&]? "end"; «M«Ttf- "beginning" (Matt, 12,45); (frfl 
fll.'lh "what is inward"; fl^h-fc-J" "solitude"; ffofc'tyflr "redemp- 
tion", "salvation" (from <w>£"T^ "Redeemer", "Saviour"); WhJV 
"help"; fl<pft,"]h"a crowd of people entering"; $*fa?\%jV "diminution", 
"waning" (Hen. 78, 15) ; -nCV^I" "luminous nature" (from-ficy^ 

(*) At one time they also used the form AdA£ instead, (Judges 1,36 
Note) and ^Hi^F* Josh. 11,16 (cf. 16,3; 18, 13) with the simpler ending S ^__. 

( 2 ) Cf. the same ending in the Mehri: v. Maltzan, ZDMG XXYII, p. 282 
[and A. Jahn, 'Qramm. d. Mehri-8pr.\ Vienna 1905, p. 55 sqq.]. 

( 3 ) Like TkAb from fc^B. 

§ 120. — 255 — 

Gr. Ad. 15, 16). Even without the interposition of an Adjective in 
I, Abstracts are derived from simpler Nominal Stems by appending 
the termination It: Ift-fc^ "a small quantity" ; #9°°%^ and ft"*^ 
"secrecy"; gl&C) "the being turned back"; "h^j?^ ("quality") 

xlftl^C 2 ) ; Tikhjt "perversion" ; ^A^A/lf "steepness" ; htlXljr 

"testicles" (ij#K, V^j$N)( 3 ). This termination is often used to de- 
rive (from Numerals) Substantives and Adjectives which express 
multiplicity, v. § 159. But just as in the other Semitic languages, 
so also in Ethiopic the termination Ut(*) may take the place of 
this It, and with the same force; yet it is only in a few words that 
this ending continues to be represented: — '^^-*J m "goodness" (from 

•J.C); *Fvh/Hh 'fraud"; frA/h^Th "artifice", "cunning" (X^Akij); 

OhOfr^ "youth (1^)( 5 ). 

(b) More frequently, however, these terminations are shaded oftenor as 
with the a-sound. Just as the ordinary Adjective-Endings took m or e > 

. ' _ • „ Abstracts 

the form of at and awl instead of %, — so too, in the formation of i n it- 
Abstract Nouns, the feminine ending, it, — or, with vowel-close, Conceptioc- 
e, — is employed instead of It. in g 

(a) Some few Abstract Nouns are still derived from simpler from Verbal 
words, by means of the ending et, from iat= ait( 6 ) : <J.fcVt»Th "help" ; 
n<|H-W "advantage" (from ££'ft, fl4»^d); "tWlih "consum- 
mation", "end" (fromi-^K? ); d'd^ "fruit", "succession" (with 
prep. Gen. 12,13, propter) from a lost word like 1DS>( 7 ); and 0»fl 
&& "sterility" from dtt'C "unfruitful". The place of an Infinitive, 
derived straight from hhfa't (H, 1 of hfa'fr), is supplied by Mi° 
i;^ "thanksgiving" (for hhfa'fc't)- 

i 1 ) [Generally used in the Ace. adverbially, j£ tt i£'f l "backwards", 
"again", te.] 

( 2 ) [Cf. also ^^l, irotorvjs, qualitas. te.] 

( 3 ) Not K rth?) as this does not mean— "to indicate" (Gesenius). 

( 4 ) V. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr. 1 § 165, b. 

( 5 ) 'tdflJ, ^ihli(D, ftArhO) and <DC!f<0 are only derivatives of 
these, § 73. 

( 6 ) Y. on the other hand Konig, p. 113. . 

( 7 ) [A different derivation is given in the 'Lexicon 1 , col. 507, where 
fl*H&Pt t or d'd^o't*, meaning "succession", is said to be made up of •fl&'lh 
(from fl^P) and prosthetic X» T R .] 

— 256 — § 120. 

(j3) More usual, however, is the shorter, vowel-ending termi- 
nation e, by means of which Infinitive-like conceptional Avords are 
derived from the several Verbal Stems. This formation is at once 
an inner and an outer one. Into the interior of the form the 
lengthened a, — which is made use of in the formation of Abstracts 
(§§ 107, /S and 111 a, /3), — makes its way: it takes the accent 
(Teumpp, p. 540), while the a of the preceding syllable must be 
reduced to e, and a (in St. 1,3) to u( 1 )- Externally the toneless 
e attaches itself to this form. The formation occurs oftenest as a 
derivative from St. 1, 2 & 3 of the tri-radical verb, and St. I of the 
Multiliteral, but only very rarely from St. 1,1 (fa'PJi "existence"; 
?" l Ph. "song of triumph"). From St. 1, 2 come, e. g. thftfu "renew- 
al" (hedddse); ^9^°% "completion"; 0°/lft, "comparison", "par- 
able"; /"Art, "Trinity"; h^t, "demonstration"; m*P t t\ t "praise"; 
£flfl» "jubilation"; dH-f.. "yielding up"; ^K^*B "untruth". So 
too: — /h^VX "affliction" (St. 1,2 replacing here Stem hft\0°ao)\ 
ft*Vfc "thanksgiving" (hh\l«i m ); /"^l'B "answer" a*wr(D). 
Peculiar forms present themselves in Vf*i& (kuennane) "judgment"; 
*lfl& as well as 'iflfc "skirt of a garment"; /htf» a 9L "affliction"; 
f\*l& "end" ( 2 ), in which long a has not made its way within the 
word, — and °%$% "deception" (from </»f J), in which long * takes 
the place of the doubling of the second radical. From St. I, 3 : 
*fr(\h, "assembly"; fr4-A» "partition"; nV^Vfc "blessing"; fapft, 
"observation" (Kuf.)( 3 ). Several roots, which are no longer used 
as verbs in St. 1, 3, have this formation,— in part from St. Ill, 3 
and IV, 3, like <.fifl, with i'^hfl, and V-0& "institution" with 
hWMC From frnfl "the seventh" ft-fl 1 *. "week" ('the seven') 
has been derived. This form is exceedingly rare from Reflexive 
Stems, the formations noticed in § 111 proving sufficient for these: 
*H*flflft» as well as ^fl-flJi, "human nature", "incarnation" = ^ft-fl 
?t"J*; H''i t *ih» "resurrection". On the other hand it is very com- 
mon from Multiliteral roots: — St. I.— AJ^A*^ "freshness"; Jt'J 
Pd, "maidenly bearing"; 'fl'fcfl'.J. "putrefaction"; fA^ "philo- 
sophy"; JP'H'B "temptation"; (O-CH'B "youth"; t,*P*B "imprison- 

( x ) But v. Konig, p. 124. 
( 2 ) Cf. Ludolf's ( £ecc.' s. v. 

() £H*e, *-4-<&, Wh, n-^fc,, frA<% ft«;**<C, i»-&&, V-HH., 
4-h*fc, 1hfl&, A-'Jfc, ih-Pto, w&dh, rh-Hft., 0*P&, 0-Z&. 

§ 121. — 257 — 

ment", "captivity" (%<D0>) ; a^Pd* "taking captive" CHMi) &c.: — 
St. V: K'JflV'A'^ "veiling". — A foreign word of this type is met 
with in ftf/iA* ssjuioaXig. But even from simpler Stems Conceptional 
words (and Names of things) may be derived by means of the ter- 
mination e, as well as by the termination et (v. supra): (DJK>A> 
"howling" (from <d£A §61); ^i7R, as well as /h?ft "a building"; 
Vd*B "hunting" C 1 ); *h'HIC'n& "scab"; &?ft?ft. 'name of a dis- 
ease' ; perhaps also 6f^"% "set time"; ^T^fc "woodworms" ('hum- 
ming'), and some of the words mentioned in § 127, c. 

§ 121. (c) Just as et is formed from it by the admixture of '-Forms, 
an a-sound, so is'dt, — or as a vowel-ending — o, from id. (a) The finises, in 
accented termination bt (Trumpp, p. 540), — the Hebr.-Aramaic accented 
ut — , has been extensively employed in the formation of the In- 
finitive (v. § 125), but otherwise it is found only in a few words, 
some of them foreign. Formations of native origin are: oofih't' 
"Godhead" (from hJPAfa); J^Afa^ "property"; X"A/Hh "shadow" 
(cf frAA.); T-n/'-ih ovvrctfyg ('daily task', from «pfl-fl, Ex. 5); &fc^ 
"filth" (G. Ad., from &&); %?%• "low grounds", "meadows" (cf. 

kjLot.). The following are foreign words : y/S^Tih "faith", ?l,ofv>*o» ; 

AA/T^ "Cassia" (a^ul^); M^ "healing" (^oim(); ^0'> "ark" 

(^li)( 2 ). 

(j3) The similarly accented termination o is likewise em- 
ployed very frequently in the formation of the Infinitive (v. §125). 
Outside of this use it is chiefly of service in the derivation of 
Names of the products of artistic skill (from Substantives of the 
type *7fl«C) ' — /* , *flfa "casting" ; ^''PA "what is overlaid with metal" ; 
-flftA- "cooked food" ; Wt " web"; aHfȣ "hewn work"; TMUn "tin- 
work" ; *7AC "carved work"; T*flA "roast meat" ; T0H*" "turnery"; 
<?&# "turned work"; ^A» "net-work"; C*£h "tailor's work"; 
#¥C "basket-ware"; ty^RG "net- work", "fringes"; ID-fffl "nose- 
and ear- ornaments " ; £"Ci "assignment"; *7Ti(? "circumcision" ( 3 ). 

( x ) The older mode of writing it,— JA*B e. g. Lev. 17, 13 F. H-speaks 
against the conjecture that VA*fi stands for *}^*B. 

( 2 ) Of unknown derivation are Kt 1 "!* "small locust" (cf. &!.£.«.£.), ftjh'l* 
and ^P't 1 'a stinging insect', rflAft*lhP"'lh "baboon". 

( 8 ) Perhaps also )\*}4'*t t ' i !' "egg") a s a result or consequence of cack- 
ling, if H*J4'']r**Tl (pf- ijLklib.) really means "to cackle", [^startling view! tr,] 


— 258 — § 121. 

In other applications this ending appears only in rare cases: — 
ftAfl "cross"; QR/h "well-bucket"; hfltf "drum", ('timbrel', 

Ex. 15,20) (J/); h«£fl "basket" ('basket-, or mat-work', <^S); 
RAft° "soot"; ft£h<? and £chT "hyacinth-colour"; a»(fi$ 'a 
musical instrument' (fcifrdpa, [cf. Kebra Nag. p. XXV.] Plur. tf»fl^ 
Jfrp'fy Eev. 14 ; 2)( 1 ); ^Hr-^ "the condition of having monthly 
courses" (from *Hfl"lf* "tnulier menstruata" ', probably for ^Mflfr'ih 

y Uo VIII and y [$[ 'reclining' ; 'sitting' ; to elucidate the notion 
cf. Gen. 31, 35); hflA" and tl*>flA° "hook or ring" (on a sandal); 
Jftflfl and h-flfl "hair-net" ( 2 ). 
Nouns of (fy The tone-bearing termination dt, — which is applied to 

Circum- „ 

stance and IS ouns of simpler form, to express notions of circumstance or 
C taTon°e^ con dition, — has come into being, sometimes from dt by a change 
bearing of vowels, sometimes from the simple Feminine-ending at by the 
process of lengthening the vowel: — Atf^**lh "old age", "seniority" 
(=^114^) from AV#; VM'Th "youth", "minority" (Gen. 43,33) 
from 'JJvfl or *>hfl; 4\K"filh "sanctuary", "holiness" from 4»^.ft; 
'h&P't "state of divorcement" from 'Vj'J.'? ; tlCP'fr "the condition 
of one who has obtained ftCf *lh i- <?• 'remission of sins' " ; ty'iP't 
"slavery", i. e. "the state of ty% ('servitude')"; <F°C'$'t' "wanton- 
ness"; R\£* 1 ^**|h( 3 ) "benevolence", — in which Jfft'^* ('probity' or 
'piety') is shown. This at is occasionally substituted for at, e. g. 
in tlil'h't' "glory", alongside of dUdiH": rh'flA'^* "plaited- work" 
(Judges 8,26; Ex. 35,22, Note) along with ffrflArfh; and at itself 
is sufficient for the derivation of Abstracts from simpler Nominal 
Stems: — fl-flft^ "humanity" from fl-flfr; JPftlU^ "poverty" from 
9°M\+i> In "flA/5.^ "glad tidings" (iTjTfra), a seems to be only 

0) [Where ipwyv , . . K/^apulcHv KfeaptX^ovTW iv ralg /a%dpai$ aurwv- 
is translated pfr : Od(\i;<\>^ : flfl " frftifyOh • n<*»ft'>#;H: 

l/»(fO-. TR.] 

( 2 ) The following are of obscure derivation: Qtl\(l f name of a flower'; 
AIT "ostrich" (cf. ^"yLo)\ flflWl" "tempest"; £>C\? "domestic fowl";. 
"lfl "side" (cf. Dillmann's 'Lex: et supra) and «!»£; "basket": but the u in 
y°<K° "mire" seems to belong to the root; cf. &Llc. 

( 3 ) [But in 'LexJ, col. 1312, Djllmank represents %;££*%• 'ekemosynae % 
as a plural of fc&ty. tr.] 

§ 122. — 259 — 

lengthened by the tone( 1 ). Similarly, simple Feminines of the 
Passive Participle may also take the meaning of Abstracts, 
v. § 128. 

§ 122. (e) But besides these terminations, which in the last Abstract 
resort all depend upon the Adjective-ending «, Ethiopic has an ? orm8 ^ n 
additional Abstract ending, also accented, viz. &n or n&, which is and na. 
manifestly of pronominal origin, v. § 62 ( 2 ). As may be perceived 
from the other Semitic tongues, this termination — an — at one 
time produced Adjectives, and it was only in lengthening it to an 
or on that it came to be employed farther in the formation of 
Abstracts issuing from such Adjectives. Only a few traces have 
been retained in Ethiopic of the application of this ending in the 
formation of Adjectives, but examples are pretty common of its 
use in the production of Abstracts. As has been already pointed 
out (§ 62), the demonstrative word concerned was capable at first 
of being pronounced both as an and na. Ethiopic, — in this again 
richer than the other Semitic tongues — , has developed and pre- 
served both pronunciations even in the formation of Nouns, with 
a slight idiomatic variation of meaning, the nd-iorm of pronuncia- 
tion being the more common one. 

(a) The termination dn is commonly applied to Nominal 
Stems of the First simple form; and by means of this doubled, — 
inner and outer — , formation, stronger conceptional or notional 
words are derived: C/^hTr (reS'&n) "old age" from Cf^h', AU 
PTr "seniority" (Gr. Ad.); -flCy} "brightness", "light"; ff&m'i 
"authority"; <p-CfM "oblation"; /hAjfJ "bribe"; £-Cfi7 "dis- 
sertation"; #AV> "hatred"; Xlfft "covenant" ( 3 ). The only 
instance, still retained, of the employment of this termination 

O It may be that Offa^ "the tenth, or tithe" is formed in the 
same way, or else it stands for d/^^J&^f", like QOhffy "loud lament", for 
OOH^ID-^. On h^ and ^I|^ v. § 128. Gf. also Konig, p. 116 sq. 

( 2 ) Gf. Ewald, l Hebr. Spr; § 163, b. 

(») Farther: 6C.4"i, 9°6fH, KCfi, SAT*, »flW, 16H1', 

also tyf^/i "tar" {^A"Ja3)\ but Afl7 "tongue" is a very old word of a 

different formation (]1ts6, ^.Lli, [Assyr. U§dnu]); and flj&f'l'J "Satan" 

(^jliajLCu, ]b&) is a foreign word.— For the formation of these types cf. also 
Konig, p. 123 sq. 


— 260 — § 122. 

in the formation of words indicating persons, is met with in the 
foreign word 'tCT'Ti "interpreter". Sometimes on takes the 

place of an, as in H£«F> "oliveyard" (^j£>C)> and 0/**cT> "de- 
cade"*/ 1 ). In Amharic an usually passes into amQ), which is then 
used often to form adjectives (e. g. ft"79° " one wn0 nas large 
teeth"). — Even in Ethiopic, traces of this am are come upon: 

*J>fi;J«</° "bow" and "shepherd's crook" (from ■frft^, cf. (jUaU) ; 
and perhaps *hh9° "the morrow", "to-morrow" (Ex. 32,5; Josh. 3,5 ; 
Matt. 6,30) from M (tj^). 

((3) The termination net, also accented, is in much more fre- 
quent use, to derive from Nominal Stems of every kind fresh and 
final conceptional words, which express sometimes conditions and 
properties, but especially dignities, offices, age, standing, and so 
forth, and which answer mostly to our conceptional words in -ness 
-hood, -dom, -ship. Derivatives from Nominal Stems of the First 
simple form are exhibited, for example, in Chtl V "the princely dignity" 
(Cftfl); 'fltt-CI (bekuernd) "right of birth" (fltf-fT); hCII "old 

age" (KC7); 9°&W "lordship" (d3Jo); tyRFI "precedence" 
(&&9 )', Wi and £"W "health", "soundness"; dCfa "naked- 
ness"; *7dW "emancipation"; T7ft"V "fear". The it of the Pas- 
sive Part, has to be shortened into e before nd — AdAV "height" 
(le'elnd, A0«A); C1MIV "dampness", "humidity" (CflMl); M/h? 
"magnificence" (f|Q-/]h) ; 4»J^TftV "holiness"; T^4*S" "exactness", 
"accuracy" (Tfc4»); ^th^** "modesty" ftih^) ; l&Ct (geyernd) 
"position of a foreigner" (*7£C); 0D *il f i (wiusenna) "corruption" 
(from affair) ; <££<££<; "superabundance" (from <££■££•) ; *P A 
fl<bV "philosophy" (from ^Afr'P): — Tertiae infirmae: Oft*S" 
-essence" (UAtf>-); Afl-V "understanding"; /hA/i" "faculty of 
thinking"; b&; "equality" (d4«£) ; T'V. 1 ? "good health", "soundness"; 
fltfi>-V "solitude". Farther, the fundamental Nominal Stems con- 
cerned suffer occasionally still stronger abbreviation before this 
ending; /h9*K and /hflV (hesannd) "childhood" (W)), tytlhl 
and even ^fl 1 ? "seniority" (from 4»rt«ft); 9°ft*h < i' (mesfennd) 
"leadership", from <n>f|<j;'}; ^AMl 1 ? "princely dignity", from 

O O/^CV » j*A "Decalogue" (Hymnology). 

( 2 ) Isenbero, 'Gramm.' p. 33 [and Gmm, 'Gramm. elemj p. 15, Note 1].— 
Cf., in Hebrew, Ewald, l Hebr. SprS § 133 sq. 

§ 122. — 261 — ' 

""AMlO; ^"MlAV "intercession", from «K>flA; J^WA? 
"monastic life", from <n>tfift; 'J^Cfl^V and 'SClS^H "goodness", 
from *^4»^"- But in other words the vowels of the ground-word 
are retained, in a body, unaltered: A/J*V "seniority" (bjt*):, 00ft, 
A«? "Messiahship" ; mO/fl? "philosophy"; hlHjh^ "dominion", 
"superiority"; <P/]h£ ,< ? "singularity"; ft C7IO-? "ornament" (ftC 
*7<»-); O^CXiOhq "youth" ((D*CHflH); JCT7AV "virginity" (£-> 
*7A); -fcPft-W "theology"; T'JfcfcV "complete agreement"; 
O^J&T "mediatorship"; fc^A » *7<D-^V "state of orphanage", 
"pupillarity"; A.4* ■' £ftfl < i , "archiepiscopate", "patriarchate"; 
'flA*P 1 <w»*PdAV "eternity" ('the antiquity of days'); h^V : &JP 
AhV "the becoming God" (conversio in Deum) ; h«£i : /^CArV 
"the condition or quality of the Procession" (viz. 'of the Holy 
Ghost'); HA^Ay^ "eternity". Such words are derived even 
from Infinitives: -HlAfl^"? "canine nature"; ^hUJ&JtS' " tne con " 
dition of being robbed" (•HJJRJG'); ^JPftm-V "faint-heartedness" ; 
—and from Plural forms: Y\9°\W "Deity"; h&th&S "Judaism". 
^AdflJ"^ "boyhood" from ty^M, is a formation noteworthy by 
reason of the type it presents, inasmuch as the ending e is here 
resolved into ew( 2 ). — Instead of na, not (with the fern. •» appears 
in two instances: *7-flC < ? ; ih "slavery" (from "MIC) and Cftfl 1 ?^ 
"godlessness" (from Cflfl) Hen. 99,1 (104,9 Note)( 3 ). 

Diminutives have no special form in Ethiopic, and have no special 
therefore to be described by circumlocution, e. g. (1*70: *>K«ft "a f0Mnfor 
lambkin" (lit. 'a little lamb or sheep') Hen. 89,48. tive S; nor 

Compound words do not occur in the domain of conceptional compounds. 
words. It is true that the constituent parts of some very common 
Word-Groups and of Proper names are written together as one 
word, without being separated by points, like hlH^h'UdhC "the 
Supreme" (properly: 'Lord of the earth'); frm &?(!)' "mother 

of the living" ; hWidfa "horn-bill" (Deut. 14, 18 ^1L crassus, 

longus), — though, on the other hand, ao^^ : "Ifr "wax" — (lit. 
'sweetness of the comb'); TX&** A£ "scarlet"— (R 'purple or 

O So too ^Aft-fl? from "VM'fl and JP°d4»'0'? from "70«H1. 

( 2 ) The word flTH«? "necklace 1 ' is difficult to explain. 

( 3 ) According to HaliSvy, 'Revue criV, 1885, No. 13, p. 247 the termina- 
tions -Ma, -ndt must have made their way into Ge c ez from the Agau. 

— 262 — § 123. 

scarlet of the berry') ; but, inasmuch as the first word shows the 
regular type of the Construct state, these combinations cannot 
rank as true Compounds. Yet in stray Multiliteral Nominal Sterns^ 
Compound words or Compound roots seem to be met with, e. g. 
in J^'fldtf-A "wild-beasts' cage", "lasso" and ftihtfr- "silk" 
(the latter part of which is = isll). Noteworthy also are 
ftPCR "leek" (of which the latter part =bJS) and dT-fpC 


participles: § 123. The foregoing account shows that special types exist 

G eneral 
Bemarks : 

in Ethiopic for each separate Yerbal Stem, according to which it 

comparative m ight form its own Participle: — the types namely of the Active 

nlgniar and Passive Participles, described in §§ 109, a and 108, c, for 

participial g t j i . those which are formed by prefixing <w» (88 114 and 118) 

Forms. ' "* L ou 

for St. 1,2, 3, 11,1—3, IV, 1— 3 of the Tri-radical roots, and St, I, 
II, IV and V of the Multiliteral; and those which are described 
in § 117 for the Reflexive Stems III of Triliteral and Multiliteral 
verbs, as well as for a few other Stems. Yet we can hardly desig- 
nate all these types as Participles proper, for they by no means 
admit of being derived from every verb. It depends always upon 
the usage of the language whether, in the case of the several verbs, 
Participle-resembling forms, — and which of them — , have been 
established and retained. These forms, besides, have in most 
cases lost the force of a pure Participle, and have become either 
Adjectives or Nomina Agentis. This explains also why so many 
of them have taken the external termination i (§ 117 sq). Besides, 
special types of the Participle Passive have almost entirely disap- 
peared in all Derived Stems of Active meaning, with the general 
decay of the inner Passive formation — (yet v. §§ 111, 5; 114 ad 
fin.): — Such Stems were forced to have recourse to the Simple 
Stems, when the purpose was to form Participles of Passive 
meaning^. §§ 108, 111,6; 112,5). Even the Participle which oc- 
curs the most frequently of all, — viz. the Passive Part, of the 
Simple Stem — , by no means continues to be formed from every 
root. This failure in Ethiopic of a regular Participial formation 

a Finite 

§ 123. — 263 — 

was fomented (1) by the peculiar use of the Infinitive (§ 181), compen- 
through which the Participle could in many cases be replaced, as ^!! B pa t J* y 
for instance in OrhlJC " s J&T'l'fh "and going, or as they go Gerund; 
(lit: l m their going'), they shall sound the trumpets" Josh. 6,8; P hra 8 is in 
flftT/fi! (D%h " ne arrived, after he had come forth" Josh. 10,9 — , 
and (2) by the rise of a practice of indicating the Participial con- 
ception by periphrasis in a finite tense. The defect, inherent in 
the Semitic Participle, of being attached to no sphere of time, was 
thus compensated, in the course of striving to be clear, by the 
language gradually coming to represent the Participle through a 
periphrasis in the proper tense-forms. 

The case is quite otherwise with the Ethiopic Infinitive. It infinitives: 
is regularly formed from all the separate Stems, and in fact not ^l^ 1 ™ 
merely in one type but in several. The Infinitive expresses the Nominal 
pure conception of the action of the Verb without distinction of and 
tenses or persons, and to that extent it ranges itself alongside of ^"j^ 
the Abstract Nominal Stems or Conceptional words ; but, on the or Gerund, 
other hand, it partakes of the Verbal character in respect that it 
conforms to the Verb throughout all the Stems, and produces as 
many forms as there are Stems in it, and also in respect that it is 
capable of having Objects of its own. In consequence of possessing 
this twofold nature, it inclines, in the different Semitic languages, 
sometimes to the Noun, sometimes to the Verb, — more to the 
Noun, in Arabic for instance, — more to the Verb, in Hebrew. In 
this matter Ethiopic has taken a course of its own by constructing 
different types for the Infinitive in its different functions. It has 
Infinitive-forms which possess completely the power and indepen- 
dent character of a Noun. They may enter into all relations in a 
sentence which are open to a Noun, may become Subject or Qb- 
ject, may subordinate to themselves other Nouns in the Genitive 
casef), may have themselves preceded by Prepositions or by other 
words in the Construct state, may be specially determined by an 
Adjective (e. g. *flH*1 * lt9°PC) Hen. 8, 2), or may even,— like 

( x ) They do not so often subordinate to themselves objects in the ac- 
cusative, after the pattern of their verbs: e. g. Gen. 6, 7; Deut. 5, 22. 

( 2 ) [Flemming, 'Das Buck Henoch 1 , reads in this passage COWl * Ctl'i'i : 
0flj& ! <0*flH"'l « <D\ta°ah - , instead of Dillmann's reading WWl • 
CflO^s OflJK--* <!WHfr"V * H$P°JP— , thus referring the adjective >flH") 

— 264 — § 123. 

the Hebrew Infinitive Absolute or the Arabic Mutlaqi 1 ), — be 
subordinated in the Accusative to their own Verb by way of special 
qualification. But from this Nominal Infinitive, as we shall hence- 
forth call it, Ethiopic distinguishes, by a special form, the Verbal 
Infinitive, which stands closer to the Verb, and which we, following 
the Latin terminology, shall call the Gerund. Of course, being an 
Infinitive, it has the form of a Noun, and as such may have an 
Accusative. It does not, however, take the place of a noun, but 
that of a verb, and properly it is nothing else than the verb de- 
prived of Tense ( 2 ). It occurs only as a special qualification to a 
finite verb, which contains the principal action of the sentence, and 
it is subordinated to that verb in the accusative for the purpose 
of adding a secondary action. As the time of the secondary or 
accompanying action is determined by the tense of the principal 
verb, the secondary action is given without any time-form, that is, 
it is put in the Infinitive. But it is exactly like an ordinary verb 
in being obliged to enclose within itself the acting Subject, while 
it is completed after the manner of other Nouns by a Suffix pro- 
noun, which in this case always is to be regarded as a Subject 
Genitive, e. g.\ mCi°%P' It/"* &110 "and at his hearing, the 
king was filled with terror", i. e. "when the king heard (it), he 
was struck with terror"; JMH^J"* A\ f ftG fto ' "they shall blow the 
trumpets, in their going", i. e. "they shall sound the trumpets as 
they go". We might call this Infinitive also the Infinitive Absolute, 
just as in other languages we speak of a Participle Absolute. By 
means of the formation of this Infinitive, Ethiopic diction has 
gained a peculiar brevity and grace; but the similar employment 
of the Infinitive Absolute in Hebrew and of the Infinitive Construct 
with b in cases like *\btib *lfcK*} — shows that in this it has merely 
developed a capability which underlies the Infinitive in other Semitic 
languages too( 3 ). 

to the foregoing noun, and reading the last word as a finite verb, 3 rd pi. 
Perf. tk.] 

( 1 )[ — the"objective complement, which is called by the Arab grammarians 

lo-Ua+J! OjaA-J^ ^ e absolute object", Wright's 'Ar. Gramm! 3 rd ed. vol. II 
(Cambridge 1898), p. 54 C. tr.] 

( 2 ) In some of the cases cited in Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr,' § 280, a, b, it is 
paralleled by the Infinitive Absolute in Hebrew. - ! 

( 3 ) Ewaliv, 'Hebr. 8pr.' % 280, d. 

§ 124. — 265 — 

§ 124. A few Abstract forms, of those which have been de- certain Ab- 
scribed already among the Nominal Stems, may be used readily for ^'meim™* 
the Infinitive, at least for the Nominal Infinitive, seeing that it is em P lQ y ed 
merely a Conceptional Word or Abstract, derived from the Verb. Nominal 
Several of those Abstract forms, in fact, are ordinary forms of the Infinitive 
Infinitive in the other Semitic languages. In particular, the forms, 
described in § 111, a, a&f2, may directly supply the place of an 
Infinitive, as also may the Feminine formations in § 106, e. g. 
<n»-i»> "to die" (Gen. 35, 18), flK^ "to enter" (Matt. 19, 24), 
and several other forms, e. g. 9°-Wh "to come" (Josh. 13, 5). 
Cf. also: "l'tthfy? (Luke 10, 35), 0h*a°* Ex. 5, 20, 9° A 
iTlVh: tf-ft- Sap 12,16, -UCIfc ■ JlfcA* i Ml-r i -t£A: (D<i 
A-Wr 2 Esr. 8, 22, </D<PdA * blh - \U?0- (F. N.). For the 
Infinitive proper the language has meanwhile contrived special 
Abstract-formations, which very seldom indeed have become actual 
Nouns. At the same time this distinction has been established 
between the two classes of Infinitives, viz. that the Gerund in- 
variably takes an inner formation only, while the Nominal Infinitive 
takes outer Abstract-terminations, just as they are used with 
Nominal Stems. 

1. The formation of the Gerund conforms to the type which Formation 
is described in § 109, 1 (cf. therewith § 106). It is contrived by T °l2we 
inserting after the second-last radical a long and accented I, which Proper:- 

1 The 

in the last resort is connected with the e of the Subjunctive of Gerund in 
Transitive verbs. the several 


In St. 1, 1 of the Tri-radical verb the first radical, — in ac- 
cordance with § 109, b — , has always the vowel a, and the form 
■runs: tf»-fcG (matir)C) "to cut", flA^d "to eat", -}A/£ "to go 
on", -}3/7 "to abandon", 4-fcA " to kill "> 04"-C "to bind together". 
No difference is made between Verbs of transitive and those of 
intransitive pronunciation. In roots mediae gutturalis the a of the 
first radical is always dulled into e: {F*rh«G "to pity", £"fc*J 
"to escape", j(\l A "to say", fc^A "to be able"; tlKt "to be 
unable", ft^A "to ask", «1%C "to moan", fr^Ti "to take", «7rh./** 
"to turn to". The form from roots med. gem. is always resolved: 
*fl/fl "to speak", rfrfc^ "to search into", nfutl "to touch". With 

O Cf. Trumpp, "p. 540.— In TigriSa, according to Schreiber, § 88, the 
Gerund even with Suffixes has always the accent on the first syllable. 

— 266 — § 124. 

roots primae vocalis the stronger form is made use of: flBAJt "to 
give birth to", (D%h "to go forth", wd^ "to spit"; and in those 
which are in addition med, guttur.: fD-frfl "to give", 0>«fh/lf "to 
flow", <D-"VP "to devour". Roots middle u take always the strong 
form: J^JT "to sleep", $<£9° "to stand", rh«£C "to go", fl^h 
"to come", <id<£4» "to become hot" Job 6,17. Those with middle 
i either do the same (in older Manuscripts frequently), e. g. a°$JV 
"to turn", 1ft.fl "to be up early", or follow, as they more 
usually do, the type given in § 52: tfo£<p (mayet, cf. Trumpp, 
p. 540), 7£fl, w£,9° "to set", (/££■ "to rob", fl£^- "to pass the 
night", rh£fl>" "to live". Boots final u also take the strong form: 
■f*(iJD* "to follow", 0-5.IIH "to pass over"; those with final l main- 
tain here and there, it is true, the strong form as in 0%$* "to rot" 
Acts 12, 23, [£<5£ "to bear fruit" Kebra Nag. 106 a 10], and 
particularly when, by appending a case-vowel or suffix pronoun, 
the last radical is drawn to the syllable following; — but usually 
the type in § 52 is reproduced: fl^JR (sateyye) "to drink", [with 
suff. pron. fl-ftp-fl"*, Kebra Nag. 138 b 2], fl A£ "to become anti- 
quated", rh4ȣ "to gnash the teeth", !DjtJ& "to lay or place", 
<£.,£"£ "to pay back"; so with those roots which are at the same 
time med. giittur.: 0>*#£"to burn", Ch£ "to see" (with suffix pron. 
also ChJFC) Hen. 107,3 [cf. Kebra Nag. p. XVI]); but a\6pi 
}<£f| Sir. 30, 16; and so with roots which are at the same time 
med. gem. : 7»££ "to flee" Hen. 52, 7. 

In St. II, 1 the first radical, as in the Subjunctive, is always 
bound to the prefixed Stem-sign ft in one syllable, with the vowel 
a between; the second has %\ and in roots with final 1 the peculiar 
formation of St. 1, 1 is repeated. Examples: — hh^C "to know", 
KMt'-^ "to thank", "to give thanks", htltK^ "to corrupt" 
Hen. 19,2, ftft-fc^ "to neglect", Hebr. 2,3, Mt<»* "to wither" 
Ps. 89,6, h&W, KlD-"|.K, M6C, Jtfl/h h^5 Mr from 
ft4><7D; t\%9° from fatro & c . 

In St. Ill, 1, after the Personal sign of the Subjunctive has 
been removed, the Stem-Preformative and the first radical take each 
the vowel a, and the second radical takes v. in other respects the 
peculiarities of roots middle * and final i (and those of guttural or 

( x ) [Instead of Cft,f*" Flemjiing reads, in his edition of Henoch, in this 
passage* WhCh?*- ™-] 

§ 124. — 267 — 

aspirate roots) are repeated: ^a^djlx "to be fulfilled", "t"H<5K 
"to be sown", *f"*Ti<i!,C "to be ashamed", •f , <n»^«p "to be turned, 
converted" Luke 22, 32, but also '\*w*%.a\\\ G. Ad. 17, 8 [and 
't*tm$,a\\\aO' Kebra Nag. 120 b 22], ^fctfih "to long for" 
Numb. 16, 15, -Va*hjSh 2 Pet. 3, 11, +1)19°, -MltC +*»%, 
i'm^UP, ■f"fn tf ld> i m i»61P Chrest. 72,1; mediae gutturalis: «f , '7 
^Z** "to withdraw (intr.)", -fYiXXi Sap. 14, 16, [Z"e5m Nag. 
135 a 24]; and from +9°dO, *t*9°%& "to be angry". In St. IV, 1 
the first radical has the same pronunciation as in the Subjunctive : 
hhWUh "to rejoice", hll'VW/M "to bend the knees". The 
Infinitive-forms, besides, of Stems II, 1, III, 1 and IV, 1, which 
upon the whole do not occur so often as those of St. 1, 1, are not 
yet sufficiently well supported. 

In like manner the Infinitive of the Intensive Stem has 
hitherto been but seldom met with in the form I, 2 ; but it may 
be easily formed from the Subjunctive, which has always a after 
the first radical, modified into e in the case of roots med. guttur. 
It is distinguished from the Infinitive of 1, 1 merely by the doubling 
of the middle radical: *ifju "to perceive", "to behold" 2 Cor. 5, 19, 
&&J° "to finish" John 17, 4, foofc'} "to rule over" Esth. 3, 14, 
1. AApcr. ; 9°V1C "to teach". Even from roots middle % it is formed 
just as in the case of 1,1: m£«jf» "to know exactly" Ps. 21, 18, 
Jas. 1, 24, [along with flifr4», v. Kebra Nag., p. XVII]. Of still less 
frequent occurrence is the Infinitive of II, 2, e. g. hUtUC "to 
recall to memory", h<n>h,C "to test" 1 Cor. 11, 28. That of 
St. 111,2 is more common: ^A^C "to be united" Hen. 19, 1, 
"h^h^C "to be tempted", +wij(D* "to become flesh" Hymnol. 
■Musei Brit, and so too 1WH, 'M'tft', ^0 V^ +&/U&-, "M 
&d, *J"fl>tl,A; from roots med. guttur.: ■f-A'^.A "to be exalted" 
Ps. 87, 16, -f-JPfcC "to be instructed", -f-ff^C "to be tortured", 
*KXh "to ride'^ 1 ). From St. IV, 2, e. g.\ &A-MJ&A "to prefer" 

The Infinitive of the Influencing -Stem has not yet been 
vouched for in St. I, 3 or II, 3, but it could without doubt be 
formed. From St. 111,3 we have: — i^fl.ft "to be assembled 
together", -J-AUJR. "to play", 'f-"/£<p "to buy" Gen. 43,2, ^ 

O Of. also: +f»hj} Eph. 6, 15; ^0<gG Numb. 5,6; -|<&fc(0- 
2 Pet. 1,21; -f-ft^fl)- Hebr. 11, l;'>H|»fc? Hebr. 11,35; +£"£& Ps. 64,11. 

— 268 — § 125. 

XiX "to take counsel together" Matt. 27, 7, *f' < P«ft/ M "to contend" 
Job 35, 2, -f«h,?JP for 'Mn,^J p "to fabricate with skill" Sap. 13,11: 
From St. IV, 3 : hl\'1'<h a %9 "to tire one's self out" Luke 15, 8, 
hh-fSMUD* "to prepare" Josh. 9,2 0. 

From Multilateral Roots : St. I: «f"P42T "to break in pieces", 
"to crush" Luke 9, 39, <»7rt/> "to perish", 'Ht'KC* "to knock" 
Luke 12, 36, ^C7^9° "to interpret", ttXb "to be terrified", T> 
A.A "to distort", H°<kth "to put in fetters", -f-f^Hi "to mix", 
(Gadla Lalibala, ed. Perritchon, Paris 1892, p. 39, 1. 19), */»7£"£ 
"to linger or tarry" Matt. 25,5, %<g<D- "to take captive" Eph. 4,8; 
Ps. 67,19: St. II: — h^t^'d "to reduce to distress", [fttf»hVfl 
"to double" Kebra Nag. 96 a 3], MArt^ (with Suff. Pron.) "to 
forgive" 2 Cor. 5, 19, h(M.A "to remove" Chrest. 73,7 [fc££%£- 
and h&R&g: "to add" Xe&ra Nag. 12b 16 & var.]: St. Ill:— 
, t , tf D *>'S/fl "to be brought into distress", i*<w»C?*-'H "to lean upon", 
WtLfh "to be mixed", ^^/h "to be put in fetters" ; -MAfl/fl 
"to be veiled", -ft^Oh "to be taken captive", -hT^^Ji "to be 
deferred", 'f , H» l ?fcfl** "to recount to one another" Gad. Lalib. 39,12 : 
St. V:— M&tijb "to spread out", M^b^JBh "to be devout", 
Ji'Jm'flm/fl "to drop", K71A« , 7 "to assemble together", "to keep 
company with" 1 Cor. 5,4. 
2. The § 125. 2. The Nominal Infinitive usually has a special form. 

innniHve ^ ^ true ^ n at i n ^ ne Simple Ground-Stem the form described in 
in the seve- g 124 serves also for cases in which the Infinitive is used rather 

ral Stems. ,.. i-i-i • 

as a .Noun, and it is employed in that meaning lar oitener than 
the special Nominal Infinitive-form, though that form can be framed 
from this stem too. But in the remaining Stems the Substantive- 
use of that first form is exceedingly rare. In all these Stems the 
Nominal Infinitive much prefers to assume a special form, con- 
trived by means of an outer Abstract-termination. Even St. 1, 1 may 
take a form of the same kind. The termination employed is ot> 
or in abbreviated guise 6, § 121, and it always has the accent 
(Trijmpp, p. 540). The formation itself in St. 1, 1 is different from 
that which prevails in the other Stems. 

In St. I, 1 ot is simply attached as an Abstract-termination 
to the type of the Gerund, e. g. from thW " to build", rhfcfl^. 
In the same way: — Wkfl^ "to preserve" Ps. 18,12, h a i, t t : t "to 

( 1 ) Other examples are found in Ex. 18, 16, and Deut. 11, 14. 

§ 125. — 269 — 

believe" Matt. 13,58, t^K^ "to help" Ps. 21,20, -Vty^ "to 
seek", Vfljl 1 ^ "to speak", mdf*^ "to come down" Hen. 63, 10, 
rt<C#'"|- "to support", 't'dfHr "to follow" John 13, 36, Ifl.^, 
fllArh^, MP*, ISU**, h"*.** Gen. 48,10, Rev. 5,3, KA.C* 
Matt. 12,29, 0<gM-Deut. 2,3, tfT^O^ Tob. 12,8, -MUf^ Numb.7,1, 
lIL** Deut. 17,16, -IflU^ Ex. 2,3, fl<e^ 1 Kings 7,13, Sir. 42,6 : 
mediae gutturalis: — 9°*Ll* : t "to spare", hVLA**^ "t° be able", 
tlKtt' " not to be able", h'ltf^ "to take", CfcP"^ "to see", 
Gthjfr't' "to recoil". — With radical ? in the middle: — 7J&fl"lh "to 
be early up" Ps. 126, 3, h££>")h "to tread" Hen. 4, but also in an 
abbreviated form XU^ GL Ad. 22,11, ȣfn^ "to turn" Org. 
With 2 as final radical: "VCP"^ "to choose", Oftf"^" "to requite". 
This Nominal Infinitive-form of the first Stem is, however, almost 
never used except when Suffix pronouns are applied. For seeing 
that in accordance with § 123 the verbal form with suffix pronoun 
has the force of a Gerund (e. g. in 0*fc(lff°« "in their keeping" or 
"by their keeping", f|dP" Sir. 30, 16), the language distinguishes 
by a special form those cases in which the Infinitive with Suff. 
pron. is not to have that sense, so that, e. g. O^A^f-fl 1 *' means 
"their keeping", i. e. either "the fact that they keep", or — "the 
fact that they are kept". The abbreviated form in o does not be- 
long to Stem 1,10. 

The remaining Stems of the Triliteral roots and all the Stems 
of the Multiliterals form their Nominal Infinitive from the Sub- 
junctive ( 2 ) by throwing off the personal sign and attaching the 
Abstract-termination ot or o, the a of the second radical being 
replaced in the Reflexive Stems by e ; i is very rarely met with 
after the second radical. Between Forms in ot and in o there is 
no difference in meaning, but merely a phonetic difference origin- 
ally. The shortened form of expression — o is employed when there 
is no special reason calling for the other form, and it is then retained 
even( 3 ) when the Infinitive enters the Construct state, as in Y\9° 
All* a\p%- "idolatry" ('the worshipping of an idol'), hh9°G- 
+h9°&JT Sap. 8, 8, hh9°C-- ¥?* 1 Esr. 2, 11, WW?* : K«PA 
J^f Bar. 4, 10. The original and longer form in ot regularly 

0) Yetv. Deut. 15,10 fl>«VL0- 

( 2 ) V., however, Konig, p. 163. 

( 3 ) Differing in this from Aramaic. 

— 270 — § 125. 

appears before the Suff. Pron. as in ftfcV* h^YlG'th "he could 
not tempt thee", and it is also occasionally used besides instead 
of the shortened form, particularly when it is required to denote 
clearly the Construct state or the Accusative, — which cannot be 
distinguished in the other form. Neither of the two forms — ot, o 
— can be used in the sense of a Gerund. 

Stem 1, 2 : JffC "to look", MM "to transgress", Vftrh (nas- 
seho) "to feel penitent", h-'JT "to give judgment", mfl "to be 
wise", (DAtf 1 "to exchange", (DC? 9 "to throw", f »flfl "to exult", 
f a>*lT "to be gentle", m£# "to search closely", *^AP* "to reflect 
upon", ftAP" "to pray", rhftP "to lie", l/Af "to be"; but mediae 
gutturalis: 9°VG "to teach" 1 Cor. 9,14. With ot: WGfo <»A 
fn^, H9°^, UA? 1 ^ Chi est. 45,20, JPUC^O &c. 

Stem 1,3: (\C\* and nClfl^ "to bless", «fCC and "tCG^ 
"to found", A/hfP and A/M^ "to lament". 

Causative Stems:— St. II, 1 : httG and hG&G^ "to love", 
htlth-f- "to seduce", hC9°H° "to be tranquil", hh9°G "to know", 
}W>"}?* "to make few or small", ftTGP" "to take possession of", 
hClP "to open", ftCfl^P- "to water", hWh^, hTdf*^, ^9° 
6P, hCO*% Gr- Ad. 116,11, hVh*, hi **, hfoOhfi and 
Krh^ Sap. 5,11, Jttl# I Kings 3,3; but h^H° and M»«p^ 
"to place", hlH , M«T, JWl/» St. 11,2: YxM\? and KA-fl 
{P^ "to instruct", JirhAP" "to remind", fcAAfr* "to remove", 
hoo^C Judith 8, 26, KiP^f^ Chrest. 44,28, Ml£<?ih '• Wtt 
G-. Ad. 23, 8 ( 2 ); mediae gutturalis: hl\bt\r "to exalt", ft^ 
&.£ "to humiliate". St. II, 3: M+fl and M4M3" "to show 

Reflexive Stems: — St. 111,1: -hA-flfl and -f-A-fl^ "to 
dress"; mediae gutturalis: 'hG'l$ p "to open (toewf.)"; 4?Trf*'h and 
i*'}/*'^ from WfU "to rise, to be raised"; ^fl£-, ^rtJt^- and 
"hrtJWMh "to be expelled"; *MJ£f- and . »|-|J£Hh "to neglect"; 
•faofrffi Chrest. 44, 28 "to turn (neut.)", i*ao(D*h, 'i m fHB'h : t' 
and •faof^Y^ "to be conquered"; 'f'+'JF" "to serve"; 't'Ch?* 
"to appear"; "f^T?* "to answer"; 1*(Dty£ and 't(D^C : t "to be 
hewn"; *<{.Afn Chrest. 44,24; G. Ad. 11, 19; 127,16; i*aoCJ* 
Chrest. 44,26; ^10^^ G. Ad. 24,8; *f-flVflO Prov. 8,5; ^^^ 

( 2 ) V., besides, Deut. 31,27, Note. 

( 2 ) Yet v. hli&ptlr Gal. 3, 8, 18, with transition from II, 2 to II, 1. 

§ 126. — 271 — 

G. Ad. 53,16. St. 111,2: -^diRt* and -j-rhM* "to be re- 
newed"; 'frh'tttt "to obey"; 'hiP ??' "to become flesh"; fvnM* 
and i'm^^ "to make one ' s self certain"; W1V and *h0*? 
f^r "to refrain"; *t*<£.<D*fl; mediae gutturalis: 1*AflA", "MMi^r 
+£1)/^ '^9 ^/ , and ■f-{P l / , ;-and in both Stems with roots which 
are both primae and mediae gutturalis: •f'MlP "brotherly bearing", 
-hMtf^ "to be continued". St. 111,3: W«IG and WIG^ 
"to converse together"; -MUA , t&lh\ "I^D-lf; ^floW^ 
Chrest. 45, 26 ; * AllHh G. Ad. 123, 12 ; -M/)h A^ i» 136, 28 &c. 
Causative-Reflexive Stems. In St. IV, 1 the two modes of 
pronouncing the Perfect (§ 98) again make their appearance: ftft 
'H14"-/' and Kft-MM*/ 1 ^; Kfti-ChP- and fcft-hCfcHh JiJH* 
JWl^, Jtft-MWl£4' and htlPh-d?- St. IV, 2: hAWW and 
fcA+OW*; hA-MM and htl^^^ St. IV, 3: hft^P-n^ 

and hftiVMlJ^; Mtf-<ha>-|i; fcft-l-<h£Ji; hA-I^AP; WW* 

iftt* Numb. 26,63; [KA+flrV -STe&ra Nag. 50 a 1.]. 

Multiliteral Roots:— St. I: fl/HP and Q/WP^, OflHJ&fP and 
OOh?,?*^, ♦T4»fl l and 4»T4»m^, HClflHh T*fr/Hh St. II: 
K^WP and K^g-nTh KTV-fHT, K"?fl?, fcAMP and ft* 
flJfcHh hM%? &. Ad. 137,22 and hhQtyP* i&id. 108,12; 
135,19; 137,21, K^h^p-; h£-A4»A#, KC^ft^, St. Ill, 1 : 
i-<w»^Jtn and ^aD-iRQ^, -t-%(V?>, -frhttlfl, ^M?, i-&-V 
Clf, ■HkCWj+M+AfrA-; St. Ill, 3: ^rt^hft- and l*rt«7?i/Hh 
-J- A Vfc? 1 , -hOlAa^A- , [St. IV, 3 : htli-mttQ Zebra Nag. 55 b 23] ; 
St. V: M+A^A" Chrest. 76,1 and M+A^A"^, MfihP and 
MAAP*, fc-JATm, h-JAAArh, MlCIG*, MVl^ 



§ 126. Semitic languages have long since given up the dis- T he iw» 
tinction between a Personal and a Non-Personal (or Neuter) in ®^ n c d u ™; 
objects of perception and representation^). Thanks to a lively and 
imagination, the Semites have rather conceived every thing that Signa of the , 
exists as being alive, and have ranked it under one or other of the feminine. 
contrasted conditions of Masculine and Feminine, natural to every- 

( a ) Y. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' § 172, a. 

— 272 — § 1.26. 

thing which exhibits life. Even inanimate objects, facts and ideas are 
thought of as either masculine or feminine, or both together, just in 
accordance with the view which the genius of a people has taken of 
them severally. Like the rest of these languages Ethiopic knows 
only the two genders. To express what other languages regard as 
Neuter, the Feminine gender may, it is true, appear in Semitic 
tongues, inasmuch as that gender is the more feebly personal one, 
compared with the Masculine : — In fact pure ideas (Abstracts) 
are usually conceived of as procreative and productive powers, and 
are therefore expressed in the Feminine form. But on the other 
hand, there are also many facts (or things) and ideas, which do 
not impress the mind as being so decidedly weak and feminine as 
to call for an expressly feminine designation. Their names ac- 
cordingly remain without any special feminine marking ; and seeing 
that the Masculine gender, — as will immediately be shown, — is 
similarly unprovided with a special marking, these names, as 
regards outward form, coincide with entities, concerns and notions, 
which are decidedly regarded as Masculine. Thus it comes about 
that both Masculine and Feminine serve to replace the Neuter of 
other languages. And this is shown not only in the Stem-formation 
of Substantives, but also when the Neuter of Adjectives or Demon- 
stratives has to be expressed in Ethiopic. For this purpose some- 
times the Masculine, sometimes the Feminine is used, — more fre- 
quently the former however, and particularly in the class of 
Demonstratives, and in that of words compounded with Preposi- 
tions, e. g.—lia^h'^ "that is", \\aofi "such (a thing)" Matt. 9,33, 
h*»Hh "such" Josh. 11,15, 'WW? "this" Ps. 41,4; 61,11, ^9°^ 
*it ' Til* "after this" Josh. 24, 30, fl)<TftA : Tffc •• 'J-5. "besides 
this"; fttf^-f: "the same things" Matt, 15,18, tf-/V- "all" Josh. 23,14. 
More rarely the Fern, is found, e. g. \\^ s fl-fc "this happened", 
or the two together: fDflli: flrh"fc*t* "and only herein" Gen. 34,22, 
H "this" Ex. 17, 14. Even in the case of Adjectives the Masc. is 
often sufficient: — >%C "the good" (or "what is good") Matt. 19,17, 
-flH-1 •" fld£" "much besides" 2 Cor. 11,28, Ml«£ "evil", "what is 
evil" Ps. 33, 14, "1^9° "what is terrible" Ps. 105, 22, u»*T£ "what 
is good" Ps. 24,14, ^J\°% "that which is first" (occurring very 
frequently). But the Fern, also occurs often: — V**l&Y "(any) 

O °f- fllfl^^ "suckling". 

§ 126. — 273 — 

good thing", "well-being" Josh. 21,43; Hen. 20,5, H-fcs 6K'fl : t 
"this troublesome matter" Ex. 10,7, "Mlfl^s (Dhlrtl^ "male and 
female" Gen. 1,27; Mark 10,6, Kb/fi Of 'i't » i*"??* "evil for 
good" G-en. 44,4,6; cf. also tlftftl^* *flli*1 "much roughness" — 
Chr. Horn. 30. When the Neuter comprises much detail, the 
plural is generally employed, taking usually the Masculine gender 
with a Pronoun, and the Feminine in case of an Adjective: Oft.^^h 
"great things", "what is great" Ps. 105,22, di^fl^ "what was 
new" Hen. 106, 13, (cf. Gadla 'Aragaivl 6 a 1 : Guidi, 1895), d&fl^ 
"what is astonishing" Gen. 49, 3, ^ft-Ai^: "what is secret" Ps. 43, 23, 
tyRtl-fri &H.tlt "the holiest of all" Hebr. 9,3 &c. 

As regards the denotation of the two Genders, the Masculine 
has no special termination. Its distinctive sign consists merely in 
the absence of the Feminine termination. The Feminine has for 
sign a termination which is applied to the Stem, and which origin- 
ally had the sound at(^). In Ethiopic, however, just as in the other 
Semitic languages, this termination has experienced several phone- 
tic changes. On the one hand the £-sound is obscured into a mere 
breathing, under the influence of which the a is lengthened into an 
unalterable a, (only rarely changed into at), the breathing itself 
disappearing (§47)( 2 ). This termination d( s ) is not the usual one 
in Ethiopic, it is true, but still it occurs frequently in the class of 
Nouns derived from Conceptional Roots, and in the Prepositional 
class: — In one case it has even penetrated into the Stem (§ 129): 
In a few cases it is still farther dulled into e. On the other hand, 
by parting with the a, the termination at is shortened into t alone (*), 
which attaches itself intimately to the Stem. This termination, — 
rare in Arabic, more common in Hebrew, — is the ordinary Femi- 
nine termination in Ethiopic; and in particular it is employed 
almost universally in the Feminine form of the Adjective. 
A farther Feminine termination I, contrasted with the Mascu- 
line u, is peculiar to the Pronoun, and will be described along 
with it. 

( x ) On the origin of this termination cf. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' § 173, a. 

( 2 ) But v. Praetoeius, 'Amh. Spr.\ p. 167. 

( 3 ) Hebr. H-, Arab. ^.1, Aram. «—, C; v. however ZDMG XV, 
p. 145. 

( 4 ) Just as in the Verb, v. supra p. 203, § 101,2. 

— 274 — § 127 

Feminine § 127. 1. Coming now to points of detail in the use of these 

Endings, terminations and the mode of their attachment to the Stem, we 

and the 

Mode of direct attention, in what follows, first to the usage in the case of 

theirAttach- ^ , , . . 
meat in the SubstdmtlVeS. 

case of ^ 27ie full, original termination at is applied chiefly to the 

tiree:- Second simple form, described in § 106, a, of Conceptional words 
Ending at. o ^ aQ j^^rye type, — although, even in this class, in certain deriv- 
atives from roots primae vo calls, the pure consonantal termina- 
tion t has asserted itself (T"?*h 4V**^h *7*fl^hj Oii't), side by 
side with other forms of the type G£")h C4**3f" C 1 )- Apart from 
these, the full ending occurs but rarely now, and that chiefly with 
Stems of the First simple form (§ 105), in which of course the 
Feminines in question cannot any longer be distinguished in all 
cases with accuracy from feminine Abstract-forms which have 
become Names of things (§ 106): — JRT*7>^h "bat", R^ffi "travel- 
ling-pouch or wallet", and several others enumerated in § 105, 

a. f.\ also frao^ "garlic" (nwf, *<>, Jbooi); from *}jF° (§ 105) 

Ojtfjjfy "year"; similarly V4»^" "female camel" (Kali), ty 00 ^ "ell", 
and dfl^J- "shrub" (from flii "tree") ( 2 ). From Stems of the Second 
simple Abstract-formation (§ 107, /), the Feminine type which, — 
in contrast to the Predicative words of the same formation (§ 128) — , 
ends always in the at sound, is of very rare occurrence : fl^h'h 
"blessing", ■f"/V<D"ih "succession". This termination is also met with 
in other cases, though but seldom; from the form given in § 108, o : 
— &d$*t "cake" (as well as R^4»)» tD^d/t* "lappet", and an older 
word ^ft.V^ "cheese" (ny£$), shortened into •7'flV^; from an 
Infinitive (§ 109,6): — "hahh^ "sin" (foreign word?, "VpK "to 
sin" Hen. 20,6); from a Participle (§ 109, a): — ix&ft (for sariat) 

"spider" (]/fi"lt, cf. c\\&) ; from several Common nouns formed from 
roots med. gem. by prefixing ao (§ 116, a) in Arabic fashion ( 3 ): 

Q) Cf. Philippi, 'Beitr. z. Ass.\ II, p. 379. — On the accentuation v. 
Trumpp, p. 540 sq. 

( 2 ) On (\>(\h : l' "relatives" cf. § 121, d; *fl}^« "present" (JU»?) and 

^rj.-lf. "basket" {cf. Ixi.) are of obscure origin: ghT^ "slaughter-house" 
is glSLfe.; «|»<f^ "sting" is sUS' (nij?): ID*-> ov 7 k!oc, &Isj, '£&£, 

( 3 ) Ewald, <Gr. Ar.' § 434. 

§ 127. — 275 — 

""fcA^ "tent" (iUJLo); aowtf? "foundation" (instead of the 

strong form tfO/^G^)', ""ft/V^ "widowhood" (cf. JLS 5 i). Of 
Multiliteral and foreign words we meet with, e. g.\ R^J-Th "satyr" 

(xitjJLo), avqtff and oo&tt, (nllip) "candlestick". 

(&) The blunted Vowel termination a is in very frequent use to Ending 
form Abstracts from derived Stems (§ 1 1 1, a). These are distinguished, «• 
by their heavier termination, from the corresponding forms in at 
coming from the Simple Stem, like € 7 v fl<£ ; Jh ^Affl^"- The termina- 
tion a is on rare occasions found with the Abstract-form from the 
Simple Stem (§ 106 sq.), and then mostly it interchanges with at: 
Tf^P and 7^7^ "lack"; 1<£& and 7^+^ "half"; %&% and 
thTr&*t "the building" and "the process of building" ; as well as "}*•$ 
and 7*f ^- "flight"; ^ (Judges 19,5, Note) "piece" = <p^; ao^\ 
"oath". It is employed also now and then to form stronger Ab- 
stracts from Nominal Stems of the First simple formation (§ 105) : 
h9°C> "salutation", <^^iA (as well as (m ( h\) "oath", afahp "car- 
case", A'fl'h "formation" ( x ). But farther in many Predicative 
words, of various formations and in many Stems, which from con- 
ceptional words have become names of persons or things, especially 
in those which are foreign or of great antiquity, — the Feminine form 
in a occurs oftener than the one in at. From the First simple for- 
mation, § 105: <^<J "oil of myrrh" (xjt^e); \^ "ambush" (n^) ( 2 ); 
-f«3»J5 "coriander" (SjJ[S); flA 1 ? "aloe"; «feA and "fe/^ "valley"; 
"HV "sand" (^); ?&. "chalk" (gj^) ; Vi^ "cup" (^f); %? "row" 
(fco>j, ro£); pn and q^ "necklace" (JboJLp); &V "perfume"; ft"? 
"harmony", "melody"; %&+ "helmet", "mitre"; #A "date-cluster". 
With middle a (from o): — a\p "darkness" (/nib); *»<\ "brain" 
(cf. Jb and t ?ni); perhaps also K"? "toil" (/dlif); A\l^ and ,h£. 

"army" (inasmuch as 1ft, "<&. means first "freeman" and then doubt- 
less "the warrior" ( 3 ) &c. ( 4 ). From Stems of the formation given in 

O On V}*?/? >. §137,4, Note. 

( 2 ) Of unknown derivation are:— Yf"*h "willow", "ll^ "honeycomb", 
T^fl? "sound" (Sir. 50, 18) ; on %\ v. supra p. 90, § 47. 

( 3 ) It is a corroboration of this, that rh/J. now and then means "officer". 

( 4 ) Foreign words:— "jf^ and *£fl "pitch", ^Ohn\ i&ra, £J{ "rose", 
^H and ^TJ "rice" (opvfc); ?p "pillory" (^?); Onoraatopoetic:— \tf\ 
"raven", 7-,? and 7-^ [also 7*7* T^f and 7M Kebra Nag.] "night-jar". 


— 276 - § 127. 

§ 107,7 and others: — A\a»J\ "snow" (Ju^), fl4»A "tent"; ftM 
"skin"; hlH "withers", "leg"; hflfi "bracelet"; h+^V "tip", 

"summit"; ft&V "humble-bee" (^jJLo); tflh together with f^ft 
"peace" ; OOghH "youth", "youngster" (perhaps £#»*?? 1&A> ll<DA, 

4»RA» § HI? «)", rth»V "sole of the foot" (derived likely from a 
Pass. Part, of the VpVf). From Stems with &* prefixed, § 116, 
the termination a, — before which the foregoing a must be reduced 
to e, — is found, though very seldom: — 9°VCh "booty", jF'UAA 

"supplication", jP°*Mfc "quiver" (£**»>) 0) 5 °°^^^ or t^R'ttt* 

"wilderness" seems to be a foreign word Cisntp). From Stems 
which have I after the second radical (§ 108), and from Participles 
(§ 109, a) come several Feminines, much disfigured occasionally: 

hfcfi "meeting of a congregation" (sJLxiS') ; flA.fl and AA«h "cas- 
sia" (SLSuXl); 'fl'V.H "horn-trumpet"; probably also fl)^,H "youth", 
"a young man" (with e from %\ cf. also Konig, p. 117); fl«i?A "bean" 
(c/*. ^L?); >&i* "punishment"; ytf./[ and \\fcA "refuse", "dirt", 

"filth" &c. Quite obscure or foreign in origin are "MrtA "shoulder- 
blade"; (idj\ "table" (askl'ha) &c. This termination is farther in 
special use in the case of Multilateral Stems: ^/fli*^ "tent"; 4*9™ 
m^ "buckle"; &"»A and Wl-A^" "lily" (perhaps:— "virgin- 
like") ; fl^lA "waggon" ; <OKft 'a bad trouble' ; J^C'7'h "stuff", 
"cloth"; A?4»*l. "cells of bees"; J^A"? or g'AT"'? X^^^ 
(Sir. 21, 21) ; ■dCW "parchment" ; d*}H> "lyre" ; h(lC(\6~ "nettle" ; 
h"XhA "thorns". The singular word M?J\&* or M*jrU« 
(Hebr. 12, 8) vo&og appears to mean properly "that which turns 
away from itself", "that which abandons its own nature" ("[11, y?&)i 
as if it were Y\i¥J\£, an Adjective derived from St. Y; in the 
same way M°lf:h "breast" (from 1°g;h "to knock") will be the 
Fern, of an Adjective formed in accordance with § 112, b. 

On some Names of plants and Animals, which follow this 
formation, cf. 131. — On H^^ and fffl^ cf. § 113 (beginning of 
section). Words also are met with, ending in yd (besides those 
which are explained in § 140), which are to be conceived as Femi- 
nine forms of Adjectives &c. with the ending I (§ 117 sq.): A/CAJ? 

(i) jT'Vfl*; for jPlfl'K belongs to § 122,/?; JP°TJ J ?«T "reward" is of 
obscure origin. 

§ 128. — 277 — 

"hammer" (as if from fl£,A., J / Y1B); A-flA,? "booty" ('that which 
is got through /jfrflA); htlth^? "rime", "snow", "hail" — from 
htlthil 'ruining' ; 9°T m V? "weed" — ('that which makes waste, or 

belongs to a waste', from <!$&>) ; perhaps also #"}}££ (for #"} 
$H$ "a buzzing swarm", "a fly" m.&f.)C). 

(c) It is only very seldom that this a takes the duller Ending 
sound of e( 2 ), which seems to belong chiefly to words of the *• 
oldest formation. To this class belong first a few words which 

have u as third radical: ipC'B "beam (of wood)" (cf. JuA^); KC*B 

"beast" (nn«); ACB "army" (cf. &1^)( 8 ); then perhaps these 

Xames of Plants: ^Afl» "flax" (also, 01 "linen"?); hCfl. "myrrh"; 
H&. 'a kind of tree' ('ebony'?); a few names of animals : — y% ' 4 moth" 

(DD, \jiyL)\ 4»H& "chamaeleon" ; Yl "elephant" (irpr); h!% 

''hawk"; and, besides these, perhaps also %*% "fog, mist" (JLc) ; 

flflfl, "dung" (yJiS); 10° V*) "pitcher", "can" (PL 1"70£, like 

^yti, ^Uci); "feZ^m. ("maw") "last stomach of ruminants". Cf. 

also "7MJ,, 7.H., #£■<% Kj&* &c. It is true that as regards 
several of the words named it is not yet certain whether they do 
not rather belong to § 118, 7, or to § 120 — end( 5 ). 

§ 128. (d). The closely attached, consonantal ending ^, be- oioseiy 
fore which, in accordance with 88 35 and 36, a long vowel standing attaohed 

00 ' ° ° and Con- 

in a closed syllable is regularly shortened, is made use of to form sonantai 

the Feminine, in the greater number of Concrete Nouns which do Bn lng ' 

not take the termination a (§127). In Stems of the First simple 

formation it occurs, it is true, only in rare instances: — fth"Hh 

"foundation", along with ftVi^^ (cf. IKooi,); f^bC^ "a hair" 

(Mert)C); «?W "door" (&^£); frA.^ "kidney" (njb, xJJ"); 

O 'ThflA^, ^-flA., ^'fl^J& (Ex. 28) "mantle", "ephod", seems to 
be a foreign word (or to be derived from ^St3?). 

( 2 ) Hebr. H— Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' §§ 173, sq. and 176, a; cf. also Arab.^.1. 

( 3 ) Perhaps also 00*1*8 "bunch". 

( 4 ) V. Numb. 19, 17. 

( 5 ) As to gh£ and 9°^ v. § 21; frft, "table" is only a phonetic 
change for R\, cf. § 47— beginning, 

( 6 ) On the accentuation v. Tbumpp, p. 541. 

— 278 — § 128. 

*dtt "daughter" (from )|, v^L) ; Wft "sister" (from frfr, oiLl) C). 

From htil "man" the Fern, is hltl^ "woman"; from fl«7# "sheep ", 
fl«7^; from fc£"7 "ass", h^ !^ and hgl^ (Matt. 21, 2; 
Ex. 13,13; Numb. 22,21); cf. also fUD-A^ "vulture". This ter- 
mination is more frequent in certain Stems of the Second forma- 
tion :— From Nominal Stems of the types given in § 107, which have 
taken concrete meanings, occur Feminines like h^jT*^ "winter", 
ftf-A^ "cow", «7£jHh "terror", hKQW "finger", ftOA^ "tax" 
ri"7(V> "testimony", I^Ulh "field", ■faoCl' "palm-tree", £07^ 
"fever", h^^T "wall", Qftty^ "well", fl+A^ "palm-tree", ftfl 
C^ "palm-branch", Idi*?^ "basket", fttfC^ (as well as KV&V) 
"kitchen-pot"', &A,*lh "island". In the same way IDA*!" "daughter" 
(for fllAJW 1 § 54) is Fern, to a word l^j = fDA-£"( 2 )' Feminines 
of lost Masculines of the Second simple formation (§ 107 or 108, a) 
from roots tertiae infirmae either lose completely the last radical, 

like hm*^ "maid-servant" (xJot), or replace it by a, like rh°7^h ( 3 ) 

"mother-in-law" (st^.), A'J'Th "hour" (also, in abbreviated form, 
fid), A^^ "hilt" (cf. Dillmann's 'Lex.' col. 60), or M^C) "fire", 

^il^ "antiquity" (root U6', v. § 121 under ^h-fl-), perhaps also 
AA"1* "j°y" 5 "malicious joy". 

From Qualifying or Descriptive words (i. e. Adjectives, Parti- 
ciples &c.) of the type in § 108, c there arose a number of Femi- 
nine substantives, (formed in accordance with § 129, b, /3) : A/h 
W^h "formation", t-flft^ "bread" (§ 57), 4»C^ "bark", dfy^ 
"stumbling", fity'd^ "concubine", th'fttytyH' ocKpcca/cc, tf-d'J^ 
"hardship", y^f^- "queen" (from 'JTY*'), ft\%fr "betrothed" 
(from A0-J&), "^yi^* (from ^ft^) "menstruous". Also J^A^ 
"body" ('having a soul')( 5 ), rhfl^A^" "column" ('turned') and H-fl 
C't "fragment" are to be reckoned as belonging to this division, 
although they have a in the first syllable, — perhaps even W^ 

O Cf. on the last two examples Ewald, l Gr. Ar." 1 §§ 409, 411. 
( 2 ) On iMl^h from *habet, *habat v. Konio, p. 121. 
( 8 ) Ewald, <Gr. Arab: § 411. 

( 4 ) Like the Hebr. JTJ», Jl3p Ewald, l Hebr. SprS § 137, d. Otherwise 
Konig, p. 117. 

( 5 ) For it is improbable that VPA^ is merely a simple Fern, of V<pA 

§ 129. — 279 — • 

"cake baked under hot ashes" (V&gJb "to conceal"), supposing a 
to have been lengthened into a. Such forms are now and then 
turned into Abstract Nouns: — TK«"lh "dispersion", Gen. 11, 9 
(from HC(D* 'what is scattered'), J^ft-^ (in flJtft*^, £"ft"f* "op- 
portunely"), (hfijt' "administration" ('that which is administered', 
from /hft"£) Numb, 4, 28 & 29. To Masculines of the type given 
in § 108, b the following are to be referred: — fllA/lh "she-goat" 
(fllAJ, V(L£* (Judges 4, 4) and ML* "prophetess", VTltftf- 
and ftTHh* "mistress" (§ 36), faty^ "abbess" (§ 36). From 
Participles of the type § 109, a — come: fl^A* "mistress" (from 
fldA)? tlYft and (ti/f "the following day" (from fiT-JR), perhaps 
also WtZ-t "ear of corn", — and, in a much abbreviated form, V7t*lh 
"that which is unleavened" (root *lj); also, from an Adjectival 
word given in § 110, a: — i^Ad* "that which is of the male* sex". 
From ■f^A'k (§ H8>y) comes «J M -A.t"lh "maid-servant". 

Forms with inseparable fy from Stems of Multilateral Roots 
are represented by — JfJ^A* "virgin" (/".) (inasmuch as £r">*7A 
may also mean 'a young man, still pure'), RCltb'F "scab", "leprosy", 
VChC* "quails", MHlCfr "navel ", tf-fltf-ft* (= tf-fttf-fl) "pit- 
cher", "can"; •fe'JHft* "lock (of hair)" (= «fe^H?»), fll^A/h* 

"coin", flAd* "rocky ground" (cf. JLlo) = AAA Sir. 22,1; fl"? 

d^ "hermit's cell" 0&£^); fl"HlA* "spikenard" (rt*}fl.A, § 36); 
J^CVW* "hinge of a door" (§ 26,— end), A,A/h "night" (root 
A£AP, c/". JU^V) ; K?°rh.m-^ "ancestress" (from ftjP,h,<D«, § 36). 

It has already been pointed out that Feminine forms from 
Nominal Stems with f or <n» prefixed (§§ 111 & 116) take the 
closely attached ^ likewise. A peculiar form is met with in tf»G 
t^ "bride", "daughter-in-law" ("sponsa", from aoQ'i "espousals", 
§116); cf. Konig, p. 117. 

§ 129. 2. Adjectives and Participles, with a few exceptions, 2. Feminine 
take the consonantal ending ^. Certain of them have no distinct Adje ° ctiveg 
form at all for the Feminine; while a third series — and not a very and 
numerous one — of Adjectives exhibit Feminines of inner formation. By Inter . 

(a) Thus,— to begin with the last-named class,— Adjectives, P 0l f 0n0f « 

s ' ° in the Stem. 

which have % after the second radical, as described in § 108, b, like 
rh-S.fl "new", have given up the outer formation. The reason for 
this was that the I which thus preceded the closely attached femi- 
nine ^h was bound to be shortened into e (§ 36). This formation, 

— 280 — § 129. 

in point of fact, is still met with in the case of a few words, which 
are used in a more Substantive meaning: — &%& " a senior", ('a 
venerable person, either by age or office') m. ; Fern. AU«Hh (Plur. 
Afc/Hh); Mltti* "mistress", "lady", from h"MJi But as 
the Feminines of these Adjectives would in this way coincide with 
those of the type *7fl«C> another formation came into use, according 
to which the Feminine ending, which consists of the vowel a, is 
interpolated in the stem itself ( 2 ), and either blends with the i into 
an e, or, — as is usually the case, — is directly substituted for 
the %. These Adjectives accordingly take regularly a in [the 
Feminine instead of i: rh-S.fl, rh^ft, fllfl/fl, mfl'fl; OH/H, 
OHtf, ftfl/fl, ftlM'. +J&A (^fr/h), +flh; 0O«£, Ofl£ From 
roots mediae gutturalis, which have in the Masculine the form 
Grfh/fl "far", "wide", there is formed, in accordance with § 44 sq., 
&AvQi (Matt. 7, 13), and similarly <j£X" "pampered" (Deut. 28, 56). 
poifj " r ight hand", 0p9° "left hand", and also (D-^'h "a divorced 
woman" (Lev. 21,14)( s ) appear now only in the Feminine. The 
mixed sound e, from a+i, is exhibited by ftfl,C and ftfl,C "old 

woman" (from a lost masculine hdjC=y^) (*)• The Adjectives 

mentioned in § 110, & are hitherto known only in one gender, 
either Masc. or Fern. — On the Feminine form of some words, — 
turned Substantives, — which belong to this formation with i and 
come from roots with final 1, like }flj&, v. § 128. 

(- 1 ) As is the case invariably in Tigrifia: Schebibee, p. 28.— From Vh*C 
"strange", "foreign", there is still found Vtl^G^" aWorpla, alongside of \\\Q: 
So too J^^4**ih as a collateral form to fc^'ty ; v. Dillmann's 'iea;.' coll. 
667, 1099. 

( 2 ) V. analogues in the Plural-formation.— Similarly in TigrI, in Verbs 
tertiae gutturalis, u is interpolated before the third radical in the Imperf., 
Subj. andlmper.: v. Noldeke, 'W. Zeitschr. f. d. K. d. Morg: IV, p. 295 [and 
Littmank, 'Zeitschr. f. Assgr.' XIV, p. 45.] — This inner formation may also 
be pointed out in Arabic: Cf. Teumpp, p. 541, N. 1.— Other explanations of 
this form than the above are given in Ko'nig, p. 87 sq., and in Pbaetorius, 
'Amh. 8pr.\ p. 148.— For the accentuation cf. Teumpp I c. 

( 3 ) Although the word, which would be 0h%fi in the Masc, is formed 
rather as a Pass. Part., and is therefore pronounced with an e after the first 

( 4 ) "fl*h»G and 0°&f\T possibly belong to the same formation. 

§ 129. — 281 — 

(b) All the other Adjectives and Participles have the outer outer 
formation through the ending ^\ . Formation 

. by the 

(a) The type given in § 108, a, has no longer, it is true, a Ending i Y. 
feminine form, as a rule, because the words concerned are more 
in use as Substantives; however, see ^^1* {e.g. Ruth 1,19) 
from thptP' "alive". Multiliteral Adjectives of the type ftlft*?, 
§ 112, b, take their Feminines from the type Jf?^*?. 

(/3) The type given in § 108, c, shortens its u into e; and all 
words of this type without exception follow this formation^): ftfc'fl, 

(geyert); 9°Ohh (9°OhK), 9»<D-h^; ClK-U, CVCV^, i*K«C, i**C 
C't'- In some cases it serves the purpose of expressing Abstracts, 
e. g. qif^fti^ tXctpOTys. Words from roots with final * adopt the 
vowel-pronunciation of the last radical, suppressing the e:— L Mh£> 
IxXiJr (eUt)- CAJ.J& (Ca>-?>), CT^( 3 ); A-ft.£, frX/h ("shaven ", 
1 Cor. 11,5); Kftx^g,, fr/SM^h; from roots ending in u, either the 
form UAfl^^j helewivet (from UAfl>* heleww 6 ), or, with contrac- 
tion of the diphthong into it: Ufr'lh helut; C^fO*, (Mh"]h; KbRO**, 
Kdqft [dRO*, fl-S.'Th Z"e6m Nag. 138 a, 16]. In words which 
have a ^-containing Guttural as second-last radical, like CYl«fl 
"unclean" (from Cd*(i) the it-containing pronunciation re-appears 
in the Fern.: Ctt'tl't, which only by a wrong use (§ 42) again 
passes into CYvft^ (Hen. 5,4)( 4 ). In words which have fll, & or 
■f« as last radical the formative -Jh blends with the final letter: 
Ki:^, fern. ^^ (e£ef); {PaHh or 9° mj\r, fern, JF»flHh; Z**'^, 
/*"**; ^bfi^, Wi*; hfl-£", jfl-flfr fte&ed (Deut. 30, 11), &c. 
(§ 54 sq.). 

(y) The Feminines of the type § 109, a, are regularly formed 
by appending ^ without any vowel-change in addition: ^^"4*? 
ft£:4>ih; <{.£•&, ^Zh*, fl«H>, fl****; WAfl, "f Afrh AAi£, 
ArhJ^ or Arh/lh; but from WftxR, in accordance with § 54, 
*?&£: is again given. h'tlK "foolish" has in the Fern, the forms 

(*) When Ludolf in his Dictionary adduces not only 1f}\tl't' from 
"JH«f| "little" but also a Fern. V^if), the latter is of course to be referred to 
a Masc. form *Jfi,ft which has disappeared. 

( 2 ) For the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 541. 

( 3 ) [Along with COhg,^ Is. 58, 11; v. Dillmann's 'Lex.\ col. 307. tr.] 

( 4 ) [Flemming reads in this passage GW"^"lK T »-] 

— 282 — § 129. 

hug, Ml£"^ or frfl£- (from hlbJt). 'IbC "good" also forms, 
without any Yowel-change, *%£&. 

(b) In place of the type given in § 110, a, from which Femi- 
nines are not readily formed, comes the type which is described 
in § 117, a, furnished with the Adjective-ending I, and to which 
the feminine termination ^ is easily attached. The feminine «*»<? 
JK,^, however, occurs from ipV£ and even the contracted form 
W%^r Judges 8, 32 ; and from ip^T "trader", we have, shortening 
the a (§ 36), the feminine form i*»fp. The adjectives of this type, 
mentioned in § 112, b, from multiliteral roots, appear in like man- 
ner to have no feminine forms: the Feminine of %QS{ is the same 
as the Masc. (Matt. 5,36). aoYft "unfruitful" "barren" (/".) would 
be a masculine form used as a feminine, if the middle radical 
were really double, as Ludolf represents: it would in that case 

have to be regarded perhaps like JuoLiO; but v. Peaetokius, 

'Tigrina' p. 180. On the other hand <DA£* "fruitful" (/".), "having 
children", may be understood in accordance with § 36 (=<DA£"'ih)- 
flay "fornicator or whore" is both masculine and feminine. 

(s) Farther, the Participles which are described in § 114 take 
: JT, in so far as they form Feminines at all, and do not as Sub- 
stantives remain unaltered in the Fern, or pass over to the for- 
mation given in § 118 ( 2 ): «w»£?«7flfr, w^VC^, ^fl-h^AC^, 
aotX't'QfttvIr, aok&b^, Wpltlfc ^OJA^ "midwife" (for 
0°B)&i£'t', § 36), and so too aoftb*? "a female perfumer". From 
roots tertiae i the Fern, regularly gives the vowel-sound to the last 
radical, — a pronunciation which may be met with even in the 
Masc: tro^A^r, from aot£CP>', a *? ^, from <w>1»dj&; tfo 1 }^, 
from ODTrVF*; wfcfijt, from tf»rt,ft£( 3 ). On the other hand, 
roots tertiae u take their Fern, from the type given in § 118, in- 
stead of a Fern, of their own form. 

(£) All words which end in the Adjective-termination i 

( 1 ) Ewald, l Gr. Ar. 1 § 298, [where the rule is given: Adjectiva quae e 
sensu suo non possunt nisi ad feminas spectare, sine term, manent, ut Joola» 

"gravida" &c. tr.] 

( 2 ) For the accentuation cf. Trtjmpp, p. 542. 

( 3 ) ["7<»"lh is also met with in both genders, v. Dillmann's 'Lex.' 
col. 168.] 

§ 130. — 283 — 

(§§ 117—119) simply attach #• in the Fern.: ao<h£, m>Ax6%-, 

tn>*P1:, tf» < P'fc ; h -toft, -Vtfl.^5 0O9°{i(i t , <w>?°rtA/lh ^top., 

0°'?O& : l m \ fDl&tlfi, 0°Trd*tl t Il't*' *fr may also be simply attached 
to the Adjective-termination ai (§ 119 end), e. g. "YfrhAJ^ "me- 
diatory" {f.), Hen. 76, 6; but most of the Masculines in ai, instead 
of the Fem.-form ait, prefer to take their Fern, in awit or it, e. g. 
h£?<£ and K^J3JZ, "old", Fern, fa?^ and klX* Thus is 
it, in particular, with the numeral Adjectives in ai, like Pfy^f* 
"the second", Fern. /J*?"?^ or Hl ^- 

A few Substantives avail themselves of an Adjective-termi- 
nation, by way of analogy, for the purpose of forming Feminines : 
0?flfl "lion", aMi^ "lioness"; ^$$1 "deacon", ■S.W'E^ 

§ 130. Although Ethiopic is in possession of sufficient re- The Gender- 
sources to enable it to distinguish the feminine gender from the Ethiopia 
masculine by outward indication, and although a host of indepen- 
dent Nouns have a formation marked by the feminine termination, 
the presence or the absence of that termination is by no means 
decisive for the actual gender of a word as employed in the lan- 
guage. Not only are there many expressions or names which the 
language has regarded as feminine from the very first, without mark- 
ing them as such by their termination, e. g. h9° "mother", J^"> 
*7A "maiden" &c, but difference in time and locality added its 
influence to render the outward mark of gender of trifling import- 
ance in settling the actual gender assigned in speech. That which 
was regarded as feminine at the time when its form was put into 
shape, might at another time be thought of, without difficulty, as 
masculine. When one conception passed into another, — for example, 
when the Abstract passed into the Concrete, it was naturally attended 
by a change in the view taken of the gender. The dialectic varia- 
tions in the several districts, in which the speech was used, have also 
to be considered in this connection. Owing to the co-operation of 
these influences, the treatment of gender fluctuated more notably 
in Ethiopic than in any other Semitic tongue, — more even than in 
Hebrew, which most resembles Ethiopic in this particular feature. 
The great majority of Nouns may be used both as masculine and as 
feminine, whether they are furnished with feminine terminations or 
not. It is only a few settled principles that can be discerned for 
dealing with this aspect of the language; but these are not so settled 

— 284 — § 130. 

or so binding as to prevent speaker or writer from having abundant 
freedom in his conception of gender. Still, in those manuscripts 
which are accessible to us, all being of relatively late origin, an 
advance may be perceived, from an utter want of system to a 
comparatively settled system. The older manuscripts show invari- 
ably the prevalence of a freer standpoint, while the later ones 
strive at least to avoid, as far as possible, the capricious alteration 
of the conception of the gender of a word in the same sentence 
or section. 

We cannot therefore pretend to reduce the Gender-usage in 
Ethiopic to any certain rules, or to give an exhaustive account of 
it( J ). The task of determining the gender with exactness must be 
left to the dictionary, in the case of every individual word. It is 
only the main principles guiding the treatment of Gender in Ethio- 
pic, which fall to be noticed in this place. 

The Gender is distinguished with perfect strictness and regu- 
larity only in the case of living beings, possessing that distinction 
in themselves. All proper names of men, all words which indicate 
a man or a male agent—, like »nfcrt., A-flfc, JflJR, "MIC, fl>A£", 
""AMl) o°i\ t t-'i &c. — are constantly treated as masculine; all 
names and appellations of women and female agents, as feminine, 
whether these words have any external mark of gender or not. 
But even in this class a few nouns are met with, having the gender 
common, — like ,£*'}'7A> — in particular those which were at first 
conceptional words or Abstracts, such as tf»Crh "leader", m. and/"., 
"Idfi'ft "widow" and "widower", (l aM lb'\r ('testimony') "witness" 
m. and /"., Ttii !^ ('state of an alien') "foreigner", m. and f. 
(Ruth 2, 10), and some which end in 7 d, § 120, a. In names of 
animals the gender is seldom distinguished by any special termina- 
tion, — in fact, scarcely ever, except in the case of those which are 
oftenest spoken of, like 0*70 and fl*7d^, hRI and frJM^, 
fllA* an d (fltljt' (not always used); sometimes separate words are 
employed ( 2 ), like flC "bull", VfcA^ "cow", *|tf»A and V*^, 
Ch6/\( 3 ) and fDJftfllA; but most names of animals have only one 

( x ) V. on this subject Ludolf, 'O.' Ill, 5. 

( 2 ) [Just as in other Semitic languages; cf. Bezold, in H. Osthoff's 
1 Vom Suppletivwesen der indogermanischen Sprachen', Heidelberg, 1900, p. 76.] 

( 3 ) [Deut. 14 ? § would, however, lead us to suppose that these two word? 

§ 130. — 285 — 

single form, such as llA'fl £vfl, &£tl, 1fMl> "Iff A, and are distin- 
guished in gender as masculine or feminine, when that has to be 
done, — only by the gender being differentiated in the predicate, or 
in some appositional word( 1 ). In the case of winged creatures, or 
those which have their habitation in the water, or in the case of 
reptiles or crawling animals, even this method of distinguishing the 
gender is usually given up. Some of their names have a masculine 
form, some a feminine (C^-fl, MQ, AOO>; VCVCA; JV^'Th 
Aft , '&')h & c -)> but they may be treated as masculine or feminine 
without any regard to their termination. 

As to the other words, it is true that the majority of Ab- 
stracts, as well as of Nouns of action, production, kind and man- 
ner, and of true Infinitives are already marked as feminine by their 
form ; but a minority of the forms show that these conceptions may 
also be entertained in the gender readiest to hand, that is to say, 
the masculine. And this alternative possibility is continued in the 
actual gender-usage. Any conceptional word which is unprovided 
with a feminine marking may yet be treated as feminine, and any 
conceptional word which has a feminine termination may be treated 
as masculine, or rather as being without gender, so that it coincides 
with the masculine, the latter having itself no outward mark of gender. 
Even those words which in their formation have been kept abso- 
lutely free from a feminine termination, such as Names of Places 
(§ 115), may be treated as feminine. A few Infinitives may suffice 
here as examples: (D*Mi •" 9°VC 1 Cor. 9. 14; -f^f^C : ^9x9°^ 
1 John 4, 18; -fl0«£- " 0fcfl * * flHD/UMh Org.] C^d^ * h°Vlt 
"the true faith" [lit. 'right believing' Inf.] &c. Words like A&'lh 
•K'«Hh flhAih f^fD'Th X"A< w, 'i" m ay be treated as masculine or 
as feminine with equal propriety (though fern, in form); and on 
the other hand words like ftjF°, *^J&A> thl (though masc. in form) 
may equally well be treated as feminine. Accordingly Collective 
Nouns and Nouns of Quantity, as well as Collective Plural-forms 
(§ 135 sqq.) may be used both in the masculine and feminine. 

In the department of true substantives and designations of 

do not indicate the male and female of one species of gazelle, but are names 
for two distinct species, tr.] 

( x ) Or by other devices: cf. the examples in Hen. 60, 7 & 8; 85, 3. [and 
Kebra Nag. Ill b 20.] 

— 286 — § 131. 

inanimate 1 beings and things, the names of countries, districts, 
cities, towns are preponderatingly feminine, although OIC "city" 
itself is of common gender; and expressions, even, like A.fMJ'* 0flj^ 
Josh. 11, 8 are met with (but otherwise in Josh. 11, 2; 19, 28). 
But the names of the various parts of the body, as well as the 
names of tools, articles of clothing, dwellings and trees are of com- 
mon gender^). Names of rivers and mountains, of roads, wells, 
stars (yet 0*hJR may also be feminine), of the powers of the heavens 
(rain, wind, dew, hail &c), of metals and weapons — are chiefly 
masculine. cwTr&tl "spirit", "intelligence" is of common gender; 
but when used of the Holy Spirit, it is always masculine. V£f| 
"soul" is usually feminine; V¥ft*3h an ^ f**? "body" usually mascu- 
line. Victuals also have mostly names in the masc. gender, — even 
'Wlfl^ "bread". 

Numbers of § 131. Ethiopic, like Syriac, has completely given up the 

stem™- Dual Number. Without doubt it once possessed it, just like the 
FaintTraces ther Semitic tongues ; and a trace of it is preserved in the word 

of a Dual. . 

JF)A?b "two", inasmuch as the final e in that numeral can only be 
explained as a curtailed and blunted dual-ending (D^3) ( 2 ). Simi- 

larly in the Eth. Bilinguis 1. 3 the Dual Y?©Vft **?.^ * s s ^ 
met with, according to D. H. Mullee, 'Epigr. Denkm.' p. 68. 
Lastly, the remains of a Dual may be recognised, — according to 
Peaetoeius, ZDMG XXXIV, p. 222 & XLVII, p. 395,— in the 
form ft£, "hand", which appears before suffixes, andin *h# "loins" ( 3 ). 
When the notion of "both" has to be more definitely expressed, 
the numeral "two" must be called in to assist. After losing the 
Dual, Ethiopic preserved only the distinction between that which 
was a single individual and that which consisted of several indivi- 
duals or formed a mass. This distinction, however, has produced, 
in other Semitic languages, and particularly in Arabic, four Clas- 

0) hC/** "body" is generally feminine. 

( 2 ) I venture to make the like conjecture regarding the word &£, 
"door", Plural &,/J^h, Deut. 3, 5; 6, 9 (as if coming from £,£■), and &,&,,?•>. 
I hold &,£, to be a contraction for ^Fhl. 

( 3 ) Cf. also Trumpp ZDMG XXXIV, p. 236. But v. Barth 'Deutsche 
Ltrzg: 1887, Sp. 1303: 'Nominalbildung' p. 6. 

§ 131. — 287 — 

ses of Numbers. When, for instance, the ground-form merely ex- 
presses the notion of one individual, like "man", a new form is 
developed from it which expresses plurality, mass, or collectivity, 
and there emerges the contrast between Singular and Plural. But 
when the ground-form gives expression to a generic or collective 
notion, like "hair", a form is developed to denote an individual 
specimen from the mass, and thus we have the contrast between 
the collective word, and the word designating one of the Class 
(Generalis and Nomen Unitatis). 

1. The latter contrast, as conditioning a special mode of for- i- contra^ 
mation, is but feebly carried out in Ethiopic. In by far the largest claB8 _ Word 
number of names given to collective notions, in which any indivi- d a e "^ or a d n 
dual can be specially singled out, the Generalis and the Nomen individual 
Unitatis coincide, although such Names originally denoted either ( GeneraUs 
the one or the other, but not both. Thus fl-flfr stands for both and Nomen 

' _ Unttatis). 

"man" (coll.) and "a man"; &£• "an army" and (along with^h^.^) 
"a warrior"; ft'iflfl "beasts" and "a beast"; J>t£ "fowl" and "a 
bird"; ">IMI "swarm of bees" and "a bee"; P*t° "a wood" and "a 
tree"; d% "vermin" and "a worm" &c. Many Collectives, serving 
in this way also as Nouns denoting individuals, come to take the 
Plural even, — a proceeding not strictly admissible with merely 
Collective Nouns. Besides, Ethiopic seems at one time to have 
had the power of deriving Nouns, denoting single specimens, from 
Collective Nouns, by means of a special form, — namely the femi- 
nine-ending. That, at least, is the only explanation of the remark- 
able circumstance that several names of plants and animals have 
feminine terminations (*). The ending in question is generally a( 2 ): 
O^dfi irvyapyog (Deut. 14, 5), -f-£. povfiakog (ibid.), »f«*M "male 
hyaena", -flflfl < a horned animal' ; Olftil "lion", htK,*? "mouse", 
T-H "falcon", "hawk", fc?fl"] "locust", "grasshopper" (also col- 
lective) ; perhaps also «ld*P "suckling", and /JQ,A"the (male) young 

( x ) The case is very similar in Hebrew, cf. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' § 176, a. 
It is remarkable also that "one" = "a single one" is usually expressed in 
Ethiopic by the fem. Jtrh'fc, and that not only when it stands by itself, as in 
hdli 9 * rthAVl- Ps. 26, 7, but also, when it qualifies a Common Noun or 
Oonceptional word, as in ixth'll : £*fi\. one word" (e.g. Josh. 21,43; 23,14), 
although $P(\. as a rule, is masc. 

( 2 ) As in the Agau dialects; cf. Reinisch, 'Bilinspr. 1 , p. 89; l Chamirspr? 
I, p. 101; 'Quaraspr: I, p. 89. 

— 288 — § 131. 

of an animal", rt*7A "fig-tree", H*7fl "cypress". Though some of 
these words take their plural from the same form, like «£<J»*lh, 
'Mrf'A'Th yet others of them start from the ground-form in the for- 
mation of their plural: — OV'flft'lh hV'fHV hfitf't'- In certain 
other words this a seems to be changed for e, see examples in 
§ 127, c. It may be that these feminine forms are due to the poetic 
view of the individual as being the weaker, and the class or kind 
as being the stronger notion; but the individual, in accordance with 
another and more sensible conception of the relation, is sometimes 
indicated by the relative Adjectival-ending I as being that which 
belongs to the class, as, e. g. in O'iHd "& sea-monster", from and 
along with 0"JflG (§ 118, y). Yet this form is of even less frequent 
occurrence than the other. The derivation, by means of a special 
form, of a word denoting an individual, from its class-conception, 
cannot be followed up in Ethiopic beyond these traces. Ethiopic 
is more ' disposed to confuse the Class-word and the Individual- 
word. Thus words denoting Class-conceptions, which represent a 
secondary formation derived from individualising-words, are, imme- 
diately after their production, again treated as words signifying one 
of a class, e. g. those which are mentioned in § 120, a: *M<£»"lh (from 
*TfAA "passing by") "what passes by", i. e. "people passing by", 
Mark 15, 29, but on the other hand hrli^f. ! "TfA^^h "an individual 
passing by", Mark 15,21; in the same way $p<%Jt, Judges 19,17; 
the originally collective word "Kh°\f\ "strangers" (§ 137,5) is regu- 
larly used in turn for a single "stranger" (== i*7£*). 
2. contrast 2. The Contrast between the Singular and the Plural, on the 

sinluiTr °t ner hand, is quite regularly and commonly maintained. It is true 
and piurai that a good many words express plurality even in the Singular 

{One and .. i/>i -1 • 1 t • i 

More than number, and may therefore be connected with a predicate in the 
o«e). piura^ — no t merely all those words which are Collectives by their 
origin, such as names of nations, countries and communities, but 
even names of single beings like Hhft. "man" or "men", 0C 
"enemy" or "enemies". But when it is called for in the interests 
of clearness, the most of these can either form their own plural, 
or make up for it by the plural of another word, like fl£fl>* for 
*fl?irt«- Actual Singular-Nouns, which are incapable of forming a 
Plural, like HjMh "an olive-tree" (Plur. used being dl)0) s tt&fy, 
are of rare occurrence; and even regular Class-words or Col- 
lective Nouns may take the plural, seeing that they frequently 

§ 131. — 289 — 

represent the Individual-, as well as the Class-notion (v. supra). 
On the other hand a large number of other Singular-notions, parti- 
cularly words indicating bulk, are by their very nature incapable 
of taking the plur.:— such as, <DC4» "gold", tl\<J»f\ "snow", <w>^C 
"honey", M|A "food", 09°C "wool", ahil "smoke", ffAA-^ 
"shadow". And true Abstracts are just as little capable of the ' 
plur., such as Ohdf ^ "burning", "f**^"?^ "completion", <p^C 
"love", fC9°ltv "thirst", and in particular all Infinitives. But even 
such words, in the case of some definite development of the con- 
ception, become again capable of taking the Plur.; e. g. 9°RC 
means "earth", but also "land"; accordingly it takes, in the latter 
sense, the Plur. h9°S\C- In the same way from *fl4-C "silver" 
and -flC^ "brass" appear the Plurals -(K-^^ "silver pieces" and 
■aCf*^ "articles of brass" ; and from mA "dew" comes the Plur. 
ITlA'Th "fat". Tfl*fl "wisdom" takes a Plur. with the meaning "arts", 
and 9°h\^ "compassion" does the like, in the sense of "displays 
of compassion". And, in this way, even Infinitive-forms admit 
sometimes of the Plural, as (DMfSXi'Y 1 "rivers", from !0-/h«"M "to 
flow", "flowing" = "river" ; and j ! ifl'MM** < };Hh "suppliant en- 

But the language on the other hand possesses words which Specialises. 
are used either in the Plur. alone, or in the Plur. specially ( 1 ). The -ei^^ 
signification of the Plural, which indicates a definite or indefinite 
number of individuals, carries with it as such the possibility of con- 
ceiving that sum of individuals as a united and single notion (v. 
infra § 141), like "tents" = "encampment". This explains how 
Ethiopic expresses certain ideas in the Plural form, which other 
languages denote by words in the Singular. Add to this, — that 
in Semitic tongues the Plural expresses not merely a number of 
individuals which may be counted, but also the mass, the collectiv- 
ity, and whatever is the highest and most general form of the 
contents of the notion. Thus existences and objects, which pro- 
duce the impression of mass and boundless sublimity, or in which 
the apex and essence of every individual within a given conception 
is viewed or thought of, are put in the Plural in Ethiopic, while 
other languages employ a mere Singular instead. Plur alia tantum 

(*) Apart from words, whose Singular cannot, as it happens, be support- 
ed from any writings as yet known to us. 


— 290 — § 132. 

are, it is true, very seldom met with. The language is too well 
worn and too thoroughly developed, not to have a Singular formed 
and in use as time went on, in the case of the greater number of 
words, even though they might have been allowed only in the 
Plural at a more antique stage. But there is a series of words 
' which are used in the Plural as single notions and with the same 
force as a Singular. The name of "God", ft9°Ah designates him 
as the highest of the Lords, the essence of all lordship, just as the 
poetical name j\C^9° designates "heaven" as the highest height. 
Farther, names of spaces, which have a perimeter and enclose 
what is individual, or of things which embrace an abundance of 
what is individual, or which consist of several remarkable portions, 
— are frequently used in the Plural, e. g. hClh "raft", ^-T? 1 ^ 
"boat", l^Vft "doorposts", hi\/.'(\ "waterfall", hWth^ "bowels", 
MAjfr "the loins", fofTt (pi) = fob"k (sg.) (Ex. 4, 6 sqq.) "the 
bosom", 7»flT*# "a rough road" ('a continuation of rough places'), 
tf D ^'*flC "burying-place" and "grave", tw^^C^ "marriage", 
"spouse", 0^S"*i" "between" (literally, 'spaces lying between'), 
bfW^ "cross-road" (Mark 11,4), %£*Ohd "honey dropped from 
the comb". In the intellectual region: — fl\(\P>d "the natural dis- 
position" (as the essence of many several faculties [lit. 'impressions']), 
K?°flA "image" (inasmuch as it consists of many bits of likeness), 
"Irh^C "a miracle" (because of its many startling phenomena), 
h9 aa \'i "measure, size, sum, duration" (because enclosing within 
it a mass of individual space-, and time-parts). The same way of 
looking at things has produced in turn new Plurals out of these 
Plurals, v. § 141. 

The Formation of the Plural is either brought about by 
terminations, which are attached to the Singular Stem, or this 
outer formation is replaced by an inner formation, exactly as in 

(a) Outer Formation of the Plural. 

Masculine § 132. Ethiopic words form their plural either by means 

Ending in °^ ^*e Masculine termination an, or the Feminine termination 

an; Fem. at, both carrying the accent (Tkumpp, p. 542)0. The former, 
in at. 

( x ) The Plural- ending an is found also in Assyrian [(v. Delitzsch, 

§ 132. — 291 — 

which is paralleled by ^_, D\_> ^*- in other tongues, seems to 
have arisen, in accordance with § 18, out of on, which at one time 
might take the place of un. Both terminations have been produced 
by lengthening the terminations ot the Singular, e (in Arabic un) 
in the Masculine, and at in the Feminine. The termination an is 
always attached to the final radical of the Stem of the Singular, 
thus taking the place of its original vowel-ending. The termination 
at, in the case of a good many words, takes the place of the 
Feminine-ending at of the Singular, but in the majority of cases 
it is applied externally to the Stem of the Singular, whether that 
ends in at or in some other fashion. It is by no means the case, 
however, that every word which wants the Fern, termination in the 
Sing, takes an in the Plur., or that every Fern. Stem, has at in the 
Plur. ; for while the form without the Fern, termination is the one 
which comes most readily to hand in the Singular, and the Fern, 
termination appears only on special grounds, the reverse is the 
case in the formation of the Plural. Every Plural, as expressing a 
number or an assemblage of individuals, is a Collective word, and, 
in a certain sense, an Abstract. But Abstracts, even in the Singular 
number, are predominantly conceived of as Fern.; and accordingly 
it is the Feminine termination which prevails most in the Plural 
Number, and it is the Masculine which only makes its appearance 
on special grounds. 

1. Words signifying Persons, and Descriptive words, i. e.i. Personal 
Adjectives and Participles, are the only ones which take the Mas- !,„"£«„ 
culine termination an in the Plural. But not every word which words tak- 
signifies a Person takes its Plural in an: several have at (§ 133, a), piurai 
and many replace the outer formation by the inner, which is the Endin 8«w. 

, „ .. Detailed 

mode followed even by some Descriptive words. When a Descnp- Rules and 
tive word admits of the Masculine termination an, it takes at the E *°!?*j° ns 
same time the termination at for the Feminine. Besides, one set 
form the Fern. Plur. from the Masc. Plur.O, another form it from 
the Fern. Sing. Coming to details we must attend to the following: — 
(a) Words of the type given in § 108, a, occur but seldom in 
the Plural, and have an outer formation : faffD*, thpPTr ; d&PTr, 

l Assyr. Gramm.', § 67)]. In Tigre am is the corresponding termination; cf. 
Noldekb, 'W. Ztschr. f. d. K. d. M: IV, p. 299. 
( x ) [But v. Note to (6), infra, tr.] 


— 292 — § 132. 

dt-P^ (Tt-Fi Hen. 14, 6) 0); in the same way faW} "few" 
(pi.), and &q&«l (§ 112,6), fA&M 

(b) Words of the type given in § 108, b, so far as they are 
pure Adjectives, have usually the Outer formation: gh^tl "new", 
thWi, Fern.— from the Sing. ,h*ifl (§ 129, a)— rh^Th in the 
same way mfl/fl, flifl.Q1, fllflfl^. Often, however, they form 
their Fern. Plur. from the Masc. Plur. ( 2 ), so that instead of 0fl 
p^ the form Od t j?'t* is more frequently found; in the same way 
mfl.0^; ( "sharp" (pi) (Hen. 10,5); £4:^ and £j*^. 
Some form an Inner Plur. as well as an Outer: 'J'lTl/J? 4 , rtl« < i"J 
and 4*ml^; O0.J&, flAjMh fllrt/fl, mfl-O^ (§ 138): and so too 
*1tiC "good", *%^-'i. Of words of this type which are used rather 
as Substantives, <w»fl.rh "Messiah" regularly takes the form #»rt« 
<hl ; Afc4» (A» "the Primus" and "old" has AY./^, Fern. AY, 
p^, or fapTr, A^ih ; 4*ft«ft "Presbyter" has the Outer forma- 
tion tyd/it as well as an Inner form. The remainder have other 
forms, so far as they have any Plural at all. 

(c) Participles of the type given in § 108, c (lll,b; 112, b) 
take, throughout, the Outer formation, and derive their Fern. Plur. 
not from the Fern. Sing., but from the Masc. Plur.f): VjiP-ih 
"manifest", JW*»-;K>, JW**;H-; ClOh "open", C1*P?, CW^ 
(rehewivat). Participles from roots middle u frequently assume 
(in accordance with § 52) the contracted form in the Plur.: 
^°ah^ "dead", <n>«;K}, tfo-^-Th; but also jPflJ-^* "warm", 
9 a Oh£*'} and ^Ohp^, or from a Singular *f°ahty- 9°OK^ t 'i, 
9°Oh£''t'. It is but very rarely that these Participles have the 
inner formation, as in ^J^fl*" "pure", "genuine", Plur. •f&fl**^; 
as also in the word which is always used substantively "JT-/** 
"king", Plur. V?/**^; on the other hand dgW "enemy", d&W}. 
Of Feminines of this type (§ 128) which have come to be used 
substantively, dty'fi't' "concubine" conforms to the Participles 

( x ) [Flemming adopts here the variant *PC^il/ ,tf °*- te.] 

( 2 ) [Would it not be better to say Sing.? Just as one form of the 
Feminine Plural, viz. flfl^-jh, comes from the Feminine Singular 0OJ&- 
by adding at, so the other form Ofl^-J" may be regarded as coming from 
the Masculine Singular 0flj&, by adding the same termination, and in the 
same way; cf. Peaetorius, 'Aethiop. Gramm.' p. 105. te.] 

( 3 ) [V. last Note, te.] 

§ 132. — 293 — 

and takes the Plur. d'fefl^ as well as dtyilpty. (On the other 
hand, 7*7/**^ "queen", rh-'flC^ "coloured decoration", and 
others, form the plural quite externally: Tf !^*^^, #h-*flCM"). 

(d) Participles of the type in § 109, a, and the like, take mostly 
the outer formation, when they are used as Adjectives — : Yl&K, 
h^h% hAVh $<?M, h-nW, OCh'i; Ottl "friend" has an 
inner formation also; ^£'h, flflA (0°C(h, A09°) nave only an 
inner formation. On \\Vlr v. § 133, a. 

(e) Words of the type in § 110, a have still an outer forma- 
tion, when used as Adjectives: — Wj& W^fTr, W^ffy, but an 
inner, when they indicate an Agent, whether they are formed in 
the sing, with or without the termination %. Multiliteral: — thTrUtl, 
Aiih^lTfj but SV0J? and ftfl^ with an inner formation. 

(/") Participles and Nomina Agentis, formed with the 'prefix 
an (§ 114) take, in the Plur., an for the Masc. termination, and 
at for the Fern., e. g. tfofO^, tfnjPU^^ 0- Some form an 
Inner Plural, e. g. ao9°\\C "counsellor", ao^YlC^', in the same 
way aotyC }, 0°\t»'}'}, o°bCG and others. "7^ "seer" (of com- 
mon gender) has either *1C$1, or "VC^'l* (§ 133, a), or ^J^ 

■(§ 138). 

(g) All Adjectives with outer Adjective-terminations take 
regularly the outer formation (§§ 117 — 119), while thesis hardened 
into a semivowel before the terminations^): — t f'02' J t>, 'POP/*' 

9°$1; a»l&tl% ao'iA.fK^n and o°"HA^f^\ so YiCtlWi 

"Christians", from a Singular not in use. Some words ending in 
i, of the class described in § 118, y, and some, ending in ai (v. 
§ 119), form their Plur. from the termination awl: — O^fl. "an 
Arab", Plur. OMOhfi. The words h£?<Z "an old man", f A'g 
"shepherd", and T'T'^IJ vccuryjg have an inner or feminine forma- 
tion: &&{.<? (from a lost Sing. hCI), T/H* (for ? AoHh), 
<?%>$%> (§ 133). &$$*<£ "robber" and fc£U«/i«g "a Jew" are 
words, denoting an individual, which have been derived from 

(*) If, as Ludolf says, 0DR?&Gh has tfD&A'P'} in the Plur. 
(Ps. 52,7), as well as tf»£-£v'P'> ( Matt - 6 > 2 )» a Singular 0d££v<D* is the 
basis of it, and there is no need to explain tfof^g^W} by any application 
of Ewald's rule, as given in 'Or. Ar? § 300. 

( 2 ) [V., however, Kebra JVay.—Introd., p. XVI.] 

— 294 — § 133. 

Plurals (§ 131), and which form their plur., simply by returning to 
their respective ground-forms ^jf^ and ftjE.U'Jt* The most of 
the substantives enumerated in § 118, y, have an inner formation. 
Farther, the words which are dealt with in § 117, a, of the type 
1fl<5, — some of which are interchangeable with those of the type 
IflG (§ HO, a), usually take the inner formation. It is only a 
small number of words of this type, and these mostly used as 
Adjectives, that have outer terminations, e. g. Afl^C? tSfHfrp}, 
Aflfl^ih Others admit of both formations, e. g. A\/.>fl t 1([6, 
and in the same fashion ft^,. Rrh*h*l* and ft^h'p^'J (Gr. Ad. 
164,4, 20; 166, 29); while some, like ^f\°% "the first", have only 
the inner formation {cf. § 138). Yet even these words may take 
another special Feminine form with an outer termination, as well 
as the inner formation which may be used for both Masc. and Fern. : 
4 /./J^e ; |-; rhAfr "singer", Plur. Masc. rhA£^ "singers" (m.), Plur. 
Fern. rhAfrP^ "singers" (/".). 

Other words, besides those enumerated here, take the Masc. 
Plural-ending an, but only on rare occasions and in the language 
of poetry, e. g. ftCRfh * o° "spiritual grains of wheat" (flCW, 
originally an Adjective); or T^flC "association", "congregation": 
"VIA^ "associates", colleagues". Farther cf. § 141, 5. 
2. substan- § 133. 2. The Feminine termination at is taken by all other 

OutorPiSi Substantives, — except the Personal and Descriptive Words mention- 
Ending ed in § 132, — which admit of an outer formation of the Plur. at all, 
certafai wnetner they nave a Fern, form in the Singular or not. The mode 
Masc Per- of attachment of this termination is generally very simple: It is of 
Names. more importance to point out the cases in which this Outer Plural 
formation generally takes place, and this will be attempted in the 
following survey. 

(a) Masculine Names of Persons have as a rule, it is true, 
in accordance with § 132 the masculine termination an, but yet 
there are several cases in which they must take the fern, termina- 
tion in the Plural. In particular, (1) All Proper Names, mascu- 
line and feminine, have the outer formation in the Plur., and in 
fact the termination at: aop&ti "Macarius", tf»^MAlh "IC?? 
"Mary", "IC? ?^. (2) Masculine words indicating Persons, and 
which denote an office, business, or position, take the Fern, termi- 
nation in the Plur., and are to be conceived of as Abstracts of the 
office or dignity:— a plurality of priests, for example, is always 

§ 133. — 295 — 

"priesthood" to the Ethiopian ft. Accordingly we have fnr>, hi) 
tt "priests'; W$Tr, ^.W^; and so is it with ftftft, h,^ft 
#fcft, «7o>Vtfl "monk", ^H°ll "comes". Hence also AAfl*^ 
"philosophers", ^fK^ "rabbis" (e. g. Matt. 16,21 sq.), Waift 
"Khalifs", ACft^ "Pharaohs" ('Jbfew MadaW ed. Zotenbeeg, 
p. 173). Farther, we have frflje, "prophet", iflj^; fl ?^^ 
"martyrs"; W\i^Y "guards", "constables"; tfofl^M^ "lictors" 
(Matt. 27,27); fl£W} "Satan", ^"IV'Th (as well as the inner 
formation); *7<5 "seer", ^C^ (as well as "VC.P'J and "T^JR.^); 
fo/>£ "artificer", XhlS^ (together with the inner form) ; Ifl*^ 
"workmen"; di^C? "apostle", diVC?^, ?W«e "shipmaster", 
f^?^ (from ftf?) ; perhaps also ££^ "robbers" (if this does 
not stand for £,?&'> from &?hjO- Tnis termination may be ap- 
plied even to the Plur. t^^Tf "presbyters", to turn the word into 
the name of the office: A^V^ (alongside of (^pah }^ § 140). 
Sometimes also this ending is attached to words which merely ex- 
press a property, e. g. dfaP'fcli "naked we" from blrfy 2 Cor. 5, 3 
{cf. Hen. 32,6 Note); cf. also JtMH»}> MM* • fl>* • hCft-fc 
$t "0 ye fathers of ours, who are solicitous for the Church" 
(MS. Berol., M.Berh. fol. 12 6). 

(&) A whole series of substantives, which have a Fern, form 
in the Sing., take the termination at in the Plural: — 

{a) Singular-Stems which end in t, with the exception of the singular 
type tfo^flC^ and ^^-nC^ ( 8 ), form the Plural in at, in which ^in^lT 
the formation itself proceeds in a different way. The greater in riurai. 
number apply the at externally to the t of the Sing., like ^iw»^ 
"year", taop*^^); only a minority form the Plur. directly from 
the Masc. Stem and so put at in the place of the Fem.-ending of 

O Cf. the like in Hebr., Ewald § 177,/".; in Syr., Hoffmann p. 253; 
and in Arab., Ewald § 301. In Arab, the fem.-ending for official names is 
comparatively common in the Sing. (Ewald, l Gr. ArJ § 284,4); in Ethiopic 

only a few forms of this kind occur in the Sing., with the ending yd (ib--): 

fat? "artificer", ?•&&? "cheat" (by profession), gh^C? "ambassador", 
"apostle". But this termination yd has at other times the force of a plural, 
v. infra, § 140, IV. ( 2 ) [But v. § 132,#. tr.J 

( 3 ) The following also are exceptions: avffl^, tf**^ /^flG^j 
flh-^h XMvh h0°^, <DA^-, 1-nfl^, "IrtUK^, and others. 

( 4 ) Cf. Hau*t, 'Sum. Fam: p. 73. 

— 296 — § 134. 

the Singular. Thus is it with most words of the type K^¥^" 
"wall" (§ 128 ad iniL), hiAK \ On&H* "well", 0H/H- (together 
with 0H*;J^); farther, ROC^, Mbft, hT-fr^ "cow" has V?» 
4* and fc-M^; MC* (XVC^) "cauldron", fclM.^, ffU^-, 
HU^ (and fttfC;H"); h^y°'Th "Winter" (from a Masc. *Jn<WP°), 
YM** !^ (or, with the inner formation h\l^9°)\ Rft*^ "island", 
&ii?'t", — 't'WC'fr "palm-tree", on the other hand, forms •f'aoC 
;Hh. The word ^T^h "nail" may, besides ty'T^'H*, take also the 
form tymfy (for 4*">*P^) *, Yf-A/ih "kidney" has tf-Aj'T* and tf«A 
^J-; and drt.'b "remuneration" has, — not dtif^, — hut flrt,^*!* 
(Hen. 105, 1), retaining the e and using only a semi-hardening 
(§ 40). For the rest, there are only a few additional Feminines 
which retain this more original form of the Plural: /hA'Hh "ring" 
takes the form ^h A«I , ;Hh as well as /hA^'lh (Ex. 30, 4, from the 
original Masc. form *rhA4*)- The much abbreviated word ft'V'l* 
"sister" forms the Plur. h^'Th* There are still a few more words 
which belong to this class, but the examples of them hitherto 
found occur only in the Plural: ty'V&sIr "goads", "spurs"; (Dl^^T 
"javelins"; i^ltt "raft", "cordage of a ship"; *^*7H^ "door- 
posts"; <C«to«fl*lh "female camels". 

The others apply at externally to the 4* of the Singular. But 

the assumption of a plural-form is mainly confined to concrete 

Common Nouns, like A7lh "hut", btiH* "day", 00^- "shrub", 

9°%^ "hermitage" &c. Pure conceptional words appear in the 

Plur. much more rarely, as TMlfllj^ih "strokes" (Hen. 69, 6), T9° 

Of* (Hen. 8,1), fl^h^^ (Hen. 71,12), ,h.£-Mh (Cant. 7,2), 

0i>.^.^.;|. (G-. Ad. 124, 7), \^p^ "benefits", "Imp^ "turnings" 

&c. — Some words belonging to this class, e. g. *^**1f*|h "door" and 

V)Aflfl*h "sheaf", take both the inner and the outer formations. 

(j3) On the Fem. Singular-Stems which have a vowel-ending 

v. infra, § 134. 

Many § 134. (c) Lastly, many Masculine Singular- Stems take this 

R . Ma '°- form of the Plural:— 

Stems tak- (a) It is most largely adopted, — without exception seem- 

piurai inglyC) — by all those words which have long a before the final 

Ending at radical, plainly because the presence of this a already in the 

Singular-stem is unfavourable to an inner formation involving the 

O Jflftft* "neck" takes both the outer and the inner formation. 

§ 134. — 297 — 

interpolation of another a. Accordingly we find: (1) ,^»A, ^*A*Th; 
"7JK., "Wh (2) Wi, "child", faW^, and in like manner ^<p, 
dm-i, TiV?°, fr*A, W£, T7£ (WH A*Pft, ^A, ^^% 
/h7flA, A^H-n and many others; (3) (l^A "feast", fl^^; £^£-, 
H-fl, rt"7£, +A£ (+A^^ and 4»A^), fiWi and others; (4) 
/^A"17 "dominion", /"A"^; -flCVJ, 4»ft^jP, #0C, -WC, 
GTJ, frl-J^W and others; (5) ^ftHli "command", ^KHH*>; 
*f"f)*i"}> •^Jtfl'fl; (6) almost all Names of places, of the type JP/fo 
^*T "temple", JPA^*?^; ?V»"Pd, <w>JT}, "^AE*, "^h &c; 
also 9°"?flC "way of acting", "mode of action", and similar forms. 
A number of other Stems, which have a long vowel before the 
final radical, also take this external Plural-form: didC "silk", 
ih6&A* "silk dresses"; -fK-C, -fK-^Th -flrfbC "land", -fl,h,^ 
(as well as the inner formation); ftfl,G "old woman", hfli<£-*Th and 
MW.'*h JrF>, TJ£C, M)A«A, AuP-fcA, ITJ& and others. 

(/3) T/ie greater number of Nominal Stems which end in long 
vowels form the Plur. in at, whether these vowels represent Femi- 
nine-endings, or have some other origin. 

In the case of those which end in a, the termination at blends 
with that a, e. g. *}«f "fish", <*"/•>; fl^lA "waggon", £<w»V "cloud", 
M"l£h "breast", JPT^A "quiver", (d">H>, mHV, hi*"?, tfvh, 
-f-^, -Hf*A, H.V, -TK Gf. Ad. 5, 1, and others) : —Also ?>*? "body", 
/^'"h H"7 "whore", H"?^; R^ x&pig, ffA "tabula". Even Ab- 
stracts in V:— "VA/? "faculty of thinking" and ft,? "smell" form 
the plurals tUS^C) and ftf^ (G. Ad. 4,12). 

Stems ending in e form the plural by changing it into yat, 
(lengthened from yaf), when that e is the Abstract-ending spoken 
of in § 120 (sprung from ia or iat) : — 9°tlfo "similitude", "parable", 

^ih; OWJrt,, OWJft^h Oh/im, "the interior", fl^T,?^- On the 

other hand e undergoes semi-hardening (§ 40) before at, if it has 
come from a and a Radical *, or is of obscure origin: dt "vermin", 
M?^ and deffy, in like manner R% "flower", "Mu "rabbit", 
<h& "fruit", ^d,?^, Kt?^ and <PC^ (the last not good); Yl 
"elephant" has Yl?^ (Hen. 86,4). Farther, %\i "time" has T.H, 

( x ) If this is not rather to be explained in accordance with § 122, /?. 

rt+A, Mi»?, Old* , -HiA fc?ft/P, a> A^, H-fl^, £-fl^, ft "W, 

#"f" have the Inner Plur.-formation, 

— 298 — §134. 

^h and &,£, "door" &,&,^ (cf. supra, p. 286 § 131, Note 2); 
V% "fog", ^ < V^; A*B "sickness"; £^1*; *79 ol V. "pitcher", 
which generally has the inner formation, may take the Plural °19° 
%$^ and (from ^d) "19°^ (Numb. 4, 9 Note) (*). 

Words ending in o which take this Plural are rare. The 
only such Plurals yet known are 1fl<P ; l* from -|fl "side" (of the 
body); ty&W^ from 4»£ "basket"; <£ft<P'1h "myriads" (Sing. 121); 
and ^A**.^, *7A < h*P'> [but also ^AC'Pl*, ^ra Nag. p. 
XXXII a], admittedly from a form (§ 121,/S) «7AG "carved work", 
— in all of which o is resolved into aw before atC). 

On those words ending in * which do not belong to this sec- 
tion, see § 132. 

(/) A few stray Nominal Stems, of comparatively simple form 
and ending in a consonant, take the outer formation at in the 
Plural. The following are the most important and most frequently 
occurring of these—: ft?" "mother", VY^; 18* "face", mA 
"dew", TJ4» "skin-bottle", £"fl "bear", £■£■ "foundation", ^ft 
"soul", -1£A "power", flCT" "ornament" flC^'l*, "IhK "table", 
"ftfA "grace" "favour", T^-fl "axe", i-flC "incantation" [Hen. 
65, 6], VP4» "box", #£-4» "alms", Ti^fC "tomb", J^A^A^ "an 
earthquake": Also Tfl*fl "wisdom", Plur. Tflfl^ "arts"; farther, 
Wf A "stag", rhClXT "crocodile", AlA "divination", KfG "air", 
HtfD-J "time", 0?M* "water-lizard", ^A0° "world", flrhC£"peari" ; 
£&A "letter of the alphabet" ( 3 ). Others admit of the outer for- 
mation in at, along Avith the inner : — 4*-ftA "wound", "I'fiC "thing", 
ia»4» "sack", rt?°C "productiveness", fl^A "plant", 1<w»A "camel", 
hA-fl "dog"; and with differing meanings JlC, V"l<J-'t* "affairs", 
"things", MPC "languages". The Plural-formation in all these 
stems proceeds without any change of vowels; but hA'fl forms 

hA0^( 4 ). 

O The inner formation is taken by— flCB, KC*B ? rhC"i and'F-C'k. 

( 2 ) 0<D-A° "storm" takes the form OOhtV^*^- — ^AW and^Clf 

take the inner formation. 

( 3 ) I'd A^, Gen. 30, 38, and d A*?^ Mark n > 4 can as y et be 8U PP orted 
only in the Plur. 

( 4 ) To be explained in accordance with Ewald, 'Gr. Ar. 1 § 300. Other 
views of the point are represented by Zimmern, 'Zeitschr. f. Ass.' V, p. 385 
and Philippi, l Beitr. z. Ass: II, p. 377, [and especially Nolbbkb, 'Zeitschr. f. 
Assyr. 1 XVIII, p. 70J. 

§ 135. — 299 — 

(d) Nominal Stems ivhieh have the formative prefix ao, § 116, Nominal 
usually take the inner Plural-formation, either with or without a st6ms witb 

„ . Prefix go, 

h em. termination, but sometimes too they take the outer formation: which 
mtYlC "miracle", aoy^i^-^ in the same way <7d£-<f»9», ooqz 80me times 
4»Jt; aofaoC "line", ao^ao^- ao^a^Q "psalm", tf»hC£ outer For- 
bade", aolfo&SttC "wheel" ( x ): ao^w^ "castigation", aofy ZtVl 
i»>£;Hh; aotyfr^r "pot", aofyfrp^, ayb&Xft "mitre", "7d£C 
p^. In others the outer formation appears, as well as the inner : 
"MAE* "tower", <f*qg; "flood", ^fcC "dwelling" (Ti£^ 
Hen. 59, 2), ^htlC "bond", a»t\i)ty "principalship" (ao&yp^ 
Gad, Lalib.) ; ^/hft,^, "Tdm?^, tf»/*"Pd ; h. There are, besides, 
a few of the Feminine Stems cited towards the end of § 111, a, — 
having ^ prefixed, — which admit of the outer formation: ■f-jF'Ji^ 
"wish", -MPi^^; ^h9°C*1h "mark or sign", "miracle", H'h^C 
;H*; 'V¥/ p ^ "joy", -l-^^'>; ^O^AJt "race", "family", 
'Thfl^A^^- — *h">fl/l"" prophecy "forms, in accordance with § 133 b, a, 

On a farther employment of the termination at, v. § 141. 

(b). Inner Formation of the Plural. 
§ 135. Agreeably to the natural bent of the Semitic langua- General 
ges to replace the Outer formation by Inner vowel-change, an th^nef 
Inner Plural-formation has been also developed from the Outer ( 2 ). p^™ 1 or 
The lengthening and broadening of the terminal sounds, by means FoTm™ 
of which the Plural-forms, given in §§ 132 — 134, have come into 
being, may be turned into a lengthening and broadening of the 
inner vowel-utterances of the Stem. Just as happens in forming 
the Imperfect (§ 91) and the Feminine of certain Descriptive words, 
i. e., Adjectives and Participles (§ 129), so, in order to construct a 
Collective word out of the word which denotes one of a class, a 
long or short a, more rarely a u, penetrates into the middle of 
the Stem as a kind of remains of the Feminine Plural termination 
at or the Masculine an (on), occasionally dislodging a-sounds of 
the Singular Stem and turning them into prefixes. This formation 
of new Collective-words by means of inner vowel-change, is there- 
fore only a continuation of the process of Nominal Stem-formation; 

( x ) Of. also ^Kfd "firmament", jP , ft"}<J^ and 9°^^^. 

( 2 ) Y. on the other hand Kokig, p. 86 sq. 

— 300 — § 135. 

and since the language regards and treats the new forms not as 
properly words indicating several individuals, but as abstract Col- 
lective Avords, they are with more propriety denominated Collective- 
forms than Plural-forms. In the multiplicity of these Collective 
formations Ethiopic approaches Arabic, in which precisely this 
tendency of the language luxuriates most; but even here it again 
exhibits its more frugaj disposition in the development and use of 
forms ; and inasmuch as it employs only the most important of pos- 
sible types of this formation, it is well calculated to elucidate the 
complicated Arabic system. All these Collective words, as falling 
under the general notion of Abstracts, may be conceived of in 
Ethiopic as feminine, and they sometimes even have in their for- 
mation a feminine 'ThO- In the usage of the language, they may 
— whether with or without a feminine termination — be treated 
either as masculine or as feminine, just like the ordinary Abstract 
(§ 130). Farther, in their character of Collective w T ords, they may 
be regarded either as notions suggestive of unity, and be associat- 
ed with a Singular in the Predicate and the Apposition, — or as 
notions suggestive of a number of individuals comprised in them, 
and accordingly be connected with a Plural in these parts of the 
sentence. Thus, for example, the expression "those days" may be 
rendered either by fO-hi* : tf»<Pd£V or by £h*fc s tf»<Pd A or X" " 
11: : troipfih or Vyi-fr .• tfo'PflA- 

The formation of a Collective itself is invariably regulated 
by the form of the Singular-stem, and accordingly such Collective 
formation falls into three main divisions : — (1) Forms from tri- 
literal Nominal Stems of the simplest kind; (2) Forms from longer 
Stems, especially from Stems of tri-radical roots containing a long 
formative vowel after the first or second radical, from stems with 
outer additions in the shape of Prefixes or Affixes, and from Stems 
of Multiliteral roots; (3) Special Forms, standing midway between 
these two divisions, of certain Descriptive words and Nomina 
agentis. — Several Nominal Stems have a two-fold or threefold 
Collective formation, — for the most part, however, without any 
difference in meaning. Alongside of these leading modes of the 
Collective formation, which are still active in the language as used, 

(*) Not at, which would of necessity turn them into words expressing 
a number of individuals, i. e. into Plurals. 

§ 136. — 301 — 

there occur in rare instances remains of other formations, still 
preserved in Arabic, which indicate that at one time Ethiopic also 
had a greater number of forms, but parted with the use of them, 
with characteristic frugality. On the accentuation of these Col- 
lective-forms in general, cf. Teumpp, p. 542 and Konig, p. 159. 

§ 136. I. Collective words from Singular-stems of the sim- x. collective 
plest formation from Tri-radical roots. To this class belong only ^°* d *j f ™ ™ 
#Singular-stems without the Feminine termination at or t\ for the stems of the 

«««..«. «. ». Simplest 

Fern. Stems (with the exception of h^T, p>bCfr, HltTh*, fT^, Formation 

llh-ih) take the outer form of the Plural (§ 133,5) or have other f ^Jf" 
Collective forms. Then, Singular-stems of the types *7flC» *7flC ^ 00t8: - 
and *|flC do not appear in this class, because the first of these 
three types has generally no plural at all or at most only an outer 
plural, while the other two types, in accordance with § 13*4, c, a, 
confine themselves to the outer Plural form. Accordingly the 
Singular-stems which fall to be considered here are those after 
the types *7*fl£, I'flC? 9flC> as well as a few Stems of the type 
PUC following the type 141C- 

1. The first and simplest Collective- form, Type *7flC comes l.coiiective 
from Singular-stems of the type "l-fiC and is produced by establish- fo ™' T ^ pe 
ing short a after the second radical, which is vowel-less in the Sing. , a ^* r \ 
Judging by the Arabic ( 1 ), we might even have this a lengthened; 
as yet, however, a can be supported only in the case of «f»^ft" from 
<Jr-£K "leg" (Cant. 5, 15; John 19, 31, together with h<l*?K 
Ps. 146,11; Judges 15,8) and <£?<»«, WB( 2 ) from <p*r«*h "way". 
For short a v. e. g. ft"Hl "ear", ftH'J; mediae geminatae: — ^h«7 
"law", /hT7; "Ml "pit", *7f|*fl ; tertiae infirmae: f^Cff** "root", 
'/**<UlK Farther, this formation is specially adopted by these old 
and much abbreviated words (§ 105 ad fin.) : h"fl "father", ftiw. 
"brother", &£■ "hand", h^ "mouth", fl£« "man", bb "tree",— in 
which u appears as third radical : ftfltf)*. ft"VD* (§ 44), ft&OH, 
hd.(D*, b&0>; bQO** The names of the parts of the body in men 
and animals frequently have this form of the Plural: *nCVl "knee", 
K-M "ear", (^J&ff), hxbl "bosom", ^C "foot", fflq. "wing", 
fr^G " na il" ? TGft = 0Cfl "molar tooth"; and besides these: 

O Ewald, l Gr. Ar: § 307. 

( 2 ) [If this form is not rather to be compared with Arabic ,-JvJti ; 
cf. Praetoeius, ZDMG LVI, p. 694.] 

— 302 — § 136. 

ATMl, Hr h-Mr, RIG, A-flC "colour", rt\ A, **A A, 1r*A4>\ 
(Plur. -WW"-), &7*A, d4"-C, °M1C, *7£-?°, T"><P &£<»- "frank- 
incense" may also be a Hurdle tantum. Yet many of these words 
admit also of the Plural-type X'VflC (v. infra No. 2) : — /^Ctf*", 

4*£x*, *Ar , mt», -ach, tofts, fcirc, mc, *mi, «rw, ff^c, 

and fhlf-fl, one plural of which, /hlf-fl signifies "tribes", and the 
other htl\H'(\ "nations": — there is a similar result in the case of 
bb, v. infra. That this type *7flC was at one time exchangeable 

for another type Juxi or J^ii cannot be proved. £4>4» "sons", 

which is always employed in a Plural sense and which therefore 
might easily be regarded as a Plural of £fl», is rather a Singular 
used as a Collective (§ 131, 2), as the mode of attachment of the 
Suff. Pron. indicates. In the same way fll-A-Jt "children" appears 
to be both the Plur. belonging to 0>A£* and also a Passive Part, 
used as a Collective ; but yet in certain passages it seems to denote 
"sow" in the Singular (Gen. 17,16; 18, 10 & 14; Cant. 5,10). In 
like manner ^Jtfl^C) "men" (Ps. 138,18) might be conceived as 
a Collective Singular (instead of the usual #£•) ( 2 ) : So long, how- 
ever, as such a type of the Singular is not otherwise supported, it 
may perhaps be permitted to regard dROh 'edewive as rather 

a Plural, of the type J^AJ (for d&Oh, like ^L| "brothers"). 

2.coiiective- 2. A second Collective formation, and the one in fact 

°liiilC* wh ich is most frequently found with all Singular-Stems of Simple 

(agbar). f° rni > takes a after the second radical, and ft as a Stem-prefix 

forming one syllable with the first radical, but never lengthened 

before Aspirates : Type hlQC- This form is adopted first of all 

by Singular- Stems which contain an a-sound, in particular by those 

which have an a after the second radical. Accordingly the prefixed 

h may be considered as an a of the Singular-Stem which has been 

thrust out of the stem by the interpolated a. Singular-Stems, 

O Cf. also Ludolf's Note on Ps. 72, 5. 

( 2 ) [Dillmann gives a very different account of this word in his 'Lex.' 
Under £,£■ he says (col. 1011) :— "Ps. 54,27. 138,18 exhibent fl.K'ID s £{J° : 
hostes sanguinolenti, quamquam primitus sine dubio fl£fl) ! &{P : legebatur; 
cfr. etiam Ludolfi annot. ad Ps. 72,5"; and, again, under df£(D* advet sarins 
(col 1012)— "In libris Mss. passim df^iB 9 s cum 0£fD« : viri perperam per- 
mutatur". tr.] 

§ 136. — 303 — 

which contain no a, share also in this formation, but only as a 
series of secondary importance. Very seldom indeed does this form 
take the Feminine termination ^. The intruding a is always long, 
with the exception of hf>0G>* "trees" (along with 000>«)*from fl^ 
(and K^/'ih v - infra). 

(a) This Collective form is the one used almost exclusively 
in the case of Singular- Stems of the type iflCO)? 6. g.\ *i*lC 
"speech", fc^C "languages"; HWl "tail", Mi^-fl; £<DA "dis- 
trict", K£*<PA, and in like manner: £A*7, rh^C, t^mlr, A^C, 
+An (1AA, IMfr, *?£■, h£C, 0ft£", H^^, H^Jt, H^C 1<w>A, 

(5) It is very common in the case of the Sing. -form *M1C 
(from which, it is true, the Collective forms hl'dC't' and hlUC 
also are often taken, v. infra): — 09°$: "column", ftfl"?^ &»flC 
"mountain", ftJtflC; mediae geminatae: wty "sack", hf^pty] 
0G "enemy", hd^C; primae vocalis: (DVA "month", \\G**l,A\ 
(Df/h "wine", YxGh^ "vines"; mediae infirniae: P$° "tree", ftfl 
ippo. pt£ "bird", hd<P*£; ft,-> "house", Mtf^- Besides. rh-flA, 
"M, i"C*, i*»C*7, m, ^A, ^J^K, rtC9°, AC, Afl^T, +9" A, 
fl/H, -Tr?°A, ^¥ s fl>4"P, ffl^C, flJ^-fl, 00>"£-, 0£*7, »£*A, 
HA*-*?, ££?°, 1Ad, ">C, *?°, ^>A KCfl-n( 2 ) "myriads" (from 

3b!) is a Plurale tantum. The plural of 'fh'J "shoe", \\l**M is 
aiso written (§ 47) h"/V} (v. Gen. 14,23 Note). The words 
fh4»A "field", fl£<£ "sword", "fVJ "shoe", fl : f-C "rod" have, 
along with this Plural, other forms in addition: ft/h^A and ft/h 

*A^; htl?V and fcfi£<h-ih; fc/**V> and h/»h*i ; fc-fl^C 

(Numb. 17,17) and K-I1"1"C- 

(c) But this Collective-form has also come into use in the 
case of the Singular-form *7*flG, and with even greater frequency 
than No. 1, — a circumstance which is the less remarkable, that 
many words vary even in the Sing, between the types *7»flC and 
"MIC- Thus A-flfl "garment" takes hMtl in the Plur.; 9°^C 
"land", h9°HC; 61^ "precious stone", hdSP-, 9°^ "hundred", 
h9°W\ A-fl "heart", hM'iV 9°^ husband", Kj>°;Hh HX* 

O Only a few have the Collective-form Md'C (§ 137 )» an M few 
again take the outer formation (§ 134, y). 

( 2 ) [Again a retreat from the position taken up in the 'Lex.', and an 
acknowledgement that Ludolp was right, tk.] 

— 304 — § 137. 

"companion", Ml^ft" ; X£" "hand", hM(V, as a side-form to the 
usual h£fl>«; /"C0>« 'root', fc/*Y«<D«; X"A9° "beard", hft<h9° 
In the same way (besides those already mentioned under No. 1) : 

aajt cv-n, -nc&, ?imi, h&<£, *i<fa, £-cfl, "M£-, t?, frcai, 

#£"¥> ^rhy*; and from a Feminine Singular - Stem ft^SF*^ 

"winter", Ml6-9° (along with the outer form h^^V'Th, § 133, &, a). 
To this section perhaps belongs also the Plurale tantum \\\2 % fc 

Very seldom does a Feminine termination occur with this 
second Collective-form. It is possible (in accordance with § 36) 
in words from roots tertiae gutturalis: — h^ ,a lth'\* $ oTrupa 
(Rev. 18,14), from 4*9°<lh( 1 )- Farther, from rhfr "arrow" {VAMX\ 
c f- fD), ft/hK'T*: So too from 'P'fl "the female breast" (originally 
tertiae infirmae) ftTfl'"f*> and from ft?" "name", ftft"?^. From 
&00>* "adder" (tertiae infirmae) comes the Plur. txVP^ (*V being 
applied to h<£0<D; from M^fl*-) ( a ). In hao^' "maid-servant" 
and rth"^" or ffii^ "street", the fern. ^- is treated as belonging to 
the root, whence Kh ?^ and ftf)h ; f or htfa^C)- 
s collective- § 137. 3. A third Collective formation, but one which was 

°™'J r ^ pe already decidedly dying out, contains an accented (Trumpp, p. 542) 
u after the second radical, and, — like No. 2, — ft as a prefix, Type 
ft*?fl*G( 4 )- This form is adopted by several words indicating per- 


( x ) But Y\fy([lt\'V "wars", from O'fifi, — which Ludolf quotes in his 
l Lex.\ col. 606, in accordance with his '(/ramw.' p. 108,— should be amended 
into ftdflft'h, a doubled Plural. [But yet Platt retains the reading (in 
Mark. 13,7) which Ludolf quotes, and so does Pra.etob.ujs in the reprint, tr.] 
So too, in Judges 8, 26, the word is not ftfD"H'fl*ih, as Ludolf quotes it in 
the 'Lex:, but ftflh'Kfl'K a doubled Plural. 

( 2 ) Cf. Praetorius, 'Amh. Spr.' p. 189. 

( 3 ) [A peculiar use of this second formation, — viz. its employment to 

form the inner plural of singulars representing the Arabic elative Juiif, — 
is exhibited in a passage of the Kebra Nag. (74 b 23 sq.) : ft$«*J«X" ! OftA 
*?£?'• h(h ai lC i flft'fl^.K"-' hYl*lG "precious stones, red ones along with 
black, and dark-brown with white ones", the respective singulars (t>«,A«f, >-♦=>!, 
[JQJtfSi sdSX) being directly imported from Arabic] 


( 4 ) In Arabic, Jotil, — which in Ethiopic must have the sound of 
ft*7*flC? — does not correspond so well as does J*jls : Cf. D. H. Mullkr, 

§ 137. — 305 — 

sons, and by those notions which are usually apprehended as Mas- 
culine, — which fact perhaps explains the presence of the vowel u 
instead of a:— fc£"7 "ass", hMSl, rh*A "field", ft/M;A (as 

well as fcA^A and fc/hfrA^); Off* bough", \xb%& (jjjji); 
<hftC "fence", frA^C; did. ! "vine-shoot", hfa^l, OlC "city" 
and "country", hVbC (hVPO, l^ft 'small copper coin', h°) 
iio-ft. Without Singular :— hj&tHt " Jews", MM "ear-rings";— 
and from a lost Singular, hh^°l "old men" (used as Plur. for 

4. A fourth Collective formation contains short e (at first 4. collective 
probably u) after the second radical, and likewise ft as a Stem- °*«\^T 
prefix ( 2 ): — Type h^l-flC- This form is rather less frequent even ^ g ^ r \ 
than the foregoing one, and seems to have been supplanted partly by 

No. 2, partly by No. 5. The most of the words which adopt it have another 
Plural-form besides:— <D«7C "hill", ht^lC {aiiger)\ •feR'A "leaf", 
fc'fx-X'AC 5 ); n^C rod", JwiT-C (and hHPQ\ -1ft A sack", 
MflA (and MflA Gen. 42,25; 43,22; 44,1); ?TC and JTC 
gleam", &7TC; */hA "bowl", ftfr/hA (and ftJV^A^); fl4»A 
"mule", MlfrA (and MlfrA^), ^K^ shoe", hrht (and ft/** 
ft*}). The Plur. hthCO^ "swine" (ahreww 6 ) belongs probably to 
a lost Sing. rhG<0"5 in the Sing, the form ih&Q*'? is used (Ps. 79,14 ; 
Lev. 11,7)(*), which no doubt is also a Collective. 

5. Of much more frequent occurrence, however, and, next to 5. collective 
No. 2 of this Class, the form in most general use, — is the form i<nji£*- 


ZDMG XXXVII, p. 366. It is remarkable that nearly all words of this form 
come from roots primae gutturalis. 

O On hM'tl c f- Dillmann's l Lex.\ col. 771. 

( 2 ) J.*i! answers in Arabic- On the Accentuation cf. Trumpp p. 542. 

( 3 ) Not <feftA; as Ludolf has it in his 'Lex?. [What Ltjdolf has in 
his l Lex.\ (col. 221) under this word «feft*A, is tlie following:— "PL f\^ 
JR"A : Marc. 11, 8, & «feftA s Deut. 12,2". Ludolf was thus well aware of the 
pl.-form which is given in the 'Grammar'' here; and as for the other plural 
form *feftA, which he cites, Prof. Bezold communicates a conjecture that 
"most probably Ludolf's *fejVA is a misprint for ^ftA? which actually; 
occurs' as plur. in Kebra Nag. 93 b 17". tr.] y 7 

( 4 ) {Cf. also Tab. Tab. 59 (Chrest. p. 121) and also Trumpp, ZDMG 
XXXIV, p. 236 sq., and Cornill ibid. XXXV, p. 650. Also Cod. Mon. Aeth. 
11, fol. 48 v° reads there fllArh^fl*",?.] 


— 306 — § 137. 

just dealt with, 4, increased by the Fern, termination ^: — Type 

(a) This form is taken only in a few cases by the Singular- 
Stem of the type "MIC: Cftft "head", ftCftft*, IhC "eagle", 
MftC*:;"TlMl " wolf "> MlMrt; ?IM1 bee", ft-JiMl^ (as well 
as ft*>y*fl) (say awser^ &c). 

(b) The form is usually found in connection with the Singular- 
Stem of type "MIC, or even from PUC. OfW "eye", hd&Tr^, 
fltf"} "corpse", h-aRTr^, fUC "sea", ft-fl/HC^ In the same 
fashion:, "7ftft, I14"-A, -MflA, *?°C( 2 ), V*d, >^d, hA-fl 
0ff?°, OX" 1 ?, HGft, 7 Ad, "MIC, ft Ad, ftl-fl, 0C*, 0Cfl and flCd, 
^A- Also, from rh4»A "field" (v. No. 3), fl^A "mule" (v. 
No. 4), flAA "bowl" (v. No. 4), ftp.^ "sword" (v. No. 2). From 
4»ft*3h "bow" comes htyhH' (for ft'J'ft'Hh), "I* being considered as 
a radical. From unknown Singular-forms: — h9°'t*'i't' "sinews", 

ft/^UG^ "new-moons"; ft^Ci^ "the young of birds" (&».*£{, 

Q^nhSS): probably also ftfD-ft^ "birds of prey" (Hen. 89,10( 3 ); 

.90,2; 96,2 for ftdfD-ft^ from &-*, eoU): From A0?° "ox", ft A 
09°^; ^Jtft "helper", ftCJtft^ (as well as ftC>!ft), fldA "rich", 
ft-flflA^; ^C/h "guide", "leader", hVCfo^ .; 0Clf) "friend", 
KdCh'h- Also the word h£rt« "serpent", may form, from hj&ft, 
— the ending I being left out of account (§ 118), — the plural ftVl 
JRft^, and in contracted form ftft.ft*]h (Hen. 20, 7) ( 4 ), while from 
h£ft« fth/ift^ is formed (§ 140). In like manner O'Jflfi "lion" 
(§ 131) forms 0"}*flfl'h (from 070ft, without prefixed ft, because 
is taken for ft, the formative bent having here proved misleading). 
/^dC^ "hair"( 5 ) forms (from «fflC) ft/^dC^- 

( 3 ) Arabic SUjiif. — On the accentuation v. Truhipp, p. 543. 

( 2 ) [The plural of this word is given in 'Lex.' as ft^j^G^, but ft*} 
JPC^f" * s a ^ so given there on Ludolp's authority, tr.] 

( 3 ) [Flemming reads in 89,10 ftlftC'f* instead of Dillmank's ftfll" 

( 4 ) [PiEMMiNG reads here ftl f l/(jft*]h instead of Dillmann's fth.ftT", 
besides adopting certain other slight variants of form and order, tr.] 

( 5 ) As if /^dC"lh were a nomen unitatis (§' 131) and *HtC or / M flC 
were only derived. But in point of fact f^dCH* is used quite as readily in 
a Collective sense, Ps. 39,17, as in an Individual sense, Matt. 5, 36.— ft 7*7/5 

§ 138. — 307 — 

§ 138. II. Collective words from certain longer Singular- II - 
Stems of tri-radical roots. Several Descriptive words of the type word!" 
given in § 108, o, c, as well as those Adjectives and Nomina agentis fr T 
which have been formed by doubling the Second radical (§ 117), longer 
have a peculiar formation, differing from the Collective-forms of 8te ^_!^ a 
the other longer Singular-Stems. That formation is brought about coiiective- 

00 ° form being 

by the essential vowel of the Singular-Stem after the second radi- of the Type 
cal being superseded by a short a, the fern. ^ being appended "MCt 
at the same time. To this a and ^ the force of a Collective Ab- ^ ga ar '' 
stract becomes attached. Moreover the transformation which passes 
over the Ground-Stem is so marked that this Collective-form looks 
more like a new formation directly out of the root: — Type 7fl 

1. This form comes into use most frequently in the case of 
Singular-Stems of the type 1(\£. For these it is the only practi- 
cable type of a Collective formation, and meanwhile it occurs 
oftener than the outer Plural-formation (§ 132, g). If it is allow- 
able to come to a conclusion as to Ethiopic, from that which is 
observed in Arabic, then we may assume that, in forming the Col- 
lective in these cases, the doubling of the second radical is given 

up (as in fS\ from JS\), although it has as yet been impossible 

to prove this from Ethiopic itself; cf. Tkumpp, p. 543 ( 2 ). Exam- 
ples:— #fn "the first", Q&f ^ (qaddmt); %A\&, "writer", 
"scribe", Rrh^; flfd, "swordbearer", flf^; rhAfc "singer", 
fhAJ&^lh VJ*e "hunter", 'lOOh^ (na'aut). But in words tertiae gut- 
turalis we have: — W<?\ "sacrificer", "priest", iP^Pfl^; and from 
roots with final m or &:— tfnflfO, "rapacious", <w>rtT; 01^ 
"reaper", 00£- (§ 54). The same formation occurs in the case of 

"1A£, "Vte, WK, rt^*> tl«L. &?& «"nk O^fl.' 1«^' ***•' 
R<Ml, and others. It is also met with, along with the outer forma- 
tion, in di^fL 0»?k, AT*., *J* , iLv+'Mi.. m^A., 0W &>& 

"condition of a foreigner" and "foreigner" (from a Sing. YU£) 8eems to be 

based upon a corresponding form in Arabic i^xij. 

(*) The corresponding form in Arabic is JJti or xXii, Ewald 'Gr. 
Ar.' § 312. 

( 2 ) Y. on the other hand Konig, p. 95. 


— 308 — § 139. 

Idd- Vill "priest of false gods'^ 1 ) forms liflHh and, with the 
mixed sound, iT^; so too t^ "shepherd" (from the original root 
bni + awi) takes f A-^ (for <? AaH*), as if <D were a part of 
the root. Compare also mTrfid* "soothsayer", m'J'feAlh Farther, 
the name ZOj?*^ "giants" is no doubt to be derived from a Sing. 
^*}ft., thus originally "shepherds", "shepherd people". 

2. A few Descriptive words, having % after the second radical, 
also adopt this formation (as well as the outer formation, § 132, 1,&); 

#m/J "thin", ^m?^; mtl/fl "wise", mfWtf-; ObS* "big", on 

£^: So too the Substantive rhfl. "warranter", rhflj^; in con- 
trast with which, other Substantives of this type have the formation 
given in § 140. Finally, the much abbreviated word 0y& "seer" 
(§ 114, c) has <**{£¥& (as well as "7C.P7 and OJC?^)- 

3. Of the Participle-type *7fl«C frfrfl** "pure", "genuine" 
has this formation, 4»ft<D"3% unless it be really founded upon a 
Singular 4»^.<D-. And thus too Jl/Hh "kings" might be derived 
from "J?*/**, and it would be unnecessary to refer it to the Singu- 
lar }p**l. which has become of rare occurrence in Ethiopic( 2 ). 

m § 139. III. Collective Words from longer Stems of Triliteral 

collective an ^ Multilateral Boots have but one single type: — long a after 

Words i"ii 

from longer the third-last strong Stem-letter; before it a syllable with a short 

Triwerai a > which only very seldom is reduced to e (or in Quinqueliteral 

and Stems two syllables with two short a's), and after it a syllable 

Multiliteral _ __ mi . . « -n -i i 

Boots:- with a short e (§ 60) ( 3 ):— Type 1dCC> This type is followed by 

inCC a11 Nominal Stems of Multiliteral roots (*);■ by all Stems of Tri- 

(a"b~ " ^ radical roots formed by external increase^); and lastly by several 

(*) It is a matter of doubt whether this word is to be derived from the 
root lVfl> = lVP or from pffi, J^. + awi=^^. 

( 2 ) a 7tfh*f m , — which appears frequently in the phrase ft^A : "fffh^* 

"orphans", and also in another connection in Lev. 11,40. and Deut. 14,21, 
Note,— is a word sui generis. I recognise in this word the Collective form 

JLxi (Ewald, 'Crr. Ar.' § 313). ^(O*^* answers completely to the Arabic 

fjiyo from o^.^} so that V)A : °7fl>*^" means literally: "children of 

those who are dead". But fll^fl>* "Pleiades" is merely the Ethiopic pronun- 

ciation of UyJ. 

( 3 ) Just as in Arabic, Ewau>, 'Gr. Ar.' § 314. 

( 4 ) With the exception of those which take the outer Plural formation. 

§142. — 317 — 

monly applied externally to Collective Stems which end in the 
Fern. fr:— hAUl^^ fcAU?°;H"; but when the Collective Stem 
ends in ut, the form wat is preferred to utat, although the former 
is not absolutely binding (§ 133, 6, a):— h°?fhfc VVd'Pfr; ao*$ 

§ 142. The various relations, upon which a Noun may enter i. The 

,i p , 1 n i yy Nominative 

in the course oi a sentence, — commonly called Cases — , are and 
represented in Ethiopic, just as in Semitic languages generally, vocative. 
only by a small number of special formations. A noun takes its 
place in a sentence, either without being dependent, — in other 
words as Subject, — or as dependent, whether on a Verb as Object, 
or on another noun as a Genitive. On these three leading positions, 
assumable by a Noun in the sentence, rest the Cases which are 
possible in Semitic languages generally, and which in Arabic, — 
the most perfect of these languages in this respect, — have received 
the impress of special Forms. These Cases are: the Nominative, 
— which may also be regarded as including a second species of 
the independent Noun, viz. the Noun when used in address, or the 
Vocative; the Accusative; and the Genitive. All those farther 
relations of a Noun in the Sentence, which are indicated in other 
languages by various other Case-forms, must in the Semitic tongue 
be either expressed with the help of Prepositions, — in particular 
the Dative by means of the Preposition A (§ 164), — or made up 
for by a wider application of the relational powers inherent in the 
Accusative and Genitive. But even these four Cases, which alone 
are possible in Semitic, have been by no means completely developed 
in all Semitic languages ; and in Ethiopic some of these Cases have 
received only a partial development ( 2 ). 

1. The Nominative, as the Subject-Case, has by way of 
antithesis the Accusative as the Object-Case. As Subject-Case it 

( x ) A remarkable form is the irregular Y\ t *i0Vfo. <n it\'[? (Ludolf, 'Lex.' 1 
col. 274) which Ludolf derives from *\ao A"7A- [V. also, on a few Plur.- 
Plur. Forms not yet registered in the Lexicon, Kebra Nag., Introd. p. XVIII.] 

( 2 ) In ZDMG XXXIV, p. 758 Haupt very properly opposes the view 
put forward by Hommbl,— that the original Semitic had a distinction of Oases. 

— 310 — § 139. 

2 collective- 2. All Nominal Stems formed by means of Prefixes and 

^NoLfnai 1 belonging to Tri-radical Boots, follow this Collective formation, 

Stems y J2, : 

which, have 

Prefixes (#) Nominal Stems having }\ prefixed, however it may have 

(a_C) originated: — M-flfl "tear", fc«?-nd; h'idm "locust", K?»fl<P; 
hlrtf'K "door", h^tyft: And with Feminine-ending (Names in- 
dicating Persons, and Names of Animals): — "h9°ih,Oh "ancestor", 
hn*** (for H^AxO**); hl&W "mouse", M^\ h9°<\h 
"God" (although itself a Collective-form, § 136, 2). h^&tft. A 
theological term has been introduced from the Syriac through the 

Arabic (from J^oxo, Ar. PI. |*ajU'I), viz. h^lfl "essence", "sub- 

(b) Nominal Stems having ^ as prefix (rare): *h?i$P G*]h 
"sign", +h9°C\ WW^ "camp", +■*£?. 

(c) Nominal Stems in great number formed by prefixing ao. 
Participles and Nomina agentis, it is true, have mostly the outer 
Plural formation (§ 132 /".), but sometimes also the inner, and 
indeed (being Personal-words) taking that form with *J* appended 
tfB^hG "counsellor", tfo^VYlC^; " D tl^'i "prince", aofiqi'iH" 
od^CI "trumpeter", tfo^CVih y°£tl "joint-heir", tnKPCtl^ 
0°dCG "mischief-maker", oo^CC^', f D \\o'}'} "judge", oo^Yi^. 
On the other hand ao^foffh "he who follows", "successor", forms 
aop&iOh without ^J\ Names of localities also, of the type 9°°l 
AC? — which mostly take the outer Plural, in accordance with 
§ 134, c, a, — participate to some extent in this Collective forma- 
tion: JPtfvJWl "temple" M^Ax), tf^C'fl'Th VblR "base of 
a column", rn>^jp»J^. 

This form rules almost exclusively in the case of the remain- 
ing words which are formed by prefixing ao, § 116; and then those 
Singular-stems, which have not the sign of the Feminine, generally 
take ^ in the Collective-form, especially Personal-words : ao AM) 
"ambassador", tfnAMrh; Wi&tl "spirit", tfnV^fl^; aoCT 
"key", 006,^%-, 'P^h "antiphone", Wpfh^ ; tf»hP^ "stool", 
ov^lftR- On the other hand we meet with ^chfifr "mother's lap", 
aoAxfy'i (Gen. 49,25); ^(tihk "a young one" ('lamb or kid' &c), 
"°'hi\t\\ "Vi&C "dwelling", <*»;*£■£; or with double form: tf»«fl 
^4» "lightning", <n»flc4» and <n»qc4»^; w'iftG "throne", ao^r 

§ 140. — 311 — 

tlA "nail", &c.( 1 ). Feminine Singular-stems generally take the 
Masculine form in the Collective: 0*f*"\Cft "net", fln^Ci a°&. 
PZft "jaw", ao^hi, <*>0A^ "day", (from ^OA^), <n»«PM; 
Wifr^ "temptation", ao^tiah (man&sew 6 or mandsw e )\ aoffiify 
"window", aofftiah, ao&tr^ "weight", tf»^£v<D«; <w»ftA/lh "a 
talent", <r»iiA£ (mak&hf for makdley e ) or <w>hA«; ^ftVh.^ "mir- 
ror", #w»ftrh£; D C1b'1r "herd"( 2 ), aofafrg, (mar&Y for marfcetf). 
Very rarely do they take the Fern, form then, as in «fl , Gfl*fl'lh 
"net", <w»^-*fl'fl ; |". Oftener they have both forms side by side : <n>T 
flrh^ "knife", <fl>flM|fh and noiMI/hl", and in the same way ao"} 
tyd't, 'Pf^Ovfr- This occurs with special frequency when the Sing, 
has already both Masc. and fern, forms: *n»'Hl<h and tm^fi^'t 
"region of the shoulder", oo^h\\^ and 0°^\\^T\ in like manner 
"7d# and Tfljtf* "lock of a door" ; £n>ft(DG and aof^OiC^ "car- 
rying pole" &c. 

From Quinqueliteral and longer Stems: ffofotl/l* "joint", 
tf^A^AJ^; n h'}$ "cithara", ODfatyah and tfnflvfe^; aDt(M[ 
d't "curtain or veil", tfDT-m'PAd an< ^ l|D 'J<Tl < PA0'l*. 

§ 140. 3. JT^e same formation occurs with many Nominal 3. same 
Stems belonging to tri-radical roots, which have a long vowel after occurring* 
the first or second radical or have a Vowel-termination, as well as with man y 

Nom. Stems 

with those Stems which have been produced from Multiliterals by of Tri-rad. 
abbreviation. The language, by inserting or attaching semivowels b^au,™ 
or by employing ft as a Stem-prefix, endeavours in various ways^owei after 
to enlarge these Stems, which generally have too small a number Bad ., r 
of firm letters to be capable of taking in the three syllables a-d-e, ^. ave * 
the last of which must be a shut syllable. The choice of the means termination 
adopted in such a case is usually guided by the form of the Singular. (a-c) * 

(a) In words which have i or e after the second radical, 
being originally Infinitives or Descriptive-words, two vowels come 
into contact, when a is interpolated after the second radical and 
the i ore passes into e. In that case the two vowels are first of 
all separated by means of the semivowel £( 3 ) taken from the i or 

O OBp^P^Y 1 "opponent", "enemy", and OD*ityfy*ti k "counterpart"! 
are to be conceived as Pluralia tantum. J- 

( 2 ) 0°C^ "bride" ( V£(UD) forms OO^fyOh, but with the 0* 
usually passing into £, 0D£'&$" 

( 3 ) It is the same in Arabic; Ewald, 'Gr.Ar.' § 317. 

— 312 — § 140. 

e ; and then Oh is usually substituted for this £ in Ethiopic, in ac- 
cordance with § 41. Thus from ID-rh.1I "river" we have still (D*h 
pXi^T ; from *Vn.M" "sin", -T^nj&Ti (Lev. 16, 16 Note ; Josh. 24, 19) ; 
from JV^4»^h "cake", R^£«K with £, as also in the Arabic word 

Hin£0 "natural disposition" («2CLb from XjLuJo). — On the other 

hand Oh has been inserted in all other cases: "lifluK'ih takes 
oftener the form "ViUHft; *^JO "iron", *i%ah'i : t m "iron tools"; 
4*{l*tl "presbyter", tyfltthtl't'. In like manner Fdity, has &^» 

oHh( x ) and f+pGhty^r ("Minutes" Hexaem. p. 27, lsgg.). So too 

we have ftpdhft "dropped honey" («aa.o); flftflWi "performing of 
marvels" (^cXj); and (I'hahC^ from -flrh,C "land". But Mliji 
"lord", which possesses a fourth firm letter in its prefixed ft, throws 
off the l without leaving a trace of it: hPhtl't' (§ 57). Similarly 
"htltljt "testicle" (§ 120) has Kflh^ [according to Ludokf] (and 
ftflh^Deut. 25, 11). The plural form OftO*-"}^ "doorkeeper" also 
seems to belong to the Sing. 0ft«£; cf. Dillmann's l Lex.\ col. 1022. 
"Words, having a or u after the second radical, follow the 
same formation. Thus fafl£* "neck" has the form \lttfShR (and 
hfl<D*.K*), and 4 ,< ?'3h "girdle" has ty t l(D* : t', without even the inter- 
polation of a in the first syllable. From f^U'ih "field" comes 1^. 
flHJ; from ^-flft^ "bread", "loaf" (Fern, of ^fl-li) -^fla^Tf. On 
the other hand 0*PC "blind" ("NJJ), with the second radical doub- 
led, has the form O^Oh-Q^ (Matt. 15, 14 old ed.), and ftft-flfl^ 

"finger" has hi\'(\(l («*Uol). From the PL A^? "seniores", 

"principals" comes a new Collective-form & m £ t (D m '} : fr (as a designa- 
tion of office). 

(&). Words which end in a or a£, must first of all reduce this 
termination to l or ly e , whether it has come from aw, awt or is 
merely a feminine termination; but in Ethiopic ew or ew e is always 
employed instead and all the more readily, when, — as in several 
of these words, — a final radical u has fallen out( 2 ). Thus A«M 

(*) This is the form also which is adopted by the editor of the Eom. 
N. T., Tesfa-Zion [as is pointed out by Ludolf in his 'Lex? tr.] 

( 2 ) The corresponding Arabic formations in this case are JLiti and 

(JLxi, from jLii and i^Jti. In ^V<6 "ways" Lev. 26,22; Deut. 28,7&25; 

§140. _ 313 — 

"tent" has the form ftpfrOh, fifto? "sole of the foot", flVJOH; 
•fXhtl "shoulder-blade", -hhftlD*; (D&H "young man", with fem.- 
ending <D4-ftfh. 0»A^ "shield", <D<V"|-0>-: 1MUJ "hide", "pelt", 
Hflfrm-; %p "series", JW^fl*-; Hd/J "white", R^J^O>«; rt/V.^5 

"page" (of a book, asXilcc Ace), rtA£*fl>-; 7fl;J« "plate", "plat- 
ter", Ifl^OK From yf-V^h "stabbing-weapon", for which fa.?^ 
is also used, come XtpplQh and ftftOh (cf. supra \\iiOhg). 

But words which end in a formative e retain * or y e in the 
Collective -form, without changing it into we; generally, however, 
they take the Fem.-ending at the same time : "If*^ "pitcher" 
forms l"?^ (and 1^6(0*) together with "If ^^ and "19°^ \ 
while rtC«B "army", fcC* "beast", dxCI "ram", have fl^*^, 
h&'gH', tUt-X^- So to ° Irlefh/V "the region of the neck" 
("neck") is probably just a Collective form from T^C*^ (cf. D^WS), 
and ft^J. 1 ^^ "the region of the haunches", a Plur. in like manner 
from a lost Sing. $?£%. 

(c): Several other Stems take ft as a prefix, in order to pos- 
sess four firm letters. Thus from p^t "ghost" "demon" comes 
hP'iTr^, from -fld^JK. "draught animals" (TJ>2), K06C; and 
from hj&rt. "serpent", Mi£f|^ (as well as fchj&fl^ § 137,5,6), 
and in like manner h^ffh^ "bowels", from a lost Sing. (cf. 

^xx, Ajuo! and D'tfB). From *nfl<p "young of the flock" comes 

ft"10*P, retaining the concluding d( l ) (Hen. 86, 2). Curiously 
enough, several tri-radical Stems even, of the simplest formation, 
take this Collective-form ( 2 ) : Vf\d "rust in grain", h^ttd and fa 
+\d "insects that injure the grain"; flld and fl*7d^ "sheep", ftO 
«7d* and Kind; Olli. and m/V.^ "goat", K«M,; *9°C "tiger" 
(besides MfQ^ § 137,5,6), M^C^ ( 3 ). Farther, fl)A^ "daugh- 
ter" takes the form M&R. 

IV. A much simpler kind of Collective formation, which 

Judges 5, 6; 20, 32 (from Qf), a fem.-ending e is attached (^-1) : Cf. Ewald, 
l Gr. Ar.' § 319 sq. 

O Cf. Ewald, 'Gr. Ar: § 319. 

( 2 ) Just as in the Arabic Jjof, itC)t, Ewald, § 318. 

( 3 ) These formations may be regarded as constituting a new -Collective 
form taken from the most obvious Collective form, such as fr'Hld, ft*fl,?fl 
&c, just like ft^VAVl^ "gods", from KjP*Ah- 

— 314 — § 141, 

iv. Traces however is now recognisable in Ethiopic only by a few remains, is 

collective produced by the use of Abstract terminations proper to the Fern. 

3?oimation, #^ T^g f rom the professional designation ft/}£ "artificer" 

byT P piying(§ 133, a, Note), the Collective may be formed externally, as fo/J 

Te^nt P^ ( v - su W a \ but also witn the termination at coming into the 

tion B proper place of ya, as Vti^ and YO^- From WJ^ "cake baked under 

t0 stag m ' hot asnes " comes the Collective Wijh (v. Gen. 18, 6, Note). In 

particular the termination yd, iyd (§ 120), which has been derived 

from the relative pronoun, is employed for this purpose^): K'JA'lt' 

"woman" may, like *fl?irt. "man", be itself used as a Collective; 

but when the Plural has to be expressed definitely, the forms hit 

Ml$ and httl^j? "women-folk" are used. In like manner we 

have h4M.? "rings" (Ex. 35, 10), and hC ?? "Heathen" (from 

hC^f, = K^"7^) Rom. 10, 12 (old ed.). 

While a Proper name is held to be indeclinable, it may be 
raised to the Plural in outward form also by prefixing }%ti = "those 
of':— hh- PC^th "giants" Gen. 6,4; 14,5, although ^CO A may 
be put in the Ace. .pCflrh, Gen. 10, 8. So too hA « flflfl1= "the 
Seven" (Ludolf, 'Lea;.'). 

(c) Plurals of Plurals. 
piurais § 141. Besides the power of forming the Collectives which 

have been described, Ethiopic possesses a peculiar aptitude for de- 
riving, from Collectives produced by inner formation, new Plurals 
by means of outer, and in fact feminine, Plural-endings. Of such 
aptitude it has made so extensive a use, as to be in this matter 
unapproached by any other Semitic speech ( 2 ). Every Collective, 
in fine, is capable of being regarded as a single compact notion; 
and when such a notion has to be marked as presenting itself in 
multiplex form, a new Plural of the same may readily be fashioned. 
A language, endowed with such an aptitude, enjoys a peculiar 
brevity in expression, and is enabled to render in a single word 
notions which in other tongues stand in need of several words for 
their description. The possible applications of this faculty are, 
however, manifold. 

1. Several words in the Plural express only one single notion, 



C 1 ) Of. Ewald, '<?n Ar: § 323. 

( 2 ) On the Arabic cf. Ewald, 'Gr. Ar: § 326. 

§ 141. — 315 — 

and therefore admit of a new Plural in the sense of a number of 
these being present. To this class belong the conceptions brought 
forward in § 131,2: h9°A\l "God", fcjPflA "image", h9°mt 
"measure", hC?9° "heaven", h^Hh^ "bowels", Ml9° "writing- 
appliances", ao^^C "grave", -th9°C "sign", oo^CI "ladder" 
(from oydCI "step") &c; and accordingly we have the Plurals: — 
h^Ml* "Gods", (cf. infra 5), hrhtfir, hFmtt, hC?"!*, 
hld*?^, H^A ?^, trop-n^ (Matt. 27, 52&53), *&?%*, 
"o'iCP^- So also 00^ "groves of trees", Deut. 28, 40, 42 ; 
and from 0fc£- "court", h6%£ "farm-yards" and hdftffi "several 
farm -yards" Josh. 16, 7 &c. 

2. In particular the Names of rivers, lakes, mountains, 
roads, localities, circles, doors, instruments, times, months, coun- 
tries, and nations, — may, with reference to the parts, of which 
they consist, stand in the first Plural but with the force of an 
ordinary Sing.; they then easily admit of a second Plur., often 
where the simple Plur. might have been expected: ft<PA*7 and 
h^HP* "rivers", M^«7 and Y\b$tt "lakes" (Lev. 11, 36), fc£« 
flC and ftjtfl^^ "range of mountains", ^Oh and 'PS*^ 
"ways", "roads", hdWR 1 and hdWffi "seats at an assembly" 
('circles') Matt. 23, 6.— Also hK'Pt and hKWtt "fortifications", 
hfl^H'fl and hOhfSft "ear-rings", iMB*?^ and \\Ohp$s\r 
"bracelets", ao^Oh and ao^tp^ "doors" (inasmuch as a door 
itself frequently consists of several parts), JWftTA an( ^ fSfC^ 
"cymbals", aoffiQift and ^rt^^^ih "citharas", aoft^rOh and 
tfn : V|-<p;|. "lamps", ftTi*?? and hlf"?*^ "times", hOhfrt and 
hOhfrtt "months", hlPR and hlPffi "tribes", hVtC and 
hWb&ft "cities". In many cases in which those second Plurals 
are employed, the underlying idea is, "in their various kinds", e. g. 
fcXtoyq^ "times", in their various kinds, such as — 'seasons of the 
year, years, months &c.'; h&*P&Y Hen. 8,1 "rings of every 
sort", &c. 

3. Every Collective may be raised to the second Plural,— 
with or without the accompaniment of -AIM "much", "many", or 
Vf-A- "all"—, for the purpose of expressing Multiplicity, Multitude 
or Universality. Thus : — ft kMTP^ ■* tf-A-^O) " a11 oxen " 

Q) [Flemming reads in Hen. 87,4 (D Vf-ft-fl 1 * ; in 70,3 ftJhQAv and 

<wfldA^ in 53 > 3 - 4 - TE «] 

— 316 — § 141. 

(Hen. 87,4), tf«A«: hfoM^ "all the districts", Gen. 13,10; tf-A»->: 
hWV'l' "all herbs together", Mark 4,32; hf^pp^ "all the 
coverings of hair", Numb. 4,25; hb^i^T "all birds", Gen. 8,19; 
hKUhfr "all wars"; hhSAJf "the nostrils of all the people", 
Numb. 11,20; MbbP^ "every fountain" (Hen. 89,3); or hh 
A<£. ! hftA&'Th "myriads of myriad-masses" ('hundreds of millions'). 

4. If the Plural of an idea is already assignable to a single 
individual, the Plural of that Plural is formed, whenever it falls 
to be ascribed to several individuals. Thus, for example, a single 
man has h^th^ "bowels", but several men have h'^d'PH*- 
Hen. 70,3 reads: 'The angels took KrhflA+C) "cords'", because 
each took ft/hflA (although in the corresponding passage 61, 1, 
only fcrhOA appears). For the same reason exactly, ao(\fyt{^ ( x ) 
"tools" appears in Hen. 53, 3, 4. One "code of laws" is ao^ghA*' 
AT7, but "codes of laws" can be expressed by aoftthQ't : Al 
pfy. Thus one may say H(U\0>~d ('a man of enchantments') "a 
wonder-worker", "conjuror", but in the Plural ft A : (Iftah*}^ quite 
as well as ftA ' flfttfWk- 

5. A distinction must be drawn between the cases which 
have been named, and cases like the following; when, for in- 
stance, A*^ > *J "principals" and ^7/*"*^ "kings" enter upon a second 
Plural for the purpose merely of denoting the dignity still more 
specially, as in A^V'Th and ti^^O^Tr^, Y\t* f $*'Y\ or when external 
Plural-endings, either masculine or feminine, are annexed to a Col- 
lective-form of a Personal- word, simply to. distinguish the gender 
more definitely. Thus if one means to use with more precision 
the word tfo'JfHl (from a 7dfl'fl) i. e. "widowers" or "widows", he 
says tfD'JAfl'J "widowers", and # Dl )flfl*3h "widows"; and so too 
" D ^4*fl^ "watchmen". The termination at is also appended to 
h'P&.K' "daughters", making h'PA/I'lh to indicate the gender 
more exactly. 

The formation of this second Plural is effected regularly by 
appending the termination at (seldom an), and is therefore an 
outer form ; it is only in the case of t\9°Wl and ti^^Tf that the 
new Plural takes the inner form ( 2 ). "The ending at is also com- 

(*) [See Note on p. 315. te.] 

( 2 ) Irregular forms, influenced by Amharic are found in <n>£*P/]h*|*j 

§142. — 317 — 

monly applied externally to Collective Stems which end in the 
Fern. fr:— hAUl^^ fcAU?°;H"; but when the Collective Stem 
ends in ut, the form wat is preferred to utat, although the former 
is not absolutely binding (§ 133, 6, a):— h°?fhfc VVd'Pfr; ao*$ 

§ 142. The various relations, upon which a Noun may enter i. The 

,i p , 1 n i yy Nominative 

in the course oi a sentence, — commonly called Cases — , are and 
represented in Ethiopic, just as in Semitic languages generally, vocative. 
only by a small number of special formations. A noun takes its 
place in a sentence, either without being dependent, — in other 
words as Subject, — or as dependent, whether on a Verb as Object, 
or on another noun as a Genitive. On these three leading positions, 
assumable by a Noun in the sentence, rest the Cases which are 
possible in Semitic languages generally, and which in Arabic, — 
the most perfect of these languages in this respect, — have received 
the impress of special Forms. These Cases are: the Nominative, 
— which may also be regarded as including a second species of 
the independent Noun, viz. the Noun when used in address, or the 
Vocative; the Accusative; and the Genitive. All those farther 
relations of a Noun in the Sentence, which are indicated in other 
languages by various other Case-forms, must in the Semitic tongue 
be either expressed with the help of Prepositions, — in particular 
the Dative by means of the Preposition A (§ 164), — or made up 
for by a wider application of the relational powers inherent in the 
Accusative and Genitive. But even these four Cases, which alone 
are possible in Semitic, have been by no means completely developed 
in all Semitic languages ; and in Ethiopic some of these Cases have 
received only a partial development ( 2 ). 

1. The Nominative, as the Subject-Case, has by way of 
antithesis the Accusative as the Object-Case. As Subject-Case it 

( x ) A remarkable form is the irregular Y\ t *i0Vfo. <n it\'[? (Ludolf, 'Lex.' 1 
col. 274) which Ludolf derives from *\ao A"7A- [V. also, on a few Plur.- 
Plur. Forms not yet registered in the Lexicon, Kebra Nag., Introd. p. XVIII.] 

( 2 ) In ZDMG XXXIV, p. 758 Haupt very properly opposes the view 
put forward by Hommbl,— that the original Semitic had a distinction of Oases. 

— 318 — § 142. 

is without relation; while the Casus obliquus invariably involves 
a relation to some word on which it depends. Originally the un- 
related Case was not denoted in Semitic languages by any special 
formO; but the pure Nominal Stem, affected only by gender and 
number, was able to take its place in a sentence at once, as in- 
dependent word, when that was called for. Northern Semitic 
tongues, at least, have remained at this stage. Arabic, however, 
has advanced a step. As it denoted the dependent character of 
the Object by a termination affixed to the Nominal Stem, so it 
denoted also the circumstance of independence by terminations^). 
Ethiopic in this matter rather sides with the Northern Semitic. 
But at all events it exhibits in the greater number of Nominal 
Stems a different vowel- ending for the independent Case from that 
of the Object-Case, and thus in a certain sense shows a Nominative- 
ending contrasted with the Accusative-ending. In the department 
of the Pronouns the Personal Pronoun in the independent Case 
has the ending t*="he", for the masculine gender, and ? = "she", 
for the Feminine. The same thing is found too in several other 
words, particularly in the Numerals, e. g. hdi^ "one" (m.), ft#h"fc 
"one" (/".). Now, seeing that Arabic also takes u as the termina- 
tion of the Nominative of a Noun, and that a like phenomenon 
presents itself in kindred languages! 3 ), and that farther it is to be 
assumed, in accordance with phonetic laws (§ 38), that Ethiopic 
Nominal-Stems also ended at one time in vowels, and that some 
other vowel- ending must thus have existed wherever the vowel- 
ending of the Accusative was wanting, — we are brought to the 
supposition that in Ethiopic also, those Nouns which now end in 
the third radical, had once a vowel-ending in the independent 
Case. Various traces, — chiefly in the written character — , indicate 
that this ending was the short indeterminate e(*). The fundamental 
antithesis between Subject-Case and Object-Case was thus at one 
time also signified in most instances by contrasted terminations. But 
Ethiopic seems never to have made any attempt to denote in ad- 
dition, by means of different vowel-endings, the other contrast which 

O V. Ewald, 'Hebr. Spr.' § 202, a. 

( 2 ) Exactly as the relations of the verb are, or were, denoted by the 
kind of vowels which form the terminations. 

( 3 ) V. Ewalp, 'Hebr. Spr.' p. 450, Note 1. 
(*) Otherwise Barth, ZDMG XLVI, p. 685. 

§ 142. — 319 — 

obtains between Nominative and Genitive : it was Arabic alone 
that took this forward step. The one termination e was charged 
in Ethiopic with signifying both the Noun in its independent condi- 
tion and the Noun as depending upon another Noun. In this way 
any specific meaning in that e as a mark of the Nominative was 
taken from it. Besides, the entire development of vowel-expres- 
sion tended to render the short e more and more fugitive, and in 
certain circumstances to oust it altogether (§ 37 sq.) ; and there- 
fore, in the end, Ethiopic completely gave up marking the Noun 
in a merely general way, and as a consequence the Nominative, 
by any vowel-ending, — while on the other hand it continued regu- 
larly to mark the Accusative. It was only in certain cases, viz. 
those in which the demand was enforced by syllabic structure or 
by the phonetic character of the last radical, that the eof the 
Nominative-Genitive had to be more tenaciously retained, as has 
been pointed out in detail in § 38. 

And if even the Nominative is not outwardly marked, still 
less is the Vocative, which does not present so direct an antithesis 
to any Case, as the Nominative does to the Accusative. The 
Nominal Stem, as a rule, suffices for the Noun in address. And 
yet Ethiopic from another side has made a start in the independent 
development of a Vocative. Just as in other languages, the Voca- 
tive may here also be indicated outwardly by the apposition of an 
interjection, — the accented (Tbumpp, p. 544) particle fc (§ 61), 
e. g. hlUC'-^C "(0) Thou good servant!" Luke 19,17; hhttl 
^f "0 my wives!" Gen. 4,23; fc^a^AJt • M*^ "0 perverse 
generation!" Luke 9,41; hYx'df^ "Thou fool!" Luke 12,20; hh 
7rt, "O So-and-so!". In Ethiopic a farther step has been taken, 
and Yx has been appended to the Noun (*), and a beginning made 
of a true Case-form. This kind of Vocative-form may at one time 
have been more extensively used in the language, but it is now 
confined to a few words which are frequently employed in the 
Vocative. The aspirate then regularly falls away from \\ (§ 47) ( 2 ). 

( x ) Just as other Oases, in Semitic and other languages, have ori- 
ginated in the attachment of short words, chiefly from Prepositions or 

( 2 ) That the relation of the Construct State is not affected hy this 
form is maintained by Ludolf, '(Jr.' 111,7, appeal being made to Ps. 83, 1&4; 

— 320 — § 143. 

Thus we still frequently meet with hlfLh "Lord!", e. g. in Ps. 8,1; 
Matt. 7,21; Vp» (Org.) and h<n* "mother!"; 'fl'hM "woman!" 
John 4,2.1; 20, 13 & 15. How largely }\ in this combination has 
parted with any emphatic meaning which it had( x ), is evidenced 
by the fact that now and then a second ft is prefixed to a 
Vocative which has been formed in this way : — ft-flhA.*^ "0 
woman!" John 2,4; Matt. 15,28; cf. Peaetoeius, ZDM.G XL VII, 
p. 388 sq. 

Besides, it is only the word ft»fl "father", which possesses a 
special Vocative fcfl (Gen. 27,18; 22,7; Matt. 11,25; Luke 15,18, 

21 &c), — probably an Accusative (as in the Arabic ^L^n U), since 
the Accusative of JMI? at least before Suff. Pronouns, has still the 
form ftfl (§ 154) ( 2 ). In the large majority of cases, however, even 
in Ethiopic, the Vocative is expressed by the pure Nominal Stem : 
■MIC* Kfc£ "wicked servant!" Matt. 18,32; 25,26. 
2. The c 143_ 2. The Accusative. Of the ancient antithetic markings 

Accusative: " ° 

usual of the Nominative and the Accusative, Ethiopic has retained and 
When ^uch carried on the latter at least. In contrast to the e of the Nomina- 
Marking tive-Grenitive, the Accusative was denoted by a final a, both in 
exhibited, the department of the Pronouns and in that of the true Nouns. 
In this respect Ethiopic completely agrees with Arabic. But this 
a, in certain cases, takes the fuller form V ha\ and, when every- 
thing is duly considered, there cannot remain a doubt that y 
is the ground-form, of which a is only a truncated remnant. 
This is an impersonal demonstrative particle (§ 62) with the force of 
"here" or "there" ( 3 ), and in origin it is certainly identical with the 
Hebrew n— of direction. It thus indicates primarily direction 
towards an object, — towards which the action is directed as being 
its peculiar object: h^d •• 'tthtU't " ne l° Yes ( in the direction 

but in his own edition of the Psalms he has printed, not V7H.& s ^fttf^ 
but V7H.K •' -W>. [V7H> » *W>, however, appears in the "Book 
of the Mysteries of Heaven and Earth" (ed. J. Peebuchon, Paris 1903), p. 9, 
1. 1; cf also Peaetoeius, ZDMG LVIII, p. 487.] 

O [On the farther development of this ending o, cf. Noldeke, '■Beitr. 
z. Semit. Spr.\ p. 72 and Note 3.] 

( 2 ) Cf, besides, K3K [and Noldeke, 1. c. p. 71.] 

( 3 ) Of like meaning are the similarly enclitic %, and the affixes % and *g 
(§ 160) derived from another demonstrative root; the Amharic Accusative- 
sign en proceeds from \. 

§ 143. — 321 — 

of) a woman". And this explains at once not only the appropriate- 
ness of such marking to indicate the subordination of an Object 
to a transitive verb, but also the peculiar use of the Accusative 
(in Semitic generally, and therefore in Ethiopic) for relations, 
which in other languages are expressed by other Cases. The Ac- 
cusative is employed here, like the Locative in Sanskrit, in space- 
reference to express continuance in a place or motion towards a 
place, in time-reference to reply to the question 'When?' or 'How 
long?', and in fine to indicate any reference whatever in a statement, 
e. g. •f'l AfllVh * 7fl "she was veiled, — as to her face" (v. § 174 sqq.). 
These various meanings of the Accusative are fully explained by 
the fundamental signification of the particle y. The following 
details regarding the Accusative-formation fall to be noticed. 

The original form of the Affix y, which invariably takes the 
accent (Tkijmpp, p. 544), still appears in Proper names pretty reg- 
ularly. To be sure it is not absolutely necessary for a Proper 
name to take the sign of the Accusative, in order to be turned into 
that Case, for, precisely as being a Proper Name, it is accounted 
fixed and indeclinable and never enters upon the Construct State, 
and is thus enabled to dispense with the sign of the Accusative. 
Indeed in the majority of cases occurring in existing Manuscripts, 
the Accusative-marking of Proper Names is wanting, especially 
when the Accusative is easily recognised as such from the context, 
e. g. Josh. 22,23; 24,4. But when a sign does make its appearance, 
it is always ha (never a) (*), because it is not so closely knit to the 
Stem as is the form a, but is more externally attached, and also 
because it does not alter the ground-form of a Name which ends 
in a vowel. Above all, in the case of Compound Names, — which 
are very common in Ethiopic — , this more external attachment 
of the sign is altogether necessary. Thus: £|h*jy "Judah" (Ace.) 
Matt. 1,2; HCfc'^CW; Mli.K-flih.Cy-, ft-fl£ ■ HJ&W. For 
numerous instances of Proper Names in the Accusative, with and/ 
without y, v. Matt. 1, Gren. 4. This y, so applied, denotes farther 
all the relations which are otherwise expressed by tfce Accusative, 
e.g. 0,1* s Arh»9°y "to Bethlehem" Matt. 2, 8; but they may also be 
conveyed without y, e. g. £Dfl<6 jt i ^CS\f9° "and when he came 

( 6 ) [And yet a seems to occur in the Kebra Nag., p. 12 (Note 14). 
where in four MSS. the Ace. of fj*}£* "India" is given as U"}&.] 


— 322 — § 143. 

to Capernaum" Matt. 8,5. y is frequently met with. in poetry, at- 
tached to words even which have the A of direction prefixed to them : 
{^9° * SWIA : tihCPHPM •" #A.fl (Ludolf, 'Or.').— But even in 
appellative Nouns this y appears, although very rarely, instead of 
the usual a, e. g. ">Ay "the cave" (Epist. Zar'a-Jacob, in Ludolf's 
l Comm.'); cf. also hid**/- Moreover it is still preserved as a 
(without the breathing) in a few words used adverbially, § 163. 

The sign of the Accusative is usually attached to appellative 
Nouns (Substantives, Adjectives, Infinitives) as an unaccented &C) 
(cf Teumpp, p. 544 sq.), both in Singular and Plural forms. "When 
the word ends in a consonant, after parting with the e of the 
Nom.-Gen., a is simply annexed: "itf "king", "}*hi*», Plur. J? 
/"•f-; so with Ml "father" (Matt. 3,9; 15,4); 6Tr&- "precious 
stone", d"}«fe; M* "brother", ft>, Gen. 43,6 & 7, or 1tf(D 
Gen. 24, 29. Words which have a in the last syllable, lengthened 
by the influence of an Aspirate, retain this a in the Accusative, 
e. g. '*i a l'h "want", Ace. ^"lft. But when the Stem ends in a 
vowel, a distinction has to be made between e, o, a on the one 
hand and l, u on the other. With e, o, a the Accusative sign 
does not combine in the form y as might have been expected, but 
a blends with these vowels into e, o, a, whatever their origin may 
have been (§ 39). Forms like d'Old- "dthara", RT, flower", 
hCB "beast", &&> "army", 0(1 "dew", «7AC "carved work" are 
the same in the Accusative as in the Nominative; and possible 
ambiguities may have to be avoided by a periphrasis of the Accu- 
sative with the help of a Suff. Pron. and a following A (§ 172). 
There are no Nominal Stems ending in u. When u does occur, 
e. g. in Yf*A" "all", or in hthtf. "one" (m.), it is of Pronominal 
origin; and these words accordingly form their Accusative after 
the manner of Pronouns (§157 sq.). Of words ending in I, those 
in which I is a Suffix Pron., like htMl "one (/".)", also fall under 
the rules of the Pronouns (§ 158). But, over and above, there are 
many other Stems which end in a radical I (e. g. tn*Q& "fruit- 
ful"), or in a^formative l (e. g. mti, "goat" for mAjj), or in the 
Adjective-ending I: It is the rule for these not to harden the I into 
y, but to turn the i-a of the Ace. into its equivalent e, in accordance 

(*) There is a special reason for the length of the a in the Accusatives 
of several -words, before Suffix Pronouns (§ 154). 

§ 143. — 323 — 

with § 40: •flftA. "man" takes the form »nK&-, ft-fl^ * V*C$"% 
Gen. 10,30; did^'- <lhfh Gen. 49,15. mA, also forms mA»; 
and only in cases in which I alternates still with ey e (§ 51), as in 
0°<£C£> and aoq.& ao\\&¥* and <w>hA«, H&C£ and ft^, is the 

Accusative-form tw^Cf , 0°h&¥, flrhCP the usual one, although 
the other is not impossible. 

Alongside of this,' the usual Accusative-form with the majority 
of Nominal Stems, cases occur, in which the form is abandoned, 
or is not exhibited. The discussion of these cases properly belongs 
to the Syntax, but still it seems more to the purpose to bring them 
together at tbis stage. 1. When the Accusative-construction is 
continued through several members of a sentence, it is now and 
then parted with in the later members, after the Accusative has 
been indicated in the first member of the series, or in the opening 
members, e. g. Numb. 19,16; Hen. 22,10, — or in tne case °f a 
word which is set in apposition to the Accusative, as in Ex. 31,18( 2 ). 
2. When the Accusative is definitely determined by means of a word 
introduced by fl, whether this be a mark of the Genitive, or the 
Relative, the form of the Accusative-relation may on that account 
be renounced, e. g. Ex. 35, 22 (F. H.) hOhpd. s <0tf"A- i ACT '• 
HfflC* (for <Dtf«A»: rtC»; Numb. 8,8 £Vh« s M)9° * H*J<Hh 
(for AU<w») ; Numb. 19, 10 & 21 £*!-•} -. A*7 1 HA*J A?° (for /*,?, e. g. 
Gen. 17, 7) ( 3 ). This is explained by the Attraction of the Noun, 
— very common in Ethiopic — , effected by the Relative pronoun; 
and if H as Genitive-sign exercises the same influence, this is simply 
the result of the very lively consciousness, possessed by the language, 
of the original relative-force of the Genitive-sign ( 4 ). 3. Finally, when 
Suffix Pronouns are attached to the Accusative, the Accusative- 
marking, in certain cases, gets lost. The same thing occurs when 
an Accusative is found in the construct state (§ 144). 

( x ) [Flemming's reading here lias the Acc.-construction throughout, tr.] 

( 2 ) On the phrase flA^ : fc^dA^ or ftjPdA^ ■ dA^ v. Dill- 
makn's 'Lex: col. 925; cf. also UlC* h9°OlC Sir. 36,31. 

( 3 ) Cf. also Christ, p. 52, line 5-, Platt, Didasc. 43,9 &c. (Kootg, p. 70); 
also Ludolf, '<?r.' VI, 2, 13. 

( 4 ) On the other hand it is not to be considered a case in point, that 
after \\UO "like" or "as", the Ace. can never stand,— a circumstance which 
Ludolf found so very remarkable {e.g. Ps. 37, 21 ; Cant. 8, 6) ; for \\tn> is a Prep, 
and always stands in the Constr. St. with reference to what follows. 


— 324 — § 144. 

s. The § 144. 3. To express the third of the possible relations, viz. 

Genitive th Q en iti ve relation, or,— to use more general language—, the 

Relation:— . ] 

(o) The relation of subordination of one noun to another, Ethiopic makes 
C °s n t B at r e UCt use of that device which of old has been the common property of 
all Semitic tongues,— the so-called Construct State. Although this 
Construct State does correspond in many cases to the Genitive 
relation of other languages, it is capable of a much wider and more 
multiform signification. It may indicate every possible form of 
subordination of one noun to another, denoted in Non-Semitic langua- 
ges by means of Prepositions or Compounds. But besides the 
Construct State, Ethiopic makes use of still other expedients, to 
indicate the Genitive relation, in the narrower sense of the ex- 

(a) The Construct State. The oldest Semitic has a device 
for subordinating one Noun to another, which is not unknown even 
to the Indo-European tongues. It is a kind of combination or ap- 
position of words, in which the more general idea, requiring to be 
more precisely determined, is placed before a special and deter- 
mining idea, associating itself therewith and subordinating it. The 
meaning and force of this condition lie just in the close association 
of the two words, and in the emphatic accent assumed by the sub- 
ordinate word as being the determining element, just as if our own 
words 'Landlord', 'Householder' were written 'Lord-Land', 'Holder- 
House', meaning 'Lord of the land', 'Holder of the house'. North- 
Semitic farther shows that by merely uttering the two words more 
closely together, and at the same time accentuating the last, and 
thereby of course pronouncing the first as short as possible, this 
relation is established. But a relative particle may also be inserted 
between the two words, expressly announcing the relativity which 
obtains between the two. This is the variety of the Construct 
State formation which appears in Old Hebrew, — in the so called 
'binding vowel' of the Constr. St., and it is this variety which 
has become the predominating one in Ethiopic. But the particle 
of relativity is not prefixed to the second (or determining) word, 
— as in Amharic, — nor affixed thereto, — as in Arabic, — by 
which latter proceeding the second word would be reduced to an 
ordinary Genitive, and the necessity perhaps removed for placing 
the two words together at all. The particle is, on the contrary, 
attached to the first word, — the word which is to be determined — , 

§ 144. — 325 — 

and marks it as having a relation to a second and immediately 
following word, so that the arrangement of the two words, in the 
order of succession thus marked, continues to be an absolutely 
necessary one. This particle then, which is appended like a ter- 
mination to the subordinating word, in the case of such a pair, — 
that is to say, the Ending of the Construct State — , in Ethiopic 
is invariably a. Now such a termination coincides externally with 
the termination of the Accusative, but it is self-evident that it 
cannot be originally identical therewith, as it expresses something 
entirely different, and is appended, not to what is subordinated, 
but to what subordinates. Before Pronouns, which are subordi- 
nated as Suffixes to a Construct State, this Ending takes the form 
of i (§ 153) and in several cases the still fuller form of la (§ 150). 
And when it is farther considered that even in Hebrew an I ap- 
pears as the binding-vowel of the Constr. St., and that Amharic 
expresses the Genitive by prefixing the relative particle f (corres- 
ponding to the Ethiopic If), — the inference is unhesitatingly drawn, 
that the termination a is merely an abbreviation of the fuller ia, 
and that ia itself means nothing other than "the — of" or "who", 
"which" and is developed from an original i, just as is H from *H 
(§ 65). For example, 'f'i'fr : fl»*|h means originally: "doors which 
— house", "doors relating to — house", "doors of a house" or 
"house-doors"^). But the termination ia did not become e, — 
as it might have done, according to Ethiopic phonetic rules,— -for 
there was no need to establish a long vowel dwelling on the Tone 
between the two closely united words, but as a rule it was cur- 
tailed into the shorter a. In many cases, however, as we shall see, 
e has been maintained (§ 167), but in those cases it is perhaps of 
a different origin. 

An Ethiopic word then, whether Sing, or Plur., is put in the 
Constr. St. by attaching to it the unaccented (Teumpp, p. 544) ter- 
mination a. Accordingly when such a word enters upon the Constr. 
St., its termination is undistinguishable from that of the Accusative, 

(*) Teumpp adheres to the above explanation of the termination a 
(pp. 544, N. 1; 557, N. 1): v. on the other hand Halevy, 'Journ. as.' VII, 1, 
p. 453 sqq.; and Pkabtorius ZDMG XXVI, p. 433; XXVII, p. 643. Praetorius 
seems to be, right in emphasising (Amh. Spr., p. 126) the fact that the Amharic 
p cited by us is itself only a weakened form (through *Jf) of H- 

— 326 — § 145. 

e - 9- &Sl(D i ftrh^W" s rhTMl "he sent the learned men of the nation". 
The rules for attaching it are the same as for the a of the Ac- 
cusative (§ 143). To words ending in a consonant a is simply an- 
nexed: e. g. ao'i a lt*>'t* s fl ^^ "kingdom of heaven" (from not 
"7/**^") ; ftth^'t' •■ /h'H'fl "the learned men of the nation" (from 
ftA^'Th) ; h(l •• £9° "avenger of blood" (from K«fl "father") ( x ). 
It is to be noticed that words ending in an Aspirate and having a 
in the last syllable retain this a in the Constr. St., as *}"]?i, 
^"lK; Afl *id, A0A0- In the case of words which end in a, e, o, 
a disappears in these vowels: fr*}f)4 : 1X9° "beasts of the field", 
^h-F ■' httl^h "course of a woman", ■£& s "/Aft •' iVH* "time 
of the third hour". Words in u, like tf'A-, Jwh 1 ;. do not admit 
of any Constr. St. at all (§ 157). With words in I, a blends with i 
into e, following the rules given in § 143: — -flhrt. "man" forms 
-nfcrt,; 7fl<5, 7fl<2,; d\{U' 9°h^ 'centurion" (lit prefect, Ail., 
of a hundred') Matt. 8,5 : but tfoftf-ft^ has <w»ft1"flCf , and in like 
manner <*}& "seer" has <^Cf • Alongside of these, "7<J, and the 
like are also possible at least, although on the other hand, in the 
most ancient times, such a form even as »flhftf seems to have 
been in use( 2 ). There is no Constr. St. from Proper names. — On 
the significations of this Constr. St. relation, see § 184. 
Periphrastic § 145. (b) Periphrastic indication of the Genitive. The ex- 

U ffl^r P. re ssion of the Genitive by means of the Constr. St. always de- 
Genitive mands that the two words, — the word to be determined and the 
prefixing determining one, — be ranked immediately together: no third, ex- 
6 tf™ * raneous wor d> as f° r instance an adjective, can ever come be- 
Determin- tween the two ( 3 ) ; for otherwise the ordered combination, which is the 
very condition of the Constr. St.-relation, would be destroyed. In 
this way the language was much hampered in the arrangement of 
its words. Besides, there are many words, such as Proper names, 
which do not admit of any Constr. St.; and there are others, like 
those which end in a, e, o, which present no difference in form 
whether they are in the Constr. St. or in the Absolute St. Finally, 
the marking of the Accusative cannot be distinguished from that 
of the Constr. St., in those cases in which the word to be put in 

(*) It is not accurate for Ltjdolf to say that frfl, "fay., d\9°, h& 

must indicate the Constr. St. circuitously by means of Suff. Pron. and A« 

( 2 ) V. the 'RfjppBLL Inscriptions', 1, 1 ; II, 2. ( 3 ) [V. Note to § 185. te.] 

§145. — 327 — 

the Constr. St. enters at the same time upon the Accusative. 
Accordingly it is not to be wondered at, that this, the oldest 
method of denoting the Genitive relation, was found insufficient 
for the language, and that a new method was contrived, conducing 
to clearness of expression and freedom in the arrangement of 
words. This new denotation rests, it is true, upon the method of 
indicating the Genitive relation found in the Ethiopic Construct 
State. Just as in that case, recourse here is had to a Relative 
Pronoun to indicate the relativity of the situation. But there is 
this great difference between the old and the new method, that in 
the latter there is no necessary apposition of the words, and that 
accordingly the Relative Pron. is not affixed to the word which has 
to be determined or limited, but is prefixed to the determining 
one. The Relative Pron. which is employed fo"r this purpose is 
not the more ancient f ( x ), but the form which in later times be- 
came the common one, viz. ff( 2 ), — a circumstance which is itself 
a proof that the whole of this mode of marking is of secondary 
origin. The force of this Genitive-marking cannot be attended 
with any doubt: Ml A. A * flCDC'l' is " crown- which-gold" or 
"crown -related to -gold", that is "crown of gold" or "golden 
crown"; Klfljh s Hfl.^ "lord-relative to -house", "lord of the 
house". The position taken in the sentence by a Genitive formed 
in this way is completely unfettered. The expression may run 
H<DC4f» s MlAA quite as well as MM.A-' HfflCfc or MlA.A : 
0flj& ' li<DC4*- But the vigorous life, which the original relative 
meaning of this Genitive sign still exhibits in the language, is 
witnessed to, not only by the proof incidentally brought forward 
towards the close of § 143, but by the circumstance that this sign 
may, just like the Relative Pron., assume the distinctions of Gender 
and Number. True, it is allowed and is by far the most usual 
practice, to denote the Genitive by Jf merely, even when the Noun 
on which it depends is feminine or stands in the Plural, e. g. fl,*|* ! 
Adh9° -■ H£tf«*i "Bethlehem in Judah" Matt. 2, 1, or h<l"l6 * 

C) "Which, is still retained in Amharic for this purpose. 

( 2 ) Ethiopic in this usage agrees wholly with Aramaic, which employs 
i"n, } for this purpose. Hal^vy farther compares «j; v. Mordtmann, ZDM$ 
XLIV, p. 191 sq. — |J is prefixed to the word, which it has to put in the 
Genitive, invariably without 'separating points' (§ 147). 

— 328 — § 146. 

Hi'rhT'A » Hfl»*f" s hf)^h>A "the lost sheep of the house of Israel" 
Matt. 15,24; but when the governing word is feminine, the femi- 
nine form M't at least may take the place of H, e. g. IC? ! 
Mi- • ?d#*n "Maria Jacobi" Matt. 27, 56; fljE^h : hlr-fr '• VIJ 
"thine eye of the right side" ("thy right eye") Matt. 5, 29; M%K'- 
h'ii' • h a lllh'f\ih,C "the gate of the Lord" Ps. 117, 19; and when 
the governing word is in the Plural, the Plural Genitive-sign ?iA 
may be used: ftAUJJ ^ • hfi ' (O m 'h*t: s OftJt "the oxen of that 
farm" Hen. 89, 5; h£(\£ i $(\&J\r : hli '• ^9°^ "the mountains 
of the murkinesses of Winter" Hen. 17,7. 

This denotation of the Genitive by means of fj has so com- 
pletely gained the upper hand, that it has pretty much pushed 
aside another method which is possible, and which is in very frequent 
use in Hebrew, that namely which employs the preposition A (b), 
v. § 186. 

On another possible method of indicating the Genitive, by 
means of a Pron. Suff. with following A, v. § 172. 



LPronouns : § 146. Many peculiarities have been admitted and retained 

_1 : :D t e . mon "in the formation of the persons, numbers, genders and cases of 
Pronouns. Pronouns, which have never found admittance with Nominal Stems 
derived from Conceptional roots. 

1. Demonstrative words developed into Personal Demon- 
stratives (Pronomina Demonstrativa). 

(a) The Demonstrative word, readiest to hand, is TJ "this" 
(m.), § 62, pronounced ze with a short, sharp utterance, and always 
accentuated (Tetjmpp, p. 546). In its first form (Nom.-Gen.) it 
ends, like other Nominal Stems, in the short, indeterminate e. It 
forms its Pern, with the feminine ending a (§ 126) fl "this" (/".), 
and the Accusative with the usual Accusative-ending a.(§ 143): 
thus the Ace. masc. is JJ "this" (ace. m.), e. g. Ex. 20, 1, and the 
Ace. fern. H "this" (ace. /".), e. g. Matt. 17, 9. This pronoun is still 
used pretty often in the Nominative, but not so often in the Ac- 
cusative. As the particle is a very short one, it usually rests against 
the preceding or succeeding word, e. g. Ti A'H'fl Matt. 15, 8 ; h^g, 
'Mil/ATI Matt. 19, 26; TiW-A- 13, 54; ATI 8,9; T|A 27,47; 'Wh 

§ 146. — 329 — 

Gen. 43, 29; 9°tlM • H-ahfrg; Matt. 12, 41; H^fl^AJ^ 24,34; 
1\\ 26,13; fDTJh} 21,4. Only very seldom is it separated from 
the following word by s as an independent word, as in Gen. 42, 28. 

Precisely on account of its shortness the unsatisfactory form 
of this word made itself felt in the language even in early times, 
and it was therefore combined with another demonstrative, — with 
»f« (§ 62), originally akin to TJ; and as »j« is attached at the end 
of the combination, it takes the signs of gender and case. It adopts 
the vowel u in the Nom. Masc, and in the Fern. r(§ 65) = "he", 
"she": -f: "this" (w.), -fc "this" (/ 1 .)( 1 ). Instead of this u and t, a 
appears always in the Accusative of both genders, thus *\* "this" 
(ace. m. & f.). The compound in the Fern, is simply H*fc "this" 
(Nom.), Hf" "this" (Ace), e. g. Kuth 3, 13. But in the Masc. in- 
stead of Tii:, Hi*, the form becomes (§ 58) Ti"}*fc zentuQ) (Nom.), 
H'J'h zanta (Ace). Both elements of the compound are inflected. 
This longer form lU'p, H"fc? tf"H", Hi* is much more frequently 
used than the other. 

The plural of *tf, fl is formed from another Demonstrative 
root, as happens too in the rest of the Semitic tongues, viz. al, la 
(§ 62), and in fact by the combination of these two forms, — so 
that in this way the notion of plurality is conveyed by "the (Sing.) 
+ the (Sing.)" = Hhe (Plur.)", "these". The rendering in Ethiopic 
is Masc. ?iA-( 3 ), Fern. )M (ellu, ella), — forms which probably have 
been curtailed from longer forms ellum, ellom and elldn (v. infra). 
Both are used with considerable frequency. fafr in particular is 
very often used, e. g. Matt. 15,20 & 32; but KA occurs too, e. g. 
Matt. 5,19; Ps. 89,11; Hen. 22,3; 71,12. They have been too 
closely pruned towards the end, to be any longer capable of a 
special Acc.-form, and they are accordingly used very seldom 
indeed in the Accusative (e. g. fxfc Hen. 37, 3). The Accusative 
is either indicated by Suffix Pronouns and A, or is expressed by 
means of the Compound form. The Fern. hfrTr is met with as 
well as M, e. g. G. Lai. p. 55, line 20; p. 56, lines 4&19; p. 59, 
line 23. 

( a ) I am unable to agree with the explanation of this *fc given by 
Konig, p. 124. [Cf. now Brockelmann, ZDMG LVIII, p. 521; Fischer, ibid., 
p. 871 sq.; and Barth ZDMG LIX, p. 161 sq.] 

: ( a ) This is also Ludolf's accentuation; but see Trumpp, p. 546. 

( 3 ) Corresponding most nearly to the Rabbinical &{*. 

— 330 — § 146. 

Now just as the Singular If, tj is generally strengthened by 
the addition of "J:, so also is the Plural, by the application of -j* 
to the original forms, ft/V« and ftd\: — h/KJi 3 * more rarely hA*7i* 
"these" (w.), M'i'P, more rarely M>fc "these" (/".) (*). It is 
remarkable in this compound that the second member indicates 
no distinction either of number or gender, manifestly because, 
if the element *£ were also to form a plural (•f>tf D *, <#■*}, § 148), 
the Stem would become too long; *fc in this case on the contrary 
abides in the Sing., and that with both genders, having the force 
of a strengthening "there": as it were "these there". In the Ac- 
cusative, inflection does not appear in the elements fift-Tr, "h\7i, 
which have no longer a vowel-ending in which such inflection might 
become audible, but in the element -j:, which (ut supra) passes into 
-"!•: hA-l-h more rarely ft/Kit" u hos" (Hen. 93,2; Matt. 10,5; 
13, 53, in the last passage, accompanying a feminine noun), frA'J'f" 
-"has" (Hen. 82,1; Ruth 3,17, et saepe). 

In signification It, HTfp &c. always refers to what is at hand 
and well-known; and only when it is repeated, as in "iTJi: s AH 
">'£ "this — to that", can it denote on its second appearance what 
is at a greater distance. Both Masc. and Fern, may be used im- 
personally (i. e. as neuters); but the Masc. occurs much the more 
frequently in such a use. 

(&) In order to form a Demonstrative which should point to 
what is more distant or unknown, the demonstrative pronoun, just 
described, was combined with the root ka, developed personally 
into kit (§ 62). Such is the origin of the Masc. TJYi« seku( 2 ) "this 
there", i. e. "that" (m.). For the Fern., however, ku is not combined 
with H but with a feminine form ft'J'lh (ent) "this" (/".), derived from 
the root an (§ 62), making VJ^Yb "that" (f.) (e. g. Hen. 85, 5), not 
VJ'Hl., as VH has become rigid and admits of no distinction of 
gender or number. Even the differentiation of the Accusative is 
not common with ku, and when it does occur u takes refuge in the 

O ft°°*'>i : > X°T>i* (§ 148) correspond exactly in form. For the 
rest, 2VA <, "J appears to have come from JtA ? i c f' Q>*Yl'f ,t,0 *)i influenced 
by the following t. 

( 2 ) But according to Trumpp, p. 547, zeku.— The particle fl is sometimes 
inserted between the two elements: tfrtVl"5 v - Dillmann's 'iear.' col. 1057, 
line 1. [But contrast Praetorius, 'Beitr. z. AssyW I, p. 26.] 

§ 146. — 331 — 

guttural, and Yl- becomes h°- The Accusative Masculine has ac- 
cordingly the form TJh» (the first member remaining uninflected), 
Hen. 89,44, 51; Gen. 27,17 (Note); and the Accusative Feminine 
runs Ki^fr, Ki^fa and fcl-Mfc (Pro v. 15, 18). Seeing then 
that the concluding ft- has lost to some extent its susceptibility of 
inflection, this form of the pronoun was still farther combined, 
taking in, as an additional element, 4* (v. supra under a). But 
instead of TJft«i2, — which never occurs (*), — a shorter, dissyllabic 
form was used for the Masc, viz. 1l\i"p and Tftl'fc (zekuetu and 
zektu) "that" (m.), § 36; and instead of ft^YH;, or in its shorter 
form Ki^ftt, the form KipTfrk (entdkHi) "that" (/".) came into 
use for the Fern., — contrived by the insertion of a feminine a 
bearing the accent of the word (Mark 11,21; 14,25, et saepe). The 
Accusative is regularly formed also from the strengthened Masc- 
form, thus: Tlfti- and Tltf"^ "that" (m. ace), e. g. Gen. 27,16; 
Lev. 3,8; Numb. 5, 18 & 25; Josh. 21,40. fri^hi* as a fern. ace. 
for "that" has not yet been met with. 

As fii^ has no Plural, the Plural for both genders is formed 
from ella ; and from the shorter form TfVh? VJ^Yl" the Plural is 
(m. &f.) h Aft-, while from the longer Tftf**, Ki^Vt it is (m. &f.) 
hAYf"fc or hAhl^ the fern. ftAhi* is also met with, Josh. 4, 11. 
The "S A in this compound has been deprived of its vowel-ending ( 2 ) ; 
and the doubling of the A has probably been also given up, if we 
must read elkuetu, elketu and not rather ellekuetil, ellektu. On the 
feminine use of ft Alb and XAYl'J- v. for instance Matt. 25,7,8, 11; 
Hen. 9, 8. h AYl* can no longer form an Accusative, but there is 
taken from ftAfa'I-' the Accusative JiAhi" or hMt"t m , e g. 
Ex. 34,4; Hen. 89,60. This plural is, besides, often replaced by 

ho^Tft:, WW? 

With special reference to the signification of this word, it is 
to be noted that the forms *HY|«, M^Yl- &c., because they are 
used in pointing to the unknown, are employed also in the sense 
of an indefinite article, like "a", "any", when a speaker is intro- 
ducing a new subject, known to him but as yet unknown to the 
hearer, e. g. Hen. 89, 29, — or for what is undetermined and yet 

(*) For the passage cited by Konig, p. 53, viz. 4 Esr. 11, 25, some 
farther examination of the Manuscript is recommended. 
( 2 ) Like V« from nV«. 

— 332 — § 147. 

is under a certain degree of limitation, like "the (person) concern- 
ed", "the (poiut) iu question", e. g. Hen. 72,3, 5. It is also used 
in a contemptuous sense, like iste, e. g. in Gen. 37, 19. 

Neither a Demonstrative nor any other Pronoun can enter 
upon the Construct State. They may, however, appear as Geni- 
tives dependent upon words in the Constr. St., e. g. &ao s fffi-fs 
Gen. 9, 6 (v. § 184), but they also frequently form their Genitive 
externally by means of the prefix ff . 

2. Relative § 147. 2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. 

and inter- /^a q^q d emons trative root TJ serves as Relative Pronoun 


Pronouns, in Ethiopic, without any farther combination^), but it differs from 
the *H which means "this", by its being always pronounced with a, 
as H "who" or "which" (m.); for the accentuation v. Tkumpp, p. 547. 
The corresponding Fern, does not take the form H (for a reason 
to be mentioned presently) but ht'fr "who", "which" (/".), derived 
from the Stem an, which also appears in fern, form as ft"}*lh in 
h'J'Hhj § 146, b. The Plural of both of these, without distinction 
of Gender, is ft(V (ella) "who", "which", derived from the Com- 
pound Pron. el-la, which is present also in JiA* and ft AVh (§ 146). 
When it is considered that these three forms end in a, and differ 
as Relatives from the corresponding Demonstrative-forms precisely 
by this ending, no doubt can remain that this a is responsible for 
the Relative force of these forms. Accordingly, since a already 
exists as an essential element in the Ground-form, no Accusative- 
form is admitted in these three words. Just as 0JG4* signifies both 
"gold" in the Accusative and "gold" also in the Ace. and Constr. 
St. together ( 2 ), so fl, ft'J'f' or ft A may be employed directly as an 
Accusative. These Relatives may take the Genitive by subordina- 
ting themselves to some Construct State, as in »flftA - »f t s H1°i* ""the 
wife of him who is dead", or by having prefixed to them the ex- 
ternal mark of the Genitive, H: — HH "whose" (m.), Hft'J'J* "whose" 
(/"•)> HKA "whose" (pi.). — But just as in some other Semitic tongues 
the relative pronoun has become rigid and no longer susceptible 

( 1 ) Like J in Aramaic. 

( 2 ) [This is a somewhat obscure statement of the fact that flfC*f* or 
any ordinary Accusative-form, stands not only for the Accusative, but also 
for the Construct State, whether that Constr. St. happen to be Nominative, 
Genitive, or Accusative, te.] 

§ 147. — 333 — 

of the distinctions of Gender and Number, so in Ethiopic the form 
U may be used not only for the Masc. Sing., but also for the Fern. 
Sing, and for the Masc. and Fern. Plural; and this use of H, as a 
general Relative-sign, is almost as common as the differentiation 
of Gender and Number, e. g. h(\0h s H't'P'tth* * fliA? "the 
fathers who assembled in Mcaea"; "h^TfU s H"1lC^ "hae quas 
elegerunt". This is particularly the usage, when the notion, 
referred to by the Relative Pron., is expressly set forth in the 
relative sentence itself by means of a Noun or a Suff. Pron. 

[the Arabic JoLe], and when accordingly a general Relative-sign 
is all that is needed at the beginning of the sentence, e. g. H f° 
'fr't ' 'flhA.'h "quae mortua est femina", or Wh9°Vl "ex qua", 
ti&9 o ilP0°' "ex quibus". But of course "hT"t and ^A can never 
be employed as general Relative-signs ( x ). 

If the impersonal "that which" or "what" has to be expressed, 
H is usually employed for that purpose, not h^i*? e. g. Hfr't 
thWtl "that which moves" (Gen. 1, 24) ; tf fMiflH£ "that which 
goes" (Ps. 8,8). The correlative notion, "he" ("he, who"), is in- 
cluded, — as in all Semitic languages, — in relatives like H, 'h'i'fr 
an( i hA> whether these be in the Nom., Gen. or Ace. (v. § 201); 
but the notion may be farther and specially brought out, if any 
emphasis attaches to it, by means of fl>*Xi: or some Dem. pron., 
e. g. in fD-hi: : tt0°Kh. "be, to wit, who has come". Farther H 
may express the notion contained in quicunque, "whosoever", 
e. g. Matt. 10, 11, 14 (v. § 201), or it is doubled, — at least in the 
form H (though scarcely in the forms V3"f" and ftA)» in order to 
gain this meaning, thus: — HH "who — who" = "whosoever". The 
short particle H, like *H (§ 146), almost always rests against another 
word, — on rare occasions against a word that precedes it (a pre- 
position), but usually against the word which comes next after it 
in the Relative sentence which it introduces. 

(b) The Interrogative as Substantive is coY'C) "Who?", 
compounded out of the Interrogative root ma (§ 62) and the 
Demonstrative root na (§ 62), which, by means of an appended u, 

O In the sentence quoted by Ltjdolf,— K < 7H.K'flrh.C » Mi* : £*& 
4*C * ?i".K*4 > > h'i'fr does not stand for H as relating to God, but is a Con- 
junctions^"}^ thus, u Deus justitiae amans". 

( 2 ) On the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 547 sq. 

— 334 — § 147. 

has a personal turn given it, in the form of nu (like tit, ku, § 146). 
It is always used personally and substantively, exactly like our 
"Who?", e. g. fyoo^ "From whom?" (Chrest., p. 97, line 11), and it 
is employed farther as a rigid form, alike for the Fern. Sing, and 
for the Masc. and Fern. Plur., e. g. oofy : £?rfc * H"fc "Who is 
this (/".)?" (Org.); <w»V« : hl^ao* "Who are ye?" (Ex. 10,8); 
<*>^s (VK-frai* i Kfc "Who are these?" (Hen. 40,8); and only 
occasionally is it expressly put into the Plur. by prefixing ftA (in 
accordance with § 140 ad fin.) : ftA s < /D V- * h tf0 "^i 3 : K*1ffl*"f 
"Who are my brethren?" Matt. 12,48; Hebr. 3,16. But od*/., 
like other pronouns ending in it, may form an Accusative: «w»J 
"Whom?" (e. g. Gen. 37, 15; Josh. 24, 15) 0). 

This word av*p, as being the Personal Interrogative, must 
always be used, but only then, — when enquiry is made after 
Persons. In the case of things {masc. and fern) recourse is had 
to an Interrogative with an Impersonal or Neuter formation, 9°'} : t 
"What?", fashioned from the Stem *w»'J (which is also involved in 
aoty with the Fem.-ending ^( 2 ). This ^"H* is (like m**^) found 
both in the grammatical Plural and the grammatical Fern., e. g. 
9°Tr'tY' • H^t : hfitl "What manner of transgression is this?" 
Josh. 22,16; {T'H* '• Ohh'ti ' hfe » ft* "?*^) "What manner 
of things are these?" Hen, 52,3; and it likewise regularly forms 
an Accusative ^Tft "What?" (Ace). 

Both 00*1* and 9°Tr'1r are employed alike in Independent 
and Dependent Interrogation, e. g. Matt. 10, 11 ; Hen. 12, 1, and 
both are often strengthened with interrogative particles (§ 198). 
In a negative sentence, whether it be a direct negative or an 
interrogative sentence with the force of a negative, both forms 

( x ) In the Org. Ludolf even found */ (§ 143) combined with tfDj • 
C^Yl * hftoO^b "Whom shall I call?". Cf. also Matt. 27,21, Roman Ed.; 
Isaiah 51,12 var. — Notice the change from (fO\ to tiofa in Chrest. p. 104, 
line 25 sq. and p. 105, lines 3, 5. 

( 2 ) This »p accordingly represents the neuter gender here, in the de- 
partment of the Pronouns, where the Fem., when used with reference to 
persons, has iora for its sign. On this point and on the connection of *|* 
with the Indo-European Neuter-ending, v. Ewald, l Hebr. Spr.' §§ 172, a 
and 173, a. 

( 3 ) [Elemming reads here JxO^'i'p : ^/fc«, changing the order of the 
last two words, te.] 

§ 147. — 335 — 

assume the signification of an Indefinite Pronoun = "any one 
who", "anything which" 0; and then with the help of ^ they in- 
dicate the notion of "no one", "nothing", — in which comhination 
the enclitic particle % or Jr "also" may be applied, and ID "and" 
be prefixed over and above, e. g. h m ' n, Y'^ "no man" Ex. 34,24; 
Matt. 8,28; a>h*0°W "no one at all" (ace.) Matt. 17,8; (Dhj* 
Ify "nothing whatever" Cantic. 4,7; (Dh^ttH. Matt. 27,12; 
(Dhjl0° • 9 a l't' "and not as anything", i. e. "as nothing", Ps. 38,7; 
hG: ' £Y»A '• *»Wi "How can any one?" Matt. 12, 29. Both forms 
may also fall into the Genitive by having a noun placed before 
them in the Constr. St., or externally by means of H, — Htf"^ 
"Whose?"; HJF"}^. 

Besides the neuter *f a t : F another form also makes its ap- 
pearance, viz. °% "What?" (On its origin cf. § 63).. This particle 
is often used, it is true, as a mere Interjection or Exclamatory 
Adverb, "How!" "How much!" (e. g. at U\1t*h "How many are!" 
Ps. 3,1), but still it often also has the force of jp*}^- "What?", 
and in that case it is nearly always joined to the succeeding word: 
fn LOtia>\\a»* '. fr^lK. "What will ye do (then)?" (v. § 89), Hen. 
101,2; "fidM "What is that to us?" (lit "What upon us?") 
Matt. 27,4; John 21,22; [°tAflA»P "What is that to me?" Kebra 
Nag. 84 b 18;] "^A.'f* s <oMl "What have I to do with thee?" 
(lit. "What to me and to thee?") 1 Kings 17,18. But upon the 
whole this "% is obsolete. 

(c) 0o^ at least cannot be used directly as an Adjective; 
on the contrary a periphrasis must be employed for that purpose, 
made up of av*t* and H, e. g. "What man is able?" ao^t fD-Vfc: 
rt-fllh •* U.fcVlA i. e. "Who is the man that is able?". As to the 
Pronoun 9°'}^r, although such a periphrasis is likewise employed 
with that interrogative, it may more readily take another noun in 
apposition (§ 198). But, over and above these, the language has 
also a special Interrogative Adjective (§ 63), ftjft( 2 ) "Which?" or 
"What?" (adj.), "What sort of?", which has been developed into 
an Adjective out of an old Interrogative particle "•«, and takes 
numbers, genders and cases. So much of its original inflexibility, 

(*) [The indefinite pronoun may also be expressed by H (cf- supra) 
or by ftjR (v. end of this §), and occasionally also by 'WtxfU ( c f. § 1 73 )-1 
( 2 ) For the accentuation v. Trtjmpp, p. 548. 

— 336 — § 148. 

however, still adheres to it, that it has no special form for the 
Fern. Sing., nor, so far as known hitherto, for the Masc. Plur.; 
and as in all probability it is not nsed with reference to Persons, 
but is only connected with words descriptive of things and notions, 
the other possible forms suffice for all cases. Thus the usage in 
the Singular is fth¥>'- FWi "By what authority?" Matt. 21,24; 
n*i£ * tfi^ "At what hour?" Matt. 24,42; Aft£ ! ""'PdA "For 
what time?" 1 Pet. 1,11; flVH* : ft£ : ^m.K^ "On account of 
what sin?" Hen. 21,4; and in the Plural h?^ "Which?" (viz. ^fc 
HH^) Matt. 19, 18. In the Ace. Sing, it takes the regular form 
Kf i e. g. JifY- s ft,+ "What house?" Acts 7,49. Like ao^ and 
VTr^ it is used both in direct and in indirect interrogation, and 
like these too it is often strengthened by enclitic Interrogative 
particles, particularly by >- (Matt. 22, 36; Acts 7,49). On ft£ as 
an Indefinite Pronoun = quicunque, qualiscunque, quilibet, quis- 
quis cf. Dillmann's l Lex.\ col. 795. sub (2). 

a. Personal § 148. 3. Personal Pronouns (Pronomina Personalia). 

Pronouns: — . _ . „ 

(a) The (a) The Third Personal Pronoun, in accordance with § 65, 

™ r 8 d takes the form (D*M^ in the Masculine and ^fat in tne Femi- 
pron. n i n6j "he", "she"C). Like the other personal pronouns, it is 
originally Substantive in character, but it is also used quite 
generally, just as the Hebrew Mn( 2 ), as an Adjective in the sense 
of avTog, "same" "even the", and also, in contrast with Tj and 
Tf}«|s for "that"( 3 ), to indicate what is somewhat remote; or, when 
united to "H or Tift«, to express "this very", "that very", e.g. 
Hen. 89,9; 106,16; or when united to H, "who" "even he who", 
e. g> IKD-M* " ev en he who" Matt. 10,4; Hen. 15,4 (pi). Now in 
so far as ahh'fc is a Substantive Pron., it takes no independent 
Accusative-form (v. § 149); but as an Adjective it admits of an 
Accusative, which is contrived, just like that of UTrfc and fl-fc, by 

( x ) For the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 548 sq. 

( 2 ) In Tigre rhi3, /h^" &c. have still retained the original n of Kin; 
cf. Noldekb, ' W. Zeitschr. f. d. K. d. M.' IV, p. 294 [and Littmann, 'Zeitschr. 
f. Ass: XII, p. 193]. Y. also D. H. Muller, ZDMG XXXVII, p. 349 and 
N. 2; 393, N. 2,-On the % in the formation of the Fem., v. Barth, ZDMXx 
XLYI, p. 685 sqq.; on the secondary form J&/i,"fc} v. Konig, p. 119. 

( 3 ) Often in particular it takevthe place of the Plural of TUl** 

§ 148. — 337 — 

changing -J 3 or »fc into *f«, thus: — lO-ft't*, £h"t*- The word has 
two forms of the Plural, according as emphasis is put on the first 
or the second member of the combination. In the first of these 
cases, *|j continues unchanged (as in § 146), and only the elements 
0h"h and £ft are put in the Plural, which then takes the form 
'ha *'}'}: emuntu (originally umumtu) in the Masculine, and ft* 1 ? 
I'fcC) emdntuC) in the Feminine, like "hfirtfa M'i'P- If the 
emphasis rests upon the second element of the Compound, the 
Plural takes the form of Ohtx^t* ' for the Masc, and O^h^Tr 
for the Fern. In this case the element (D-ft is used without change 
for both genders, and thus comes to be employed in the Fern: 
instead of the £ft of the Singular. — In the Plural -f tf»- (where o 
seems to have sprung out of u by a farther broadening of the vowel), 

the final u is to be judged of, just as it is in *® [== Assyr. §unu] 

the side-form of *.#. In #"} (a formation from >p, not from -fc, and 

sprung out of tu-an) the final vowel a, which is possible according to 
the Arabic l lsn, has never been made use of, or, if so, has fallen away 
again. The distinction between these two forms of the Plural appears 
originally to have been that the first was used rather for the Pro- 
noun as an Adjective, and the second for the Pronoun as a Sub- 
stantive. But later usage has almost wholly obliterated this dis- 

( x ) "When it is considered that the Plurals formed from 4 s are •f , " a "> 
fS} ; from tf., lf<H>- and If *}; and from ft A, ftft»7 and ftAl,— the in- 
ference drawn here, as well as in § 132, is that one mode of forming the 
Plural is the lengthening of the Singular-ending combined with a nasal ut- 
terance. Accordingly a Plural um is expected from the Sing. u e (fl*"ft)? 
while from i e (J&ft) no Plur. at all seems to have been formed. This um 
was then strengthened by the farther attachment of the Plural-ending dtii, 
an, by which the Gender was denoted at the same time, and the first u was 
thereupon shortened: whence came umuwi, umdn, as in JlSil, ]*%$ ", v^"* *' *£$°*' 
The difference in gender in these Plural terminations is signified by a differ- 
ence in the vowel,— u marking the Masc, and a the Fern., — just as in D« and y, 
while m is the Nasal corresponding to u, and n the corresponding one to a. 
V., however, Trumpp, p. 548, N. 1, [who gives a very different account of the 
origin of the Form, te.] 

( 2 ) [Praetorius, l Aeth. Or.\ apparently does not recognise the distinc- 
tion noted here, for he marks the accents, p. 23 lik& Trumpp, emuntu, we.- 
'etomu, emdntu, we'eton. tr.] 


_ 338 — § 149. 

tinction, and retained only one trace of it, in the preference shown 
for flHji'f tf°" rather than for "h0°*'}'p, whenever this Pron. re- 
presents the copula (§ 194). There is no Accusative attached to 
either of the two forms of the Plural; when called for, it is usually 
indicated by a suff. Pron. followed by AC)- 

(6) The Second Personal Pronoun has the form h'i't "thou" 
(§ 65), and although no u makes its appearance in this Masculine 
form, as might have been expected according to § 146 sqq., mani- 
festly because ta itself is just an abbreviation from twa , — yet it 
is faced in the Feminine by the regular formation in l: K*J*fc- 
The Plural in the Masc. is M^fl*-, in the Fern. M^Tt- M 
^ao~ is manifestly formed from hTrp, after the analogy of the 
Plural. G^tx^O * from (D M }\*U, by tu becoming turn and, with the 
addition of u, tumu, the u of tu being finally shortened into e ( 2 ), 
as the accent rests upon an-( 3 ). With less certainty can it be 
determined whether the Fern. ^Tr is formed from -J: or «fc, 

and whether accordingly it was at first ton or tin (cf. ^jl and 
The Krst (c) The First Person M "I" is of common gender. It has 

Pers. Pron. J& , 

arisen, it is true, like the Arabic lj|, out of an original "OiN (§ 65) 
by casting off the last syllable "0; but the Suffix Pronoun jr 
(§ 149) ( 4 ) shows that at one time a second form *<}« was known 
also in Ethiopic. The Plural has the form tttfi (nehna), and has 

come, like ^Jste and titfag, from "OiK by repeating the entire Stem 

anahanah ("I"+"I" = "We"), and gradually shortening this 

double form. 

Formation § 149. Formation of the Accusative and Genitive in the Per- 

Accusative sonal Pronouns. The three Persons in these Pronouns, — in 

and Ethiopic just as in the rest of the Semitic languages, — whatever 

in the be the gender or number, share in the peculiarity of no longer 

Pers. Prons. 

O But cf. e. g. Numb. 21,25 [and Kebra Nag. 52 b 3.] 

( 2 ) According to Konig, p. 120 this alteration depends upon a kind of 

( 3 ) [But Teumpp says, p. 549 : "It has farther to be noticed particularly, 
about j\t*l*0 t * m that the Tone does not rest upon fat, as Dillmann thinks, 
but upon emmu". Praetokius, l Aeth. Gr." 1 p. 23 also gives the pronunciation 
r-antemmu. tb.] 

( 4 ) Also the Amharic "fafa. 

§ 149. — 339 — 

possessing any independent Accusative-form. They cannot even, su/fix 
like the other Pronouns, be subordinated in their independent Pronouna - 
form to a Constr. St. O, nor do they admit of the prefix H by 
way of Genitive-sign. But in order to meet both cases of subor- 
dination, — both that under the Verb, in the Accusative, and that 
under the Noun, in the Genitive, — forms of the Pronouns specially 
abbreviated and sometimes greatly altered have been contrived, 
which are joined to the Yerb or Noun by way of attached particles 
{enclitica), and which are therefore usually called Pronomina Suf- 
fixa. These particles blend so completely with the word to which 
they adhere, that the entire combination has only one Accent. 
The same Suffixes are used for both kinds of Subordination; but, 
in the case of the First Pers. Sing., a somewhat shorter form has been 
developed for the Genitive-Suffix than for the Suffix of the Accusa- 
tive, — which is to be explained as being after all merely a result of 
the different method of attachment in the two cases. These appended 
forms of the Personal Pronoun are as follows ( 2 ): — (1) for the Third 
Pers. Sing. Masc. fr, Fern. V] Plural Masc. lf«n»-( 3 ), Fern. iff. 
They are abbreviations (§ 62) of >p, ^, «£«n>-, »£"}, as forming se- 
cond member in tD''h'p, Gh'htf** 10 ' &c. To be sure, the form of 
the independent pronoun in the Fern. Sing, is J&h'fc and not JR?i^", 
I being more widely used in Ethiopic in general as the corres- 
ponding feminine to u in the department of the Pronouns. And 
yet H> confronting if, and ?i*3 , ;J"fa*fc show that even here a was a 
possible vowel for the Fern. Pronoun. Besides, after »J* was re- 
duced to 0, ct associated itself more readily than % with both forms, 
through the influence of the Aspirate. In this respect Ethiopic 
coincides completely with the other Semitic languages. (2) The 
form for the Second Person Sing. Masc. is h, Fern, ft^; Plural 
Masc. %}&*• (kemmu), Fern. V)*} (ken). These forms too are just 
as clearly abbreviations of ft"J"f", hl'fc, &c, except that, in accord- 
ance with §§ 65 and 101, t has in each case passed into k, — a 

(!) But cf. wTx^^'hC • 0>*hi: • i^ftrh. Phlx. 164 

( 3 ) For the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 549. 

(2) That \f HO' may stand for the Sing. U«, cannot be proved from 
Luke 2,4; John 19,27; Acts 1,20, — as is the opinion of Ludolf de Dieu, 
'Critica Sacra\ p. 226 on Is. 53,6, and of Gesenius, 'Lehrgeb.' p. 216,6, and 
Schlottmann, ' Inschrift Eschmunazars p. 111. 


— 340 — § 149. 

transition which here came about, all the more readily that the 
introductory syllable ft*} had fallen away, and that the retention 
of -f* (t) was no longer called for by the proximity of a dental 
Nasal. Farther, in \\ff^ which invariably has the accent, the long 
u (kiimu), although no longer retained, is yet made up for by the 

doubling of the m, just as in ^^ nan &c. (3) The Suff. Pron. of 
the First Person takes, in the Sing., the form £ as a Verbal Suf- 
fix, and f as a Nominal Suff. — In the Plur. the Suffix is V for 
both Verb and Noun. Of these Suff. -forms \ is an abbreviation 
of i\\ — a possible side-form of ftV (§ 148, c), while \ has been 
shortened from 'J/hV- P however has been developed in the first 
place from I, — which still frequently occurs in Ethiopic^), — in the 

same way as ^ from ( c_( 2 ), specially to avoid confounding the Suff. 

Pron. with the binding-vowel* (§ 153). The a itself is manifestly nothing 
but an abbreviation of w, — a very ancient abbreviation, however, 
common to the Semitic tongues, and to be explained in fine by 
the fact of the Suffixes aiming at a still closer union with the 
Noun than with the Verb. All the Suffixes thus start with a con- 
sonant, although the four forms of the Third Pers. easily part 
with their Aspirate. The forms h^ 1 *-, h*}, \fo°', tf"J are always 
accentuated: the others have given up their accent, \, J, f , tf«, y, 
however, merely transferring it to the immediately preceding bind- 
ing-vowel, whereas \\, \\^ leave unchanged the accent of the word 
to which they are attached ( 3 ). A special observation must be 
farther made, on the signification of these Suffixes, — viz. that the 
Suffixes of the Third Pers. may refer to the Subject of the clause, 
and may thus have a reflexive meaning. This holds good with the 
Nominal Suffixes in particular, e. g. A»i: "for himself", Gen. 5,3; 
£"V<2»lF 0°* "behind them" (hinter sich), Gen. 9, 23. — It is not so 
common with the Verbal Suffixes, § 151. 

It is in the guise of these Suffix-forms then that the Personal 
Pronouns are usually appended to Verbs and Nouns, when they 
have to take the Accusative or the Genitive. (On the manner of 

C) In A/J« (§ 166), 0, (§ 167), K)f{% (§ 163). 

( 2 ) Ewald, 'Gr. Ar: § 97. 

( 3 ) [But cf, on the whole subject of the accentuation of the Suffix 
Pronouns, Trumpp, p. 549 sqq. tr.] 

§ 150. — 341 — 

attachment v. § 151 sqq.). But seeing that cases may also occur, 
in which such attachment of the Pronoun is not available, or in 
which a special emphasis rests upon the Pronoun, which cannot 
be suitably expressed in the form and position it has as Suff. 
Pron., the language has fashioned some other special forms by 
means of which a Personal Pronoun may be placed independently 
and emphatically in the Accusative and Genitive, and even in the 

§ 150. Expression of the Ace, Gen. and Norn, of a Personal Expression 
Pronoun, on which a special emphasis rests. ^ o ° G ° n 

(a) When a Personal Pronoun in the Accusative possesses and Nom 

, of a Pers. 

special emphasis, by being either tacitly or expressly set over- p ron . on 
against another Person, and by having on that ground (§ 196) to g^f 
be brought into prominence by means of an independent and Emphasis 
emphatic position in the sentence, Ethiopic may employ in such Emphatic 
a case the expedient of combining a Pronominal Substantive, Acc-formof 

r ° Pers. Pron. 

meaning "self" [SeTbstheit], with the Genitive Suffixes of the Per- 
sonal Pronouns, in the sense of "the self of me", i. e. "myself" &c. 
This Substantive is (v. § 65) h^, to which the Suff. Pronouns are 
applied^): — 

Sing. Plural. 

1 st Pers. h^f 1 st Pers. hj* 

fm. Wh 9Ed fm. Wh^ 

If. h^tu l f Wh? 

jr a fm. lU^O- ova fm. \l$\r*» 

1 TU?V if- XU?V"> 

This Accusative is in very frequent use, but it is available 
only when a certain emphasis is associated with the Pronoun; 
HlU^f : TwYld. ■' *f*fl»JflC •* AH^Vmfc "he who receiveth me, receiv- 
ed him that sent me" Matt. 10,40; tU?0- ' d(h±-f- » ^9° Ah 
"him only shalt thou worship" Matt. 4,10; ftC s VJh : ££"4«& - 
tUFfa 00 * "how much more then (clothe) you" Matt. 6,30; \U?V 
"even it" (the city Gazer) Josh. 16, 10. At the same time an im- 
personal use may be made of the Third Pers. Sing. Masc. : M^^h • 
h/htMlfc ' H„?U«rt '• JRl-fK- "do not even the heathen the very same ?" 
Matt. 5,48. And such a Pronoun may even be more exactly 

( x ) For the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 550. 

_ 342 — § 150. 

determined by means of a Noun in the Accusative, employed like 
an Apposition: ft,,?/ s 9°g;d "even it, the land", i. e. "the land 
itself" Josh. 12,6; tf-A- : ft^tf. s tf»ft"rh£ "actually the whole 
book" Hen. 89,70. 77; IHi^lfli tf»«PdA & rat; ijjUL£paig kmmig 
Judith 4, 6; 6, 15; 8, 1. And in Hen. 67, 11 the pronoun even 
stands with an Accusative (or Norn.) set in anticipation absolutely^) : 
<D\l.$th ' "7^ "and as to even it, the water", i. e. "and the very 
water". Cf. also athfrftfl : hMfi ' X\*?ih Chrest p. 29, line 25, 
and 0)Ml : ^h ■ flA'fc'Hl G. Ad 40, 7 
Emphatic (&) In order to form an emphatic, or even a merely indepen- 

Gen.-form ^ e]xt Qenitive from the Personal Pronoun, the three forms of the 


pers. Pron. Relative-sign, which is also the Genitive-sign, H, ht'P, hli, are 

combined in Ethiopic with the Genitive Suffixes of the three Per- 
sons, the binding vowel %-a (§ 153) being interposed ( 2 ). 

Sing. m (nh? nhh it^h- Hhih nM 

fautM hti.hY}" * TtxiMrt htOiiro* hA>irJ 

In signification these forms have always the force of Posses- 
sive Adjectives: HLJtf, hTrhM , hlO\? mean "mine", [lit. 'who or 
which (m., f. sing., or pi) — of my possession'] referring respectively 
to possessions which belong to the Masc. Sing., the Fern. Sing.,&the 
Plur. But they are never placed simply beside the Noun, like other 
adjectives (after the fashion of uxor tua), but demand always the 
Constr. St. in front of them, thus: ■flM.'J* i KTfthh "the wife of 
thine" i. e. "thy wife". When then they have to be dealt with as 
ordinary adjectives, they must once more be preceded by the 
Genitive-sign: -flhrt/h '• Hfc'HrM! "the wife who is in or of thy 
possession". Thus : fl^tB'h : Ki'thth "by his own lust" Jas. 1, 14 ; 
fltf-fr « CW-A « "in all their (f.) impurity" Hen. 10, 11; 
41, 5 & 8; 63, 3; and in Ace.,— CM ' Wlfl - H.Kl> "we have seen 
his star" Matt. 2, 2; 6, 33; or OOh& s n.hlb "in that circuit of his", 
i. e. "round about him" Hen. 47, 3. It is only when the noun, — 

( 1 ) [i. e. by way of absoluter Vorhatt.] 

( 2 ) For the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 550. [For the lengthening of the 
^ before the suffix in old Mss., v. Ifcbra Nag., Introd. p. XVI.] 

§ 150. — 343 — 

to which these forms refer and by which they regulate their gender 
and number, — stands already in the Constr. St. (whether because 
a Suff. Pron. is already appended to it or because another word 
depends upon it) that they can be set beside the noun freely and 
simply, e. g. flK* i *lfllH« ■ M±Kth (for fl" s h" i (IK* i K) 
"his double cave" Gen. 23,9; idV*. • Mtffc * "hTrthUfr (where 
h.t'fctilh merely emphasises again the 6 of V^fl) "and even his 
own life" Luke 14,26; hC*ihM • XA.Ml "thine own disciples" 
Luke 5, 33; in the last case the Possessive may be placed first: 
hhti,hV % • YiC3\hAh "to his own disciples". Farther, the Eelat. 
Pron. may fall away, if the Possessive come first in order: hlrfch 
lftfi>- : AjRflJ^ (for Hft") Hen. 38, 6. Since in this way then the 
Possessive is always conceived of as a Substantive to a certain 
extent, it may easily assume the position of a Predicate : \\Jf\X\ * 
£?Tfc « avl^lF 3 ^ "Thine is the kingdom'^ 1 ) Matt. 6, 13, or that 
of a Subject: — i*tlh&1P ' hii*hlh "his (followers) asked him" 
Mark. 4, 10. In particular, the form that comes first to hand 
(masc), tt,h? > H.hh &c, has often completely the character of a 
Neuter : "mine" [das Meinige] &c. : hJP°H,hP "of mine" John 16, 14 ; 
fl*"fl"t* ' ltjttf« "unto his own" John 1, 11; or, omitting the Noun, 
to which it refers: htlf° ! M ! ^h^A^** * ' Aft«fe4» ' P>lb% * 
011.P ! h9°5 ' XijMf A " "for the portion of the children of Judah 
was larger than what properly belonged to them" Josh. 19, 9, al- 
though in such cases the Relative may be prefixed a second time: 
J&h-'Jh ' Ah * 1/II.Ml force ooi r& od Gen. 33, 9. The inflection of 
the Relative Pron. which appears in this Possessive as its first 
element, following the Gender and Number of the Noun to which 
it refers, is farther attended to in this case with a greater sense of 
urgency, on account of the independent position of such Posses- 
sives, and consequently with a stricter observance of the rules, 
than in the case dealt with in § 147, a. 

(c) But the Nominative also of Personal Pronouns has oc- Emphatic 
casionally to be brought into special prominence, as contrasted om o " f 
with other Persons, e. g. "even I", "I myself" &c; and this case Pers. Pron. 
sometimes extends also to Demonstratives: "even this", "this 
very" &c. To express the idea of "idem", "even the", it is often 
enough, in the case of the Dem. Pron. (§ 148, a), to compound it 

(*) Properly—: "Something belonging to Thee is the kingdom". 

-- 344 — § 150. 

with Grftx'p, fih'fc &c. But the language may place another special 
particle beside Demonstrative and Personal Pronouns, — \\oo 
"nearly", "just", "only" (§ 162), which always stands next after 
them, and may be applied to any Case, e. g.\ "from eternity to 
eternity hl't '• jfltf" thou art the same" Ps. 89,2; 92,3: — 
\U?V* '• ft 00 • ^*A "the very same word" (ace.) Matt. 26, 44; H'i't s 
Y\ao s ftoydfr "this very thing have I heard" Ps. 61, 11 ; ?«fl£ : 
h^lh s Y}0° "he did the same thing" Matt. 20, 5. 

In order to express the idea of "self" in the case of the three 
Persons, the particle AA "he, he" i. e. "he himself" (cf. supra, 
p. 117, § 62, 1, c) is, in Ethiopic, compounded with the Genitive 
Suffixes, by means of the binding-vowel i( l ): — 

Sing. Plur. 

1 st Pers. AA.P 1 st Pers. AA.V 

9 nd Jm. AA.h 9nd Jm. AA.htf°- 

2 " |f. A AX 2 "if ^W 
ord Jm. h(Uh q rd fm. AA.lf<^- 

3 " \f. AA.V 3 " il AA.lf>- 

Instead of AA.P > AAP (laleya) also may appear, in ac- 
cordance with § 153, e. g. 1 Cor. 4, 3; Ps. 50,4; Gen. 45, 12 Note; 
AA»? also occurs:— Gen. 45,12 GC (Konig, p. 153). This com- 
pound is always used as a Nominative. For the Accusative the 
compound with \\J$ (v. supra under a) or with Chh (7- infra) is 
employed : fift : faft • liUji * Chfo "if we would judge ourselves" 
1 Cor. 11, 31 ; AAJf 0°" » ?h9°4* "they themselves know" Acts 22,19; 
HAAjl «* "ttCXl "which Thou hast founded" Ps. 8,4; AA7 * W 
-£<m- s i)2\>(\\tf.av' "it itself, their path", i. e. "their very path is 
the occasion of their fall" Ps. 48, 13; cf. also Josh. 10, 1, 4; 17, 18; 
22, 2 ; 23, 3. And in this signification AA is frequently introduced 
alongside of the independent Personal Pron. : — fl^h't * AA.U- s 
hinhilduC Josh. 22,23; (D-hii i AA.U- » h,F-9° * Oh^ atrog 
hariv 'Eb&ju Gen. 36, 1. 

The notion of "self" may be indicated periphrastically, for 
every case except the Nominative, by means of Chtl "head"( 2 ) 

(*) For the accentuation v. Teumpp, p. 551. 

( 2 ) Which has become in Amharic completely a Pronoun of the Third 
Person, as JiCA"- 

§ 151. — 345 

with a Suff. Pron. appended. It occurs very frequently: ao^ : Reflexive 

use of 

ihkfl. ' Chrth "whom makestthou thyself?" John 8, 53; Matt. 8, 4; ™° ' 
Gen. 19, 17; fr^m- '- hChfl* * > ^-fl^VO "(that) they may buy }<pft ^ 

themselves food" Matt. 14, 15; also Hen. 10,2; Numb. 31, 53; Su ff. Pron. 
Josh. 11,14; Chrest. p. 24, line 4; p. 43, line 8. This periphrasis 
is employed, in particular, when the Pronoun is subordinated to a 
Preposition, e. g. /\6ii •• Gftflh" " "against yourselves" Josh. 24,22. 
Chtl may refer even to things impersonal in themselves, but thought 
of as persons (i. e. personified) : %ii9° s tiCM ' ^rlbA* "the mor- 
row will take thought for itself" Matt. 6, 34. The word V<pft "soul", 
"life" is less frequently employed to indicate "self", and is only 
made use of when the same idea may stand for "self" in other 
languages : 0i>m<D : VPfl : A1°^" "lie delivered himself to death" 
(Liturg.); Gen. 19,17; Josh. 23,11; G. Ad. 5,3sg.; 7, 4- (where 

iuJiS will stand in the original Arabic) &c. 

§ 151. Attachment of the Verbal Suffixes, viz. to the Per- Attachment 
feet, Subjunctive and Imperative. On the Infinitive v. § 155. suffixl* 1 

The Suffix is attached to the Verb by* way of Object, and Binding- 
thus in the Accusative-form of subordination. In by far the greater 
number of cases also, the Suff. Pron. with the Verb represents the 
Accusative of the Personal Pronoun. But since, following § 143 
and § 174 sqq., the Accusative in Ethiopic admits of a much wider 
signification and more manifold use than in other tongues, and 
indicates often the notion "with respect to", the Suff. Pron. is 
naturally employed in Ethiopic not only for the Accusative, but 
also for the Dative of the Personal Pron., — the Dative in fact 
which in an independent word is throughout denoted by the pre- 
position A "with respect to", "for". Attempts at a Dative-use of 
the Suff. Pron. are met with, as is well-known, in other tongues 
alsoC 1 ). In Ethiopic all Intransitive, Kenexive, and Passive Verbs 
may assume a Suff. Pron. with the force of a Dative: fftfrAi 
"suffices us" Josh. 17,16; £^-}fl)yi<n>« "it shall be opened unto 
you" Matt. 7, 7 ; J&'Y.J&rttl "it is better for thee" Mark 9, 45 ; £^ 
->A# "is reckoned to him" Eom. 4, 5 ; .M'l.'.All "it shall grow 
for thee" Gen. 3, 18 ; Vgftilh "I will give thee more" Tobit 5, 15. 
In particular M and uA(D "to be" take this Dative, e. g. hl° m 'i'^ * 
d.pthi' ' £\iahWn(fl>- "they shall be to you for judges" Matt. 12,27; 

O Ewald, l Hebr. Spr. 1 § 315,6; Hoffmann, l Gr. Syr.' p. 315. 

— 346 — § 151. 

frVi "it has happened to me" Tobit 8, 16. A Suffix of the third 
person may then take a reflexive meaning (§ 149) \\ao s ^Yt-T ' 
"flftA.'F (*) "that she may become his wife", (lit. 'that she may be 
to him for his wife') Gen. 28, 9 ( 2 ). 

To be sure, this Dative use has really its origin in the Ac- 
cusative use; and accordingly the Suffix is joined to the Verb in 
the same way in both cases. The same vowel a, which is the mark 
of the Accusative with the Noun (§ 143), is placed here before 
the Suff. Pron. to denote the Accusative, by way of binding-vowel 
between Verb and Pronoun ( 3 ). 

In combination with the binding-vowel the Verbal Suffixes 
(cf. § 149) run as follows: 
1 st Person. 2 nd Person. 3 rd Person. 

m. f. m. f. 

Sing, a-rii. a-ka; a-kl. d-hit, contr. 6; aha, contr. &. 

Plur. d-na. a-kemmii; a-ken. a-homu, „ omit', a-hon, „ dw( 4 ). 

But this intervening vowel does not appear regularly, except 
when Suffixes are attached to those personal forms of the Verb 
which end in a Consonant, and even then not invariably. When 
such forms end in a vowel, the binding-vowel is often pushed aside 
by these vowel-endings. The Subjunctive, even in such of its forms 
as end in a consonant, constantly rejects the binding-vowel before 
the four Suffixes of the Second Person ( e ), because short, compact 
expression is characteristic generally of that Mood, and because 
the binding-vowel is not retained by the Accent. The Accent, in 
fact, is always attracted to kemmu and ken, while ka and ki have 
become entirely devoid of accent, and even the binding-vowel, 
where it does precede them, is unaccented (§ 149). The four Suf- 

( x ) [This is hardly an instance of reflexive meaning in the Suffix, for 
the Suffix of the third person here does not refer to the grammatical Subject 
of the clause, tr.] 

( 2 ) [A peculiar use of the Suffix occurs in Eebra Nag., p. 65 b. 3: 
A^fllT : rh*fc*f* he 'hurried the questioning with respect to him', i. e. "he 
asked him quickly".] 

( 3 ) Cf. Ewald, 'JSebr. Spr.' % 247, b. On the other hand v. Kostio, 
p. 141 sq. 

( 4 ) V. on the other hand Teumpp, pp. 551, 554 sq. 

( 5 ) So that e. g. JE-Yl-Vll<' 1> * Matt. 9, 29 in Platt's edition is decidedly 
inaccurate; [the Reprint, however, has the correct reading, ^Vh^y!" "'] 

§ 151. — 347 — 

fixes of the Third Person are mostly contracted, after has been 
thrown out (§ 47), particularly when the Verbal-form ends in a 
consonant. The following are the detailed rules for attaching these 
Suffixes to the Verb. 

1. All personal forms of the Verb which end in a consonant, i. Attach- 
with the exception of those of the Subjunctive, have the Suffixes ^^Forms 
of the First and Second Person attached to them by means of the of the Verb 
binding-vowel, those of the Third Person being applied in their consonant, 
contracted form. The Persons of the Subjunctive which end in a 
consonant have the Suffixes of the Second Pers. appended directly, 
without any binding vowel; while the Second Pers. sing. masc. of 

the Imperative does not admit of the Suffixes of the Second Pers. 
being appended at all. The Second Pers. pi. fern, of the Perfect, 
as hICWti ver y seldom appears with Suffixes ( x ), and then it trans- 
forms its Yft into J|> acquiring thus the same final sound as the 
Third Pers. plur. fern., cf. <:rt£hl> : AflWSA -' W^lfl? * Mlft-rh 
Cyr. a Reg. in Tub. MS. fol. 25, b. At the same time, we do meet 
with forms like /hOtWlh, thWWtbi*)- 

2. Of the Persons of the Yerb which end in a, V7<£> YlVXl, 2. when 
YlVfli the First Pers. Plur. Perfect retains its a even before the the y ° nd in 
binding-vowel a. The short a blends with the latter into a, and 
contraction with the binding-vowel is thereby usually prevented, 

even in the case of the suffixes of the Third Person ( 3 ). The Second 
Pers. Sing. Masc. Perfect, — which is never followed by the Suf- 
fixes of the Second Person — , gives up its a before the binding- 
vowel a, regularly in the case of Suffixes of the First Person and 

( 1 ) Examples: Ex. 2,20 and Can tic. 5,8 (where Ludolf has introduced 
an inaccurate correction into the text). 

( 2 ) V. Cornill, 'Das Buch der weisen Philosopher^ (Leipzig 1875), 
p. 61; and cf. Konig, pp. 133, 141; Philippi, ZDMG XXXII, p. 71; and 
Noldeke, ibid. XXXVIII, p. 417. V. also Praetorius, ibid. XLI, p. 690 [and 
Brockelmann, ibid. LIX, p. S31]. 

( 3 ) I prefer the explanation of the long a given above, to the other 
explanation, defended also by Konig, p. 141, according to which we have in 
this *J" merely a return to the original pronunciation of the ^r, as it appears 

in the Arabic IS. In fact in the Josippon, at least in Cod. Frcf., the forms 
iflCT, idCtO -, ifiCTTr occur rather more frequently than iflC'tV; 
iftCtlf "°* and *idC f tW Tr 5 and they occur also in Sx. frequently, e. g. 
rtKAT Sx. Genb. 28; ^h-flT = ^tl-nW and 4»flC? = fRCW 

Sx. Genb. 28 Enc. [Cf. also Kebra Nag., Introd. p. XVIII.] 

— 348 — § 151. 

Plur. Suffixes of the Third Person, and occasionally and capricious- 
ly in the case of Singular Suffixes of the Third Person, the type 
in the latter case being either ^IChlh, hlCW or VlCfr, MChC)- 

The Third Person Sing. Masc. Perfect gives up its final a before 
all Suffixes (§ 91), and takes the Suffixes of the Third Person in- 
variably in their contracted form. 
3. Attach- 3. In those Persons of the Verb which end in a formative -w, 

ment when as J.,^ tf^ ^C^tfO-, J&V*7^- f fa"K* WK*, Wl^, tl^, 

Pers. Forms > _ 

end in the binding-vowel a is thrust aside by the u before all the Suffixes 

formative- Q £ ^ e First and Second Person. In such cases u takes over the 

accent, whenever it must have fallen upon a, if that vowel had 

been retained (e. g. in llCfa" ^)* Suffixes of the Third Person 
are always attached in their shorter and vowel-commencing form 
o, a, dmu, on, originating in contraction w r ith the binding-vowel, 
u being at the same time hardened into w before these vowels, 
e. g- JICPj although a mere semi-hardening (§ 40) is often exhib- 
ited in this case, particularly in the older manuscripts, e. g. Arh 
OrP, iaCh-P<*>*, iflCh^Fl 2 ), tihahlMtP Amos 9,7 (A), 
h9°h i ?\lf°'9 > Herm. 22 6, 19. 
i. when 4. The Persons which end in the Fern, formative-?, *i1Cft\*i 

Fem. 't} a l&, Th7*7<5» "J*7*»> do not assume any Suffixes of the Second 
formative-i p erson> The Suffixes of the Third Person are attached in that 
form which begins with a vowel and which originates in contrac- 
tion with the binding-vowel, the I undergoing sometimes complete 
hardening, sometimes semi-hardening. — The semi-hardening is of 
specially frequent occurence in the older manuscripts — : e. g. 'JhA 
<f$*l Ruth 2, 8 ; Afl'JP- and /hfljrf- Ex. 2, 9 (Note) ; «7flC£ and «7fl 
&f Gen. 16,6 (Note) ; [cf.Kebra Nag. p. X.YIII]; frffTie-G-en. 21,18 
(Note); ihrtJF'frf- Chrest. p. 74, line 21 ( 3 ). On the other hand 
the Suffixes of the First Person admit in this case of no binding- 
vowel or hardening of the I into a semivowel, because doubly- 
closed syllables would thereby be produced in most cases within 

O According to Noldeke, ZDMG XXXVIII, p. 413, N. 1, WChl)' 

contains an originally long a, like the Hebr. !"IFlt* overagainst oof. 
Konig, p. 132 explains the length in \\ by extension before an Aspirate. On 
the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 551 sqq. 

( 2 ) V. Dillmann's ed. of the ' Octateuch 1 ', Coram, p. 5. 

( 3 ) According to Konig, p. 127, this takes place to avoid a hiatus. 

§ 152. — 349 — 

the word (like iflChffc, fofhfX), but the Verbal forms con- 
cerned weaken their final % into e£), — which then probably receives 
the accent, — and attach to it £, *i without a binding- vowel. In 
this way forms are produced in the Perfect like V"/ ff[\\ Gen. 30,15 ; 
h9°thfoWl Cantic. 5,9; fr'JVlfc, which seemingly must be pronoun- 
ced naMkeni, amhalkena, konkeni; while in the Imperfect, the 
Subjunctive and the Imperative we have forms like ^I'flCfc, 
*Vfcfc Gen. 30,15, T7Cfc Gen. 24,23, 47; K-flfcfc Gen. 
38,16; fMlfc Gen. 30,14; "hao1\ Gen. 35,17; ftJl^Jr (from 
htl^fr) Gen. 24,17, 43, 45; |V>V, IM1V, rthAfc Kebra Nag., 
Introd. p. XVIII]. These last forms are probably to be pronounced 
tegabreni &c. 

5. In those Persons which end in a, hilt*, ¥*i*lfa, ^1*7^ 5. when 
¥S}"1&; .tpilfa, 'iltr. the binding-vowel a blends with the a tbey ^ din 
into a. Contraction in the Suffixes of the Third Person is accord- 
ingly not permissible. 

§ 152. The various individual forms which are possible in gpecial 
this connection may be explained by these rules. A survey is given °™« of 
in Table VII. One or two cases, however, deserve farther and Attachment 

. , of Verbal 

special mention. suffixes. 

In attaching the Suffixes to the Subjunctive it may happen, 
in accordance with § 151,1, that the first letter of the Suffixes of 
the Second Person, ft, is brought into immediate contact with the 
Radical Palatal-Guttural, «7, 4* or ft. In that case, when «7 or 4» is 
concerned, the \\ of the Suffix passes into *7 or 4» (§ 54): $Cfa& "(that) 
he withdraw thee" Deut. 13,11 ,M£% "(that) I should leave thee" 
Ruth 1,16; A^^Crh4»Me^s/9reraJ(7avff£Prov.3,3; fWRty Sir. 12,16; 
96C1 G. Ad. 43,24. Instead of fob, when ft is the Radical, only one 
character is written (§55): hflCll "Iwillblessthee" Gen. 27,7, 10, 25; 
Ruth 2,4; J&'Jfth "(that) he bite thee" Chrest. p. 44, line 11. The 
copyists have in this case often gone astray, and, because they no longer 
recognised the Suffix, they have set down sometimes the Verbal 
form without Suffix, e.g. ^flCfr for ^DCh Gen. 27,4 (28,3), and 
sometimes they have made a Suffix of the Third Pers. Masc. out 

( x ) This feminine %, on being brought into the middle of a word, would 
seem to have a general tendency towards a more fugitive pronunciation. 
Konig, pp. 120, 153 assumes a Dissimilation here. Cf. also supra, 
p. 72, § 36. 

— • 350 — § 152. 

of a Suffix of the Second Person Masc, e. g. J&flCh for £flCh 
Gen. 48,20 et saepe^). 

When a vowel-commencing Suffix, or one which is attached 
with the binding-vowel a, is applied to those Persons of the Imper- 
fect, the Subjunctive and the Imperative of verbs tertiae gutturalis, 
which end directly with the last radical and so have the foregoing 
a lengthened into a, as in ^9°Kh, FXh, J&^rfC/fA, ^d.^lth 
&c.,— then the same changes emerge, which appear in the conjuga- 
tion of these verbs in applying to those forms Personal-endings 
commencing with a vowel (§ 103), thus:— p,9°%h, P>9°Kh\] 
fl"7fl, tl9°0%., [It^h l sume earn' Kebra Nag. 55 b 14]&c. ( 2 ). On 
the other hand, Roots which are also mediae infirmae maintain 
the a, just as they do in the inflection (§ 103): — j&fl?i, $j(\h%, 
J&flAttf 1 *' &c. 9°d0 may also maintain the a, e. g. K/t'ter D 'iP 
"be not angry with him" Gen. 44,18, as well as "HhtfDfldfc; cf. 
Konig, p. 85. 

Hoots mediae geminatae may contract the repeated letter, 
exactly as in the inflection (§ 103), whenever a proper occasion 
occurs, that is to say when a Suffix, introduced by the binding- 
vowel a, or one commencing with a vowel, is applied to a form 
ending in a vowel-less radical, e. g. JK.J0 or £V"flfl> from J&WM1; 
hy»ya»- or h9°6Po° n , from t\9°dd &c. 

Verbal forms from Roots tertiae infirmae, which end in u or 
i as third radical, must harden the u or % before the binding-vowel 
into w or g, (exactly as in the inflection before vow T el-commencing 
Personal terminations, § 103) ( 3 ), e. g. J&'lhA'P from jMhA*> *hA 
<Dfc from ^fr, ?&£?> from ^rhfc, fcJhj&fDSr from ft/hft, hh-H 
<Djr from J»Afl- (Ps. 118,34):— but in the Subj. with Suff. of the 
Second Person we have ft^A-h (Matt. 8, 19). Farther we have J&<{, 
KP- from £&/i., cfcf \ from CJu, Wh? from WA., hCM* from 
hCK.- But yet the semi-hardening process is also met with in 
this connection here and there, e. g. ^OlLPh Gen. 28,3; Ex. 30,4; 
Numb. 12,11; hd>tlS m Amos 8,10 (A) et saepe. 

( x ) In G. Ad. 29, 10 Trumpp has restored some of these forms on his 
own authority. 

( 2 ) And yet we have also the reading •fJA/' Deut. 12, 18, 22 instead of 
•flA/ 1 as in Deut. 14,23; 15,20. In Sirach 6,12 some MSS. have jR^"ifl 

Mi for £^-vnfch. 

( 3 ) For the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 556r 

§ 153. — 351 — 

The shortened form £fl, "he said" (^Q,, KO., 7(1,, § 103) 
must also make the A appear again before the Suffixes: J&fl,A£, 

£fl,A» &c. 

Like Arabic f), Ethiopic has the faculty of appending two 
Suffixes to a Verb at one time. Verbs namely, which may govern 
two Accusatives (§ 177), may also assume two Suffixes. The rule 
of precedence with these Suffixes in such a case is this, that the 
First Person precedes the Second or Third, and stands next to the 
Verb, while the Second precedes the Third. Examples: — CDfMlYl* 
htf. Numb. 18,8; hO'dM Gen. 15,7 (cf. Konig, p. 133); fU£& 
f|V Dent. 28,30; fil-nti<fl»-4» and ffl-fltlfP Josh. 9,22; ff/££ 
7f« Luke 9,39; aWlYH*- G. A. 109,10; iffljtf Gen. 29,21; K-fl 
A0fc£ Ezek. 3,2, ftlDOTfcf- Gen. 42, 37; ||fh3r^ Gen. 23,9; (DO 
llfcM Gen. 31,9; -MJIK7 G. A. 57,2 [iMftf- "give (f. Sing.) 
it me" Kebra Nag. 99 b 23]. We also conclude from these exam- 
ples, that, when the first Suffix ends in u or I, and a Suffix of the 
Third Person (o, a, omu, or on) is added, the u or % may undergo 
either complete- or semi-hardening ( 2 ) ; still, the latter process is 
the more usual one (cf. Konig, p. 153 sq.), the accent in that case 
falling upon the second Suffix (cf. Trump]?, p. 556). If the first 
Suffix ends in a, the Suffixes of the Third Person are always ap- 
plied in their original form (/m, ha, homu, Jiori), and the foregoing 
a is generally lengthened into a( 3 ), under the influence of the 
Aspirate and of the accent which it then takes. 

§ 153. Attachment of the Suffix Pronouns to the Noun. Attachment 
Pronouns are subordinated to the Noun just as other nouns are % u ^™ 
(8 144), that is to say, — in the Genitive relation or possessive Bmding- 

. n vowel. 

sense. Of course, as is pointed out in § 150, Ethiopic is fur- 
nished with an expedient for deriving from every Personal Pronoun 
independent Possessives which it may employ with the force of a 
Genitive. Their use, however, is almost wholly restricted to cases 
in which a certain emphasis is laid upon the Genitive, or in which 
the attachment of a Suffix is impracticable on other grounds, — 
for instance when a Construct State has to be dealt with. But 

( x ) Ewald, k Gr. Ar: § 674. 

( 2 ) And yet in the very ancient Cod. Laur. there occurs, in Zech. 3,1: 

( 3 ) V., however, Numb. 14, 8; Deut. 6, 23; 9, 6. 

— 352 — § 153. 

when such special cases do not present themselves, every Personal 
Pronoun, which has to take the Genitive, is even in Ethiopic at- 
tached usually to its governing Noun as a Suffix, e. g. <w>'PdAjJ* 
"the days of him", "his days". The power to subordinate a Pro- 
noun to a Noun in this way— depends upon the process of juxta- 
position, just as in the case of a Construct State (§ 144); and 
wherever Suffixes with the force of a Genitive are appended to a 
word, it is really a Construct State-relation which is then consti- 
tuted. Now (§ 144) this relation may be conceived, and in other 
languages may even be realised, without any outward formative 
expedient, so that by ranking the two words close together and 
accentuating them in a certain way the whole force of the relation 
is embraced already. Accordingly it might be thought that even 
in Ethiopic the Suffixes would attach themselves closely to the 
Noun without recourse to any farther contrivance, and give expres- 
sion to the Genitive relation by thus blending together the two ele- 
ments into one single word. In actual fact, however, this is not 
the case. For in Ethiopic, just as the Construct State is invari- 
ably formed by means of an Ending, so the Suffix in every in- 
stance is attached to the Noun by means of a Binding-voivel cor- 
responding to such Ending. But this binding-vowel is no longer 
retained in all instances with the same fidelity to its original form. 
In order therefore to understand its essential nature, it is neces- 
sary to distinguish the different cases which occur. 
i. Attach- 1. The Binding-vowel appears in its purest form in the case 

s^ffixes° to °f ^ e attachment of Suffixes to the Plural of the Noun, whether 
piurai outer or inner Plural. Plural-forms subordinate the Suffix by 
means of the binding-vowel I, which always carries the Tone, ex- 
cept when the Suffix itself requires it, as in Vim*", |f|*>, lftf»-, U"} 
(§ 149). This binding- vowel is of such essential importance, that, 
for the sake of it, even the a of the Accusative is given up ; and 
accordingly when an Accusative Plural has to take a Suffix, the 
sign of the Accusative disappears, and the Accusative relation is 
recognisable only from the context. In this I, which agrees in a 
remarkable manner with an ancient ending of the Construct State 
in Hebrew, we can only discern a Construct State-ending; for 
seeing that the fuller form la is given in the cases adduced in 
§ 150, o, it is probable that both the usual Ethiopic ending of the 
Construct State, a, and the^inding-vowel, I, are merely two 

§ 153. — 353 — 

different abbreviations of one and the same fundamental form la 
(§ 144) (*). This binding-vowel i is reduced to the feebler e on 
phonetic grounds in two cases: (a) before the Suffix p, by l+ya 
becoming eyya, or again by I being weakened into e before ya, pro- 
ducing eya( 2 ). Yet this is by no means always the case; in partic- 
ular, forms with %ya are often exhibited in older manuscripts, 
like hfJEt, h9°1\M & c -"> tf- Konig, p. 153; [and Kebra Nag., 
Introd. p. XVI]. (b) Before the Suffix Xu l may be shortened into 
e, plainly to obviate the necessity of two ^-sounds being heard 
in immediate succession. The Suffixes which are attached to the 
Plural accordingly take the following forms (cf. Teumpp, p. 557) : — 

I. II. III. 

m. f. m. f. 

Sing. e-ya. %-ka, \ , 7 _' i-hu, i-ha. 

Plur. i-na. l-kemmu, l-ken. i-homu, i-hon. 

For Examples v. Table IX. The form lya e. g. is given in 
fclUee Gen. 32,10; 47,9, 30 ; hrtfajl Gen. 48,3; M^ Jud- 
ges 8,19; the form Ikl in &fl<gH, Ps. 44,18; eki, h/\t\t)\h Can- 
tic. 4,11; hTOCh. ibid.; Ruth 3,3 (G). If the Plural-Stem ends 
in j&, then the approach of the binding-vowel produces ft.; but 
before Suffixes of the third Person ft. occurs only rarely, as for 
instance in /Shf'.lh (a side-form to htlj&lh), v. Dillmann's 'Lex. 1 , 
col. 789; JE, inclines rather to blend with the ?-sound into £ (cf. 
Teumpp, p. 558): tfn^flj&ih mard t -i-'hu = mard t ihu( 3 ) Gen. 21,22; 
26,26; ao^d^Vt^ Gen. 34,23; ft/p : 19&0' (Ace. and Col- 

( x ) Trumpp also, p. 557, N. 1, holds I to be the remains of an old 
Constr. St.; cf. supra, p. 325, Note Q), as also Konig, p. 142. 

( 2 ) There is no express announcement that y has to be pronounced 
double in this case, and the alternative possibility is brought nearer by the 
shortening of the l before \\^ into e. 

( 3 ) [It looks more like mara'yehu, as if Ihu had also been shortened 
into e-hu, and applied to 0°/^il§!t, thus maray e -ehu, which easily blends 
into marayehu; but not so obviously does maray" and ihu blend into 
maraihu. However Dillmann thinks 0**/!r>dP> should be pronounced as if 
it were written ao&P^ (v. § 51 sub fin.). Trumpp's pronunciation of the 
word is mard-'eihu. Perhaps too the binding-vowel has disappeared in these 
cases, v. infra, tr.] 


— 354 — § 154. 

lective, v. infra § 155) Gen. 32,24; dflj&lh (Ace.) Tobit 13,4; 
and also with Suffixes of the second Person "J'Pj&htf**" (for 'J'pgw 
h<n»\> Ex. 10,24; r^flJ&lT} Matt. 25,4; and in Ex. 38,26 there 
occurs even <w»^OJ&P"T' from <w»HU£, the binding-vowel having 
been hardened into a semivowel and the h thrown out (but see an- 
not. on the passage). And yet, seeing that every Plural in Ethio- 
pic, particularly the Inner Plurals or Collective forms, may with- 
out difficulty be conceived again as a simple Singular notion, it 
is not much to be wondered at, that Suffixes are frequently ap- 
plied to Plural forms after the fashion of Singulars; v. infra § 155. 
2. Attach- § 154. 2. When Suffixes are attached to Singular forms, 

sufflx^to ^ ie binding-vowel i is shortened into e or is entirely given up. At 
singular the same time we must distinguish between Nominal-Stems ending 
to Nominal i n a vowel and those ending in a consonant. 

stems (a\ Nominal- Stems, ending in a, e, or b, — in whatever way 

ending in _ # J 

a, e, or 6. the termination has arisen — , have the Suffixes attached without 
any binding-vowel, in all the Cases of the Noun, just because the 
latter vowel is absorbed by the long vowel, e. g. t^&r^fr "his glory" 
Ex. 24,17; ^fim- "their impurity" 2 Esr. 9,11; 'htAfntfP- 
"their separation" G. Ad. 11,19; ^Ifl^ (instead of ^\\Jf\S"i) 
M. M. f. 192. In fr^'dc even the e of the Nominal form is dis- 
carded; cf. Dillmann's i Lex.\ col. 367 (v. Table IX). 
to Nom. (&) Nominal-Stems ending in a Consonant. 

stems fa-, when these Stems stand in the Accusative, the Suffixes 

ending ma ' 

consonant; are appended to them( T ) in like manner without any binding-vowel, 

theae gt e ms inasmuch as the a of the Accusative is too important to be thrust 

stand in the as id e) an( j the binding-vowel is unable to obtain a foothold along- 
Accusative. .... 

side of it. It is true that a and i might have been contracted into 

e, but such mixed sound did not come into use with the ordinary 
Noun, and it is exhibited in the case merely of a few Prepositions 
which have Suffixes attached (§ 167). It is only before the Surf. 

f , where the binding-vowel i or e has a support in the y, that it is 
regularly strong enough to dislodge the a of the Accusative, so 
that /hTffl + Suff. f runs,— not A'Hflf, but ^TMIP ~hezMya{ 2 ). 

( x ) For the accentuation cf. Trumpp, p. 556 sqq. 

( 2 ) Of course the form /h*H*flP might be explained as coming from 
an original /h"Hfl«; and thus it might be supposed that the a of the Accusa- 
tive was in this case displaced bylhe Vowel-Suffix I (§ 149); and in like 

§ 154. — 355 — 

Now seeing that the binding-vowel, except in this one case, disap- 
pears, the a of the Accusative must assume the accent which the 
binding-vowel would have had to sustain: as d-na. But instead 
of d-hu, and d-ha, 6 and d are always given in pronunciation, the 
Aspirate being suppressed. Thus: ^iliflV, /hTfO* rhTJfl; but /hlf 
flh, rhlffltl. with the accent on the tone-syllable of the Stem; 
farther fhTifllfttf ", jhUAlfl'} with the accent on the Suffix; and 
finally, instead of ZhTifllf tf *, /hTffllf}, always the contracted 
forms /foliO* 10 *? ihlHl'}, the Aspirate being rejected. Even be- 
fore other Suffixes than p, it happens occasionally that the a of 
the Accusative gives way to a binding-vowel e, e. g. rh*7h in the 
Ace, Numb. 18,3 (F); fcjPAhtl Lev. 25,36; Y\9°W(\(i»~ Lev. 
25,38; 26,12; 3 Kings 1,14 where the oldest manuscripts have 
V7Ct!« for Vl^Vl.; cf. also Chflhfc Sir. 38,21; hh^C^h Tab. 
Tab.C) 60 (Chrest. p. 122 [where Cod, Mon. Aeth. 11, fol. 49 v° 
reads hh^C-^Xl]) ; ^JWb^Hl Tab. Tab. 79 (ibid. p. 126 [Codd. 
Trumpp, Franco f. and Mon. 11, fol. 57 v° give ££"h»'Hl]) ; Platt, 
l Didasc: p. 5, line 10 ( 2 ); /h*7h and frj^h in Laur. 4Esr. 10,39 
(54); 13,55 (58) and 4 Esr. 8,12; 9,32 (New Ed.), to avoid 
the disagreeable sound of "|h, 4"h; also fhlfltl* i* 1 4 ^sr. 10,15 
(20) ( 3 ). 

manner eya with the Plural-forms might be thought derivable from an ori- 
ginal i\ but ^ as occupying the position of the Suffix i appears to be very- 
old, as old forms like 5F°ftft^ (§ 167) prove; and even before other Suffixes 
the a of the accusative is thrust aside, in old MSS. 

O F> e - fllfl«fl ' fllfl.fl'} or Sapiens Sapientium. tr.] 

( 2 ) [The reference here is to 5\*\X*MFl 0Om "your enemies (ace.)" which 
Platt found in his MS. and considered a mistake, as he explains in a note. 
He restores the a in the Text and writes 5\A?i r l*]f) tf0 "' Evidently Dillmann 
thought the e legitimate enough, though not quite common, tr.] 

( 3 ) Ludolf also lays down the rule, that, when a Noun in the Ace. 
with a Suffix is farther weighted with another attached particle like Jf , VL & c -> 
the a of the Ace. passes into e, e. g. •fftXlC : "JUAh '• h*7lt> ! a>9°(t\ 
£H'tl% P s< 24 ' 6 ; otner instances are Ps. 88,6 (contrasted with v. 2); 71,1; 
87,12; 91,2 (contrasted with Ps. 70,20,21). These cases, however, are rather 
to be explained in accordance with § 143, ad fin., the accusative construction 
being held in abeyance there, and the first form of the Noun appearing in- 
stead of the Ace. [From the numerous instances met with in the Kebra Nag. 
(v. '•Introd? p. XVI sq.) of this formation of the Ace. in e before Suffixes of 


— 356 — § 154. 

(p> when (/?) When the Noun stands in the Nominative, the binding- 

th in tht nd V0We ^ e ma kes its appearance before the Suffixes of the First and 
Nominative. Second Person, taking the accent at the same time before f and 
V, thus : e-ya, e-na, e-kemmu, e-ken. But the Suffixes of the Third 
Person are not given as e-M( x ), e-Jict, e-homu, e-hon, but as u, a, 
omii, on, the Aspirate being discarded and the binding-vowel sup- 
pressed. For the rest v. Table IX. Words, which end in "}, ty, 
\l, JR, "}, are prevented by the binding-vowel from ever making 
these letters coalesce with those Suffixes which commence with the 
same letters or similar ones (cf. Kootg, p. 96), thus %fD'Yi (not ftfl)J) ; 
JiSPAhh, &h£V Hen. 14,4; &«f#h Gen. 48,5; (DCbto^ Gen. 
43, 12. Words which end in ^-containing Palatal-Gutturals, like 
■"WV 1 ^ rtG7\ attach in the Nom. and Ace. the Suffixes of the 
third Person, after the same manner as other nouns, observing 
however the principles noticed in § 42: hCi*!, tlfflt, hC J ^ 00 ', flC 
")*} ; but in order to preserve the peculiar pronunciation of their 
last radical they may also adopt the full form ehu, eha, ehomu, ehbn, 
e. g. ACT-ir*"*- Numb. 31,49 (Ace); ACT*'/ Dent. 17,3. So too 
words ending in ai may take y«, '/, W *n»-, U*"}, e. g. fthJE-lftf " 
Judges 20, 34, 41 (= hllP'0 D *)> but this seldom happens. 
To Kouns ( c ) Nouns which end in I do not admit of any binding-vowel 

ending in i j n ^ G Nominative, but annex the Suffixes directly, just like other 
Stems ending in a vowel, and retain the Aspirate in Suffixes of 
the third Person. But eyya or eya is occasionally read for lya, 
e. g. ao&^ftlt Ps. 18,16; 68,17 (from jrojMfc); 90,2.— Cf. also 
£rt£*l{nP: «M"A»P (van: *p(lS and «M*A»* )\M ) 1 Sam. 22,13 ; 
wPthV* Tob. 1, 13 Francof. When such nouns stand in the Ac- 
cusative, the Accusative-sign a may be suppressed between the 
termination % and the binding-vowel, at least pretty regularly be- 
fore f, v, V, *, l/Vm-, m, e. g. &SfaJ Ex. 15,1; £/i),tf 
Matt. 1, 16; £3fryHen. 6, 3( 2 ); £"l<tf Fhys. 5,12; Hexaem. 33,6( 3 ). 
But before Suffixes of the Second Person, the a of the Accusative 

the Second person, it would appear that this was the regular formation in 
Ge ez at an early stage* of its development.] 

i 1 ) An anomalous form occurs in Ex. 36, 12, fl/3h*fc^"li". 

( 2 ) [Flemming reads here <£./??. tr.] 

( 3 ) Farther Numb. 35,23; Deut. 4,42; 21,1; John 7,32; Hebr. 11,7; 
James 4, 4, 11. *~ 

§ 154. — 357 — 

is mostly retained, e. g. R4A>h Matt. 5,43; Ex. 23, 22 ; Deut. 32, 38 ; 
but v. ftflj^h Job 13,24; \1\6\\ Sir. 4,4 var. In Ex. 23,25, ^/ij 
<5h is to be explained in accordance with § 143 sub fin. 

(d) A few short and old words have a somewhat anomalous To certain 
method of attaching their Suffixes. The four nouns fc«n "father", ^d, 
th9° "father-in-law", VY* "brother", j\Q "mouth" restore to view 
before Suffixes their original termination, namely u in the Ground- 
form, and a( x ) in the Accusative; but for that very reason they 
reject other binding-vowels: they also adopt the Suffixes of the 
third Person in their complete form. Accordingly, from the Nom- 
inative-form proceed Kfl*f (Pa. 26,16), ftft-V> ftfl-h (John 8,19), 
hO-K htt-tao*, hOW (Gen. 31,5), hfro-, h(M, ftO-lfff*-, 
Kfl-lT^; in like manner ft^p Luke 6,42, M*h Matt. 5,24, 
M-lh Gen. 38,29; rh^ll. Gen. 38,13, A^V 3'8,25; K^.p 
Ps. 16, 5, h4* 0- 9, 29, h&tfw 5, 10, fcf h Rev. 10, 9. In the 
Accusative these words ought properly to run ftflf, Jiflh Eph. 6,2, 
ftfllh John 6,42, YxW0°* Mark 1,20; ft^ho©- and V)<Ptl" Da 
Gen. 42,20 (Note), MVtfan* or ft^l/ 1 **!* Ps. 37,21, M<Pih 
Matt. 5,22; Ps, 48,7; thlO- Ex. 18,26; h4*V* Matt. 5,2; but 
they readily give up the Accusative form, and stand in their first 
form for the Accusative also. Thus there appear as Accusatives 
htt'tb Chrest. p. 24, line 5,; fcfl«V Judges 18,19; AfrlT*"*" 
Gen. 4,21; ftfl«y Deut. 21,13; Vt-h Deut. 25,3. In particular 
ft<p employs its first or Nominative-form for the Accusative al- 
most without exception: M'lh Ps. 68,19; Hen. 106,3; ft£y 
Gen. 4,11 (Note); Hen. 56,8; fcff Judges 11,35; ft£h Jud- 
ges 11,36; Kflftfi* Ps. 9,42; Hen. 17,8. The Noun %£ 
"hand", — although it exhibits Oh in the Plural as its third radi- 
cal, like the words just mentioned, — does not form "hJ^.^ &c, 
but always takes the form ft&» before Suffixes, thereby indica- 
ting an original pronunciation of ftft,, something like nv, but 

( 1 ) "Which a is taken in exchange for u in the very same way as a is 
for e in the ordinary noun. For the rest, in the case at least of ft*fl> a second 
Ace. occurs even without a Suffix, viz. ftfl in Matt. 19,29; cf. the Vocative 
§ 142.— "With reference to this peculiarity in the words mentioned, compare 
Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac; Ewald, '(?*•. ArJ § 411; 'Hebr. SprS § 256, a, 
and Hoffmann, 'Gr. Syr.' p. 273 sq. — V. also Konig, p. 108. [Cf. farther 
Noldeke, 'Syr. Gr.' (English Ed.) p. 91. tk.] 

— 358 — § 155. 

making no distinction between Nominative and Accusative: ft&f, 

3. suffixes § 155. 3. Often however in Ethiopic the Suffixes are at- 

twhe/to tached to Singular Stems in the Plural fashion, and vice versa to 
singular Plural Stems in the Singular fashion. 

the piurai (a) Singular-Stems, — by reason of similarity of meaning (that 

fashion, and - g w ] ien they C0nv ey the sense of a Collective noun) or still oftener 

TO Jrllirft,! 

stems in similarity of form, — at times take Suffixes which belong properly 

fashion.^ to the Plural forms ( 3 ). Especially are Suffixes of the Plural adopted 

(«) ist case, wj^ a l mos t perfect regularity by those Singular-Stems which con- 

sing. stems tain a long a before the last radical or formative letter, both on 

are similar accoun t f ou t war d resemblance to the Plural type h9°tl& and 

in form or ^ "" ■■^* 

meaning to because an e as a binding-vowel would be too weak, after the long 
a, to carry the tone. These stems almost invariably fasten the Suf- 
fixes to themselves, both in the Nominative and the Accusative, by 
means of v.— 4^Cflfctf- Gen. 4,4; 9°M*i.V' Gen. 1,9; ^"KlKXU 
Gen. 3,16; £"},?7.U« Josh. 3,15; 4,18; tf»-^^.||- Josh. 10,11; 
{W/fch Ps. 2,8: jPy'p'V.U- Ps. 42,4; 9°d^dO' Hen. 72,2; 
<" > 'fl/i«U*, a°-*lhj)* Hen. 73, 3 ; AU^'tV Luke 1, 36. Words 
also of the type ^'CO't' from roots ultimae gutturalis have here 
and there the same forms, in accordance with §48: — fl*flrh"fch 
Ps. 47,9; 72,28 (cf. § 121,$; C/^h-tU- Gen. 21,2; but also 
JP°1fK. Ps. 61, 11; JP^flffim- Ps. 27,5; 4»£*fii: Ps. 29,4; 96,13 &c. 
In the very same way words of the Second simple formation, be- 
longing to the type hfl£% may, from their outward resemblance 
to the first Collective-form, attach their Suffixes by means of I: — 
hfRh Ps. 121,7; TniUJ- Ps. 146,5; dRdth 2 Sam. 22,6 &c; 
also Oddjf 00 * Judith 1,7. So is it, farther, with words of the 
type <w»*7flC and <w , '7flG'lh particularly when they are used col- 
lectively, e. g. tn l1i&6\F0V' Ps. 48, 11 &c, and many other Singu- 

O But ftj?. is found in Tab. Tab. 53, 1; 66,4 (Chrest. pp. 120, 123). 
For farther explanation cf. Philippi, ZDMG XXXII, p. 74; Baeth, ibid. XLT, 
p. 637; Konig, p. 107; et supra p. 286 and Note ( 3 ). 

( 2 ) But when in Hen. 44 and Ex. 34, 13 the MSS have {PflklF <* D " 
for J^°rt A«l/ > < n *" "their images", that form has been reached simply through the 
copyists mistaking the Oonceptional word ('image') for the Preposition jT*ft A 
('with') (§ 167). [In Hen. 44, Fi^MMiNg reads {J fiA,U , <m«. te.] 

( 3 ) Cf. in Hebrew, Ewald, l £ebr. Spr.' § 259, 6. 

§ 156. — 359 — 

lar-forms besides, especially when used collectively, e. g. < Jm»'fcV 
Ps. 89,10, ^iWJ-fclftfo- Ps. 77,37. 

(b) Plural-stems at times adopt suffixes properly belonging 0>) 2nd case, 
to the Singular, inasmuch as any Plural may be conceived of as pi.^em! 
a notion suggesting unity : — KW'fr* Ps. 31,14; 33,16; fihWh may be 


Ps. 102,21; RAM* Ps. 67,1; ftAh#<">- Ps. 105,11; ftAft^ll °fassu g - 
Ps. 20,8; h-f}?**** Hen. 94,7; h"ihf Matt. 3,11; -V1W- 7Z* 
Gen. 40, 5 ; )%*7'flC«f- Gen. 44, 16 ; aotpfiftotw Lev. 7, 36 ; Rrh^T. 
.f-tfo- Matt. 7,29; ^AHrtll. (Ace.) Euth 3,3; fc5WlW> "their 
(/".) fingers" M. Berh. f. 43 a; 0°«7fl^ (Ace.) G. Ad. 50,17; 
particularly those Plurals which give expression only to a simple 
Singular-conception, e. g. K9°Ah "God" or oopHgav* Gen. 47, 30 ; 
<">$>>{{& Gen. 23, 6. 

4. Suffixes are also applied to the Infinitive, just as to *• suffixes 

or . applied to 

ordinary nouns. Infinitives which end in o take no suffixes, it is the 
true, in that form (§ 125), for they must revert, before the suffix, In&mtlTe - 
to their original form in bt ( x ) ; but suffixes are attached to both of 
the other possible Infinitive forms. The Gerund must always stand 
in the Accusative (§ 123), and thus it attaches the Suffixes just 
like other Nouns in the Accusative which have a consonantal ending 
(§154, 6, a): (D%hX Ps. 67,24; Cfc£? Ps 72,3; l(Ut|Ps. 49,21; 
i % 0°£,aiU Luke 22, 32; Wth Matt. 2, 14 &c. The Substantival 
Infinitives may be used both in the Nominative- and the Accusa- 
tive-form, and they attach their Suffixes in these cases exactly like 
other nouns that end in consonants (§ 154, b, a, /?), e. g. }y a % t \'t 
]fltf»- Nomin., h'^f'Mritf * Accus. On Suffixes in the case of 
Prepositions and other Particles v. infra, (§ 167). 

§ 156. Lastly, as regards the signification of the Suffixes to use of the 
the Noun, they must in the first place be an expression of the certain 
Genitive of the Pronoun (whether Subject-Genitive or Object- ^^f 
Genitive, § 184), because they are related to the Noun as a sub- Apposition 
ordinate element to a Construct State (§153). In the large majo- 
rity of cases this is the position which is actually met with. But 
just as (§ 184) the Construct State serves at times to determine a 
word with greater exactness by means of the second element, and 
may therefore be employed even in those cases in which other 

(*) Accordingly t\tl r t'4^P' a °'> Numb. 26, 63 is not a good form, and 
Cod. C. gives a better one in )\tl'l*^^^^0 o *. 

— 360 — § 157. 

languages make use of the co-ordinate relation or Apposition (*), — 
so too the Suffix to a Noun may annex a more exact determina- 
tion to the Noun concerned. In such a case it would he expressed 
in our languages as in apposition to the Noun, e. g. 66*$?, literally 
"a naked one of (or 'belonging to, or associated with a personality') 
I", i. e. "naked I" or "I, naked". In this way, just as the Ac- 
cusative-, or Verbal-suffix, is also used with a Dative reference 
(§ 151), a new signification of the Sun". Pron. has likewise branched 
off from the Genitive-, or Nominal-suffix. In Ethiopic this 
practice of subordinating in form, as a Genitive -suffix, a Pronoun 
which is coordinate in meaning, predominates largely in one case : 
— When a Personal noun, or an adjective expressing the condition 
of a Person, makes its appearance in free co-ordination, or as a 
predicate of a Personal Subject or Object in a sentence, it is not 
placed in the sentence in mere vacancy, but always in a form 
completed by the Suffix of the Person with which it is co-ordinated: 
7"? • bfafe lit- "he fled a naked one, of a personality he", i. e. 
"he fled naked" Mark 14,51; ?OhK;<k% : 6^? "let them cast 
me down (as a) naked (one of a personality 7)", i. e. "let them 
throw me down naked" Ps. 7,4; Vtun. s d^^fclftf " "they were 
naked" Gen. 2, 25 ; 3, 7 (d^4», in fact, is used only in this way : 
v. also Gen. 1,2 Note; 3, 10; Hen. 32, 6, et saepe); '^IDA£«■ 001.4- 
"he was born blind" John 9,1, 13; th£ : *HrHf* "he went away 
grieved" Mark 10, 22 ; Ps. 37, 6 ; jrVfc£Ah : ^02^ 0WH« * hx&fD^ : 
dithtlh ' WbOMfil • • • • W '. . . *#Ch Matt. 18, 8, 9; h-MlP •■ 
ATh/" i h\?F Josh. 8, 23; 7fl<5 s ^diiiWu "remain a widow" 
Gen. 38, 11 (where more exactly it should stand ^drtflU.); &W1G* 
^ft-H* Chrest. p. 42, line 20; +/£* : ^m-^fclftf*- G. Ad. 29,26; 
v. also 1»*£.p- in Dillmann's l Lex.\ col. 1221. For other instances 
of this kind v. infra §§ 163, 2; 172, 6; 189; and in the case of 
Numeral Adjectives § 191. 


§ 157. 1. We find in Ethiopic a few Compounds of Pronouns 
and Conceptional words, which take the place held by Pronominal 
words in other languages. 

( l ) Like D^« K")B (Gen. 16, 12) in Hebrew, or the Karma-Sharaya 
Compounds in Sanskrit; [v. Williams' 'SanshrflTGr.' 1 p. 281. te.] 

§ 157. _ 361 — 

The conception "such" is expressed in Ethiopic, as in other n. pronom- 
Semitic tongues, by means of the preposition \\tn> (§ 165) — which c ^ ls ^' s 
is itself of Pronominal origin — together with the Demonstrative of Pronoun8 
Tl or Tf}-[: "this": h<n»Ti Hen. 25, 7; \\ao : TfJ-f: Gen. 41,38; or ceptionai 
with a Suffix Pron.: h"7f ? h^lh &c. (8 167). In both cases the , ^ ords , 

x ° ' taking the 

relative pron. may also be prefixed: Hh^Vlh literally u ivho as he P lace held 
is" i. e. "such a—" ; Hh</»Tf Matt. 17,21; AftA * h<w»Tf "far such" n b y J n l 
(Dat. pi.) Matt. 19, 14. ln other 


The idea "so great" is brought out by means of the Constr. 
St. (generally Accusative too) of emmlr "measure", e. g. V^^TH* ' 
0°m^ ' 'Vflli" ' tl't'V "faith ('of the size of) as great as a mustard- 
seed" Matt. 17, 20; /hAf* * <DC4» • H«w>m> » fl^C "a golden reed 
('of the size of) as large as a rod" Eev. 11,1; similarly Luke 18, 16; 
or with "H or Tf>*fc appended, e. g. tf»mVlf "so great" Jas. 3,4; 
fl^flllll "for so much" Acts 5, 8 ; or with the relative pron. pre- 
fixed also: H0i>m)'H "so great" (lit: 'which is according to the 
measure of this') Matt. 8,10; 15,33. In like manner tn>afi, by 
leaving out the pron,, may also signify "how great", "how much" 
(in a relative sense or in a dependent question) : "I will tell you 
0°afi ' Tfl^ ' AV¥ftP (lit- 'the measure of what') how much he 
has done for my soul" Ps. 65,15; Matt. 27, 13; Ex. 19,4; in relative 
sense Gen. 34, 12. In order to convert it into an Interrogative, 
°\ "what?" or "how?" (§ 63) is prefixed, which, at least in intro- 
ducing a direct question, is indispensable: a %iaof^ s ihlMHr "how 
much will ye give me?" Matt. 26, 15; "^tfOfllfr " 0°HCO • h°lth 
/^h<n>- Matt. 16, 9; 15, 34; Gen. 30, 29; 47, 8; Ps. 118, 84; 
Hen. 89, 62. — Notice also the peculiar word J|<£7 properly: "pro- 
minence", "size", which is used only as an Interrogative in the 
sense of "how much?" "how great?" Originally htl^TfPy from 
interrogative ft (§ 63, 6) and ft«£")iv means properly, "what is the 
size of it?" i. e. "how much?" (Ludolf, 'Lex. 1 p. 188), "how often?" 
(G. Ad. 45, 6) ; then, without an interrogative sign, ft«£V ("measure 
of", for ftffl : H) == "how often?" Matt. 18,21; and, finally, plain 
ft¥"> "how much or many?" in the ISTom. (Ludolf, I. c). In this 
case the interrogative force lies merely in the Tone. 2 - 

2, So too there are several Conceptional words which are a i words, 
only used when compounded with Suffix pronouns. These words ™°* ° o n o ^_ 
contain in fact nothing but quite general conceptions of space, pounded 
measure or existence, and to that extent they stand always in need ^^ 

— 362 — § 157. 

of a complement. This complement they should in strictness have 
subordinated to themselves by the Constr. State, just like many other 
conceptional words, — blank in themslves, — which ordinarily com- 
plete their meaning only by means of a second word (§ 185) ( 1 ). 
The words which are now to be described, however, have this 
peculiarity, that they are never completed by a conceptional word, 
but always by a Suffix Pronoun and by nothing else ( 2 ). The fol- 
lowing are of this class. 

The old Semitic word Vf«£v "entirety", "totality" still occurs 
occasionally in independent form, but only as an Adverb (frf*A# 
and W"A# "everywhere" and "in every direction", § 160). In other 
positions ; however, it must always be completed by a Suffix, by 
means of which the completing notion is referred to, either before- 
hand or by way of addition. Then having been combined with its 
suffix into one word, it is always placed in free apposition beside 
the conceptional word to which it refers. As a rule, it is compounded 
with Suffixes of the third Person: tf'fr, tf*A> Inf'A"" ", Irf'/t"'}; Ac- 
cusative Vf-A" (§ 154, 6, a), tf-A, Yf'ti ** ; tf-/K>- With the Singular- 
suffixes it signifies "all", "every", "the whole of"; with the Plural 
suffixes "all the", frf-ft- may stand by itself, and then it means 
"everything", e. g. s tf-fr "the Lord of all". However, it 
is generally connected with other nouns : frfc : •flftfl. or 'flftrt. : 
W"A- "every man" or "all men"; Vf"A*'<n»- : 'il/^'f "all kings", or 
*" ■" tf-"; VM •' 9°£C or JP": yf" "the whole earth"; tf«A- s tf»?£f| 
"all living beings" &c. Properly the suffix should be regulated in 
gender and number by the conceptional word to which it refers. 
But often enough the Masc. form Yf-A* appears for the Fern. Yf-/\, 
even when the reference is to conceptional words of the feminine 
gender, as in tf"/V «' a°'Tt lf*' : l~ Luke 11,17; and still more fre- 
quently the Singular tf'A- appears in the expression of a Plural 
notion. Indeed any word may be continued in the Singular (and 
yet have a Plural force) alongside of VMV-, — even a word which in 
other positions never has a Collective meaning — , just because 
\frfc itself expresses collectivity: — Vf-fr : fl&G "all seas" or "every 
sea". Even when the notion "all" (pi.) stands entirely alone, tf*A" may 

O Such words occur in every Semitic language; cf. Ewald, l Hebr. Spr. 1 
§ 209, c. 

( 2 ) Like yi'ftp, m^> in Hebrew, 

§ 157. — 363 — 

remain in the Singular: "all perished" ft'A' : 'p'fr or Vf-ft"*"** : fl°i2. 

Many instances are also met with, in which Vf*/V* is not adjusted 
to the Case of the word to which it belongs, but continues in its 
first form, — particularly if it follows the word, — inasmuch as the 
Case has been already indicated in that leading word and the 
whole relation between the two is only that of a loose co-ordina- 
tion.— Then too, this word may adopt all the other suffixes (with 
the exception of f ), in the meaning "all of us" ("we all"), "all of 
you" &c; and it must assume these suffixes instead of those of the 
third Person, whenever the notion "all" (pi.) refers to the first or 
second Person : "we have all gone" Vf*AV : faCt or ^Ci ! Iff" Ai ; so 
W-AVltf - Matt. 23,8; Ps. 2,10; Vf-Ah?, Accus. tf*A* Ex. 16,3 &c. 

From the Feminine form 1rf*A*lh sprung Vf'A"};)* in the sense 
of "entirety", "totality", by the attachment of the Collective-forming 
a (§ 140, IV) and the insertion of "> (§ 58). This word in like 
manner appears only when completed by suffixes, and for the pur- 
pose of expressing the notion "whole", in the sense of "in the whole 
being": Vf-A^P "I wholly" ('my whole being'); tf"A1;Hl "thou 
wholly" Luke 11,36; tf-A^tf- "the whole of him" Gen. 25,25; 
Hen. 72,40; tf*A?^U-s ^P\\ "the whole of thy body" Matt. 5,30; 
Iff-A^^'/ "all of it (/*.)" Gen. 13, 15; V)1* : Vf-A^lf^ "in the 
direction of their entirety", i. e. "they in all directions", "they 
wholly" Rev. 4,8; W'A^^**/ » A»A.i* "the whole night" Ex. 14,20. 

The word flrfrfc^ "solitude" (§ 120, a) is always ( 2 ) combined 
with suffixes, to bring out the notion, "alone": fl/h'fc'ihP "my soli- 
tude" i. e. "I alone"; flA-fc^h "thee (ace.) alone" Ps. 50,5; fl/H 
-fc* "he alone" Josh. 22, 20; fijv : flA'fc-fr s ^JPAft Matt. 4, 10; 
10,42; (\;\v\yW\a»- "you (two) alone" Matt. 18,15; fl/h-fctffl©- 
Matt. 17, 1; aJMrf? Gen. 21, 28. But still it keeps here and 
there its Substantive meaning: flfl/h'fc'^tf * "in their solitude", 
"when they were alone" Mark 4, 10 ; [Kebra Nag. 97 a 11]. 

The word h*}*ih besides, (compare: gratis, Din "in vain") as 
Constr. St. h">#, "emptiness", "nothingness", has always the suffix 
of the third Person sing. masc. (like tf-A«) h*}*, Ace. Wift to ex- 
press "a thing of nought", "a vain thing" Ps. 38,8; 2,1. But it is 
chiefly employed as an adverb, either in the form h^-f or com- 

( x ) [Flemming's reading here is Yf"A*- TK -1 
( 2 ) Of. supra p. 360, § 156 fi^ty. 

— 364 — § 158. 

bined with fl as flh7'fc (§ 163). On a few other words compounded 
with the suffixes of the third Person, which occur always as Ad- 
verbs, v. infra, § 163 ; ibid, also on *}^ with suffixes. 

ni. § 158. The Numerals in Ethiopic are almost all of them the 

T^Sttma ver y same as * n ^ e otner Semitic languages. As regards there- 
Numbers, fore their Root-formation, and partly also their Stem-formation, 
enquirers may at this point be referred to the grammars of these 
other languages. 

1. Cardinal Numbers^). The Numeral for "one", according 
to its root and its stem, has the form j\di£? ; and, just as in other 
languages, it is properly an Adjective. When therefore it is con- 
nected with a Feminine conception, it assumes the Feminine ter- 
mination: hdi't' (for KfhJSHhj § 54). It no longer occurs, however, 
in these bare forms ( 2 ), but, like the demonstrative pronouns, it be- 
comes a Personal Numeral by the attachment of the termination 
u for the Masculine, and l for the Feminine, so that the actual 
Numeral for "one" has always the form Jwh.**. (masc) or ftrfrfc 
(fern.). It takes the Accusative, by changing, like the Pronouns, 
u or i into a: hth&, hth'f'- It is quite as incapable of taking 
the form of a Construct State as the Pronouns ( 3 ) are; and ac- 
cordingly "one of them", and the like, must be expressed as "one 
from them" hth%* * h9°W(^ &c. 

The Numeral for "two", employed by the rest of the Semitic 
languages, is indeed found in Ethiopic also, in a few scattered 
expressions like flfyE, "the second day" ('of the week or of the 
month') and iftjl* "the following day", but it has passed out 
of use as a Numeral proper. In its stead a fresh Numeral, viz. 
fa Ah. meaning properly "a pair", and in form a Dual, § 131, — has 
been derived from the root nfoi, hAh ("to separate", "to divide", 
"to hold back from anything", "to hinder"). This numeral has 

O On the diptosis of the Cardinal Numbers from "one" to "ten" v. 
Barth, ZDMG XL VI, p. 691 sq.~ For the accentuation v. Teumpp, p. 558. 

( 2 ) A Plural tiihH^ "wniones" (i. e. Numbers from one to ten,— 
'units'), v. Dillmann's 'Lex.\ is met with, Abush. (Abushakeri opus Chrono- 
graphicum), 11. 

( 3 ) Cf., however, hthRV, twr.'XAW Mark 10, 37. 

§ 158. — 365 — 

points of connection with D^3 and ^^.f, ^J&kf- It occurs still, 

now and then, quite independently, as Subject or Predicate, in the 
sense of "a pair" or "two", e. g. frAft* ■■ ,ft'/,AW. "two shall be" 
Matt. 24,40; rt£«h s HftAh. s hfalb "a sword whose edge is two" 
(i. e. 'which has two edges' or "a two-edged sword") Ps. 149,6; or 
again it may, in the form of a Construct State, be completed by 
a Genitive, and then it generally takes suffixes, as in VlAJbV; IflA 
Ml*"*, *lAMT>, hA^lf" -, VlAklTJ, to express the notion 
"both of us", "both of you", "both of them". But it may also, — 
and this is the usual case, — be connected, by mere apposition, with 
the idea, of which the two-fold character has to be declared, just like 
the other Numerals (v. infra), e. g. jf]Afr» ' &*fe4» (Ace.) Gen. 48, 1. 
Now as gender cannot be expressed with the form Jf|Ah»> the Femi- 
nine termination "J" (*) was applied, following the analogy of the 
other Numerals, and to this modified form u for the Masc. and l for 
the Fern, were added, (exactly as in ftrhJ?«)> whence we have masc. 
hAJbiv few. faAJb"fc "two", and an Ace. VlAh.i" for both masc. 
and fern. When the gender has to be distinguished with precision, 
one of these two forms is made use of; but when the gender is 
either of no consequence, or is quite obvious from the context, 
then even Jf]Aft> may be employed. In loose diction we often have 
faAJi»*fc> as the readiest form, even with names of things and 
notions which by grammatical gender are feminine. 

The remaining Numerals from 3 to 10 are as follows: — 








3. iWVft* 



4 hCdd-t: 



5. -TfJPft* 



6. tlZtl-p 



7. rt-no-fc 



8 fiao-i^ 



9. ^ftO-J: ot 

' l-ftO* 

^tKh or 



10. OWCfr 



C 1 ) Ylfoh»'fr "the being two",— an abstract form. 

— .366 — § 158. 

All these Numerals are originally Substantives. True, in 
their earliest form and expression they had assuredly no Feminine 
ending; but at a pretty early stage Abstracts were formed out of 
them by means of the Feminine termination (in all the Semitic 
tongues), and this type became the usual one. In still later times, 
when these words were no longer put in due connection, like Sub- 
stantives by means of the Constr. St., but like Adjectives by way 
of apposition, the gender also began to be distinguished in them. 
The form which was most in use at that time, viz. that which had 
the Feminine ending, was retained for the first or Masculine gender, 
while the ancient form or a newly fashioned shorter form, without 
the Fern, ending, was employed for the Feminine gender. In this 
general process of development Ethiopic agrees entirely with the 
other Semitic languages. But as regards individual forms, the form, 
contrived by means of -J*, seldom occurs now in this naked shape, 
as e. g. in fl'flO*!* Josh. 6, 13, although it could not be avoided in 
those cases at least in which the Numeral in the Constr. St. had 
to govern a Genitive, § 191, or to attach Suffixes to itself, e. g. 
wtih'kXF** * literally "their 'three'" i. e. "the three of them"; 
ti'(\0i:lff Om "the (aforesaid) seven" Mark 12, 22; OwC'tV** ' 
4 Esr. 3, 60. As a rule, these Numbers are no longer connected 
as Substantives in the Constr. St. with the numbered object, but 
as Adjectives and by means of apposition, § 191. They are ac- 
cordingly converted from Abstracts into Attributive words, by the 
attachment of the Pronominal ending %(*), exactly like faA/b'fc; 
and when they take the Accusative case, they change this u into 
a: — Wiiil'p, i^Afti* &c. In fashioning these forms, furnished 
with a feminine ^", a long vowel occurring in the ground-form 
must be shortened (§ 36): — iWVft'ih from IP Aft > iiao'}^ from 
rt tf 7'J or A ?^, and hence vAJli*, il<' D '}*fc. And yet in Judges 3,8, 
14 we meet also with (i tn H'\r {Ace). The two forms (VfUH: ^ftOi:, 

O Wlitl^ is "the Three" (abstract Subst), IPAtl ^ "three" (attribu- 
tive word). It is true, one is apt to conceive of u as an ordinary Suff. Pron. 
and to explain Wfifa'p according to § 157 as "three of it". But this is a 
wrong conception; for in that case the Accusative would be bound to have 
the form iPAA'fc which is not the case; and, besides, JflAJb"fc would be 
inexplicable. Eather is the formation the same as when a Demonstr. Pron. 
•|3 "he" with" a Personal meaning is formed from the root r f m . Cf. also ftf| 
Q7rp supra, p. 360, § 157, 1. 

§ 158. — 367 — 

constructed in accordance with § 127, a, frequently pass into flfl 
div 't'tld'UC) in accordance with § 47, sub fin. Then, in the 
numeral "nine" 'flW't is made use of quite as much as »|"f|0*!h. 

For "eight" a form fl^kl* is also met with, 1 Pet. 3,20; Gen. 46,22, 
preserving the I, from fl<»7Jr (nibtf) ( 2 ). 

The form which is used as a Feminine, but which is Mascu- 
line in its type, is constructed from the foregoing form in %*, by 
throwing off the ^ and reducing the word to its original, radical 
constitution. Two varieties are possible: 1. — Recourse may be 
had to the obsolete ground-form, for the purpose of re-introducing 
it into use, whence come iPAfl? #1^ (§ 18 sub fin.); hC(\d, y5"!$; 

*l9°h ( 3 ), Eton, <jJ?+L ; ft£-ft, JLu« {cf. <j» <^U) ; rt*nd Sfttf [Kebra Nag. 

p.XVII];fl^Josli.21,39,Numb.35,7,nib^, u US;-|«ftdand^ftd, 

VWft; Of^C (*) "I'^X?- 2. — Or an entirely new form may be fashioned, 
after the manner of Nouns of the First simple formation, as has 
been noted in the above list, in the second column of Feminine 
forms. This form, however, is not in very great favour. One or 
two examples are met with, as in 1 Kings 7; Deut. 3, 11; Ex. 37,1; 
Ruth 3, 15 ; but it is chiefly used to form Numeral Adverbs (§ 159). 
Of the Fern. Numbers of the First form, those which do not end 
with a vowel, or do not have a long vowel in the last syllable, 
usually take u, for the purpose of becoming Attributive words, 
exactly as the Masc. Numbers do. Thus we have f|ft« (for tl&'fo) 
sessu, (VftfJ., i'lUb or ^ft0«( 5 ), O/**^; probably -TrJPft* may also 
be formed; 0/**G also appears as a side-form to 0/ v< {- For 
"three", "four", "live", "eight" the forms i^Afl*, KC0di=, ^9° 
fl*fo tlfv'i'fc are more generally used in association even with 
Feminine words, unless when a preference is given to i*»Aft? hC 
fld, "iJP'fl, rt^Vfc. But while an Accusative may still be formed 
for Masc. Numbers ending in >p f the forms ftfr, (\'i\lh -frtl(b 

(*) Ludolf held these forms to be the original ones. 

( 2 ) [On the relation between PI}fo$, J^ol, ^13, rt"7fc c f- Philippi, 

'Beitr. z. Assyr.' II, p 364, Note ***, and Praetouius, ZDMG LVI, p. 695.] 

( 3 ) Occasionally written also $*f° fj (§ 48). 

( 4 ) Occasionally written also ^/**C (§ 48). 

( 5 ) Josh. 21,16; 15,57. 

~_ 368 — § 158. 

and as a rule also 0/^4- 0)> have become indeclinable, and even 
in the Accusative and before Suffixes they retain their u (Numb. 8,2). 
But no doubt **i9°tl and the entire Second series of the Fern. 
Numbers may enter upon the Accusative by appending a. 

For the Tens, from 20 to 90, a Plural-form should have 
been expected, according to the analogy of the other Semitic 
tongues. In fact they appear to have been formed at one time from 
the original ground-forms of the units by attaching the Masculine 
Plural-ending an( 2 ); but in later times, because they no longer 
distinguished Cases or Genders, they allowed the Nasal at the 
end to disappear (§ 58) ( 3 ). Accordingly we have: — i*>t[ii 30, 
fcC-ftf 40 (for fccm, § 45), Wl 50, ftft 60 (for f|£-fl), fl-n«J 70, 
A"? V 80, -f-ft 1 } 90 (e. g. Luke 15, 4, 7 ; Matt. 18, 12, 13) or ^ft«J 
(e. g. Gen. 17, 17). The form derived from 10, bP*lt* (never 
Ot^A*) serves, not for 100, but for 20, — a special word being 
used for 100. 

The Numeral 100 is {F'Jrlh; Constr. St. and Ace. 0°M"; 
Plur. h9°M- (§ 136,2, c). The Semitic word for 1000 ftA<p has 
in Ethiopic rather the meaning 10,000; Constr. St. and Ace. KA£", 
Plur. ftM<h; Plur. of Plur. hMift- 9°K'Th and fcA<h are both 
Substantives originally, but they are usually associated with the 
object numbered, by mere co-ordination, like all the other Numer- 
als (§ 191). ixCflU and ^fl^^ "myriads" are obsolete forms, 
very seldom used (§§ 136,2, &; 134, c, f$). ?»AT« can be used in 
Ethiopic for the number 1000, only when the notion merely of a 
great number has to be signified, and exact enumeration is not 
required: thus e. g. in Deut. 33,17 both juvpiahsg and %ikia6sg 
are translated by hhW so too in Dan. 7,10: — hMiL' Khl 
4-^ ■ flJ^hAii* : ^"KA^^ %ifoou xikiabs; ical juvptai juvpiddeg; 
cf. Hen. 40, 1 ( 4 ) [and Kebra Nag. 141 b 18]. In more exact nume- 
rical expression 1000 must be signified by Ou>CP ' 9°"h^ = 10 X 100 ; 

0) V., however 0/^Cf, Dillmank's l Lex.\ col. 959. 

( 2 ) [The corresponding Assyrian forms, however, ending likewise in a, 
are not in favour of this theory.] 

( 3 ) Much as the Personal-ending u in the case of the verb came from 
an original tin, um.— For the accentuation v. Trumpp, p. 558. 

(*) [Flemming reads here hM&. ' h"hW '• fl^hAii.'f* ' ^hA 
£;f»^. Tit.] [For another word for '1000',^, &, v. Kebra Nag. p. XVII.j 


§ 159. — 369 — 

thus 2000 is bFfr : ^h^, 3000 iP/lfl » 9°}& and so on. 100,000 
is 0IPC* • KA*P, and 1,000,000 rh* " hA¥ 

When numbers have to be compounded by way of addition, 
the larger number generally comes first, and the smaller one is 
almost always joined on with <D. As regards the numbers 11 — 19, 
it calls for special notice that like genders and forms are combined 
in all cases:— Ou*Cb ' (Vhthq. 11, 0ipC"£ s mhA/b't 12, Qv> 
C* » IDlPAft* 13 &c; or 0/"<. : wktet, Oft- * fOJFlAh. 
(Josh. 21,7, 38), 0/"£ : a>f»4ft &c; or &f»C » (D/^Aft, fl/^C* 
<DC"fld &c. When numbers are compounded by way of multipli- 
cation, the smaller precedes the larger, and of course without at: — 
ft AM: » 9°hrlr 200, 0I*C* » fll/irh^ i J^h^ 1100, or 0/**4- « 
athth-b ' 9°hrt 1100 &c. 

§ 159. 2. Derived Numerals. 

(a) Numeral Adjectives or Ordinals are derived, in the form 2. Derived 
of an Act. Part. (§ 109, a) which is no longer much used for any _ 0r dinai' 
other purpose — , from the ground-form, just as in Arabic [and 
Assyrian], and in fact from the tri-radical root-form, without re- 
gard to any firmer vowels, or to any fourth letter attached to the 
commencement or the end of the root and established in the 
ground-form; thus "/Aft? <£Wld &c. For "the first" an adjective is 
used which has been formed according to § 117 from the V^^tro, 
namely «WTL; ft> r "the second" either the word l) AX "the other", — 
confined indeed for the most part to cases in which only 'two' are 
spoken of (alter), — or the word ftd'fl, already becoming obsolete, 
from the Kftdfl "to be double", — or, — and this is the word most 

used—, OTy» (Rio* 1,2 "to repeat", cf. i&L*, ^3 IV, VIII). 
The Feminine of all these Participial forms is fashioned by appending 
H"- hAM", ■S*7?° ; lh "fAfl^ &c. But, following a formative 
tendency which is peculiarly active in the construction of Numer- 
als, and perhaps also because the old Participial form had other- 
wise gone out of use in the tongue, these Adjectives have acquired 
new forms, brought about by attaching terminations. The Parti- 
cipial form, in fact, attaches to itself either the long ending ami, 
Fern, awit (§ 119,6): — "/Afi'C, "JAfi'E^ or tne snorter ending 
ai, to which a Fern, it or awit corresponds, in accordance with 
§ 129, b, £: — «fAfi£, "JArt.^ or >?A4'g3 a - From fflf* also 
both these forms are contrived, but not from hAX- I n very rare 




instances we have the form )}d(\ f P. from Jifl'fl- Along with ty3\°% 
we have from $SW* the forms 4»fl a 7^C and ^^i ?^ but in the 
Fern, only "M'TW". Thus:— 


















































4-n 1 *.* 




















The Cardinal Numbers usually appear for the Ordinals also, 
in the case of the Tens, just as in other Semitic languages ("the 
thirtieth year" = "the year thirty"): — Y\tn> : wt\i\lh * iHDCh "on 
the thirtieth of the month", — (lit. 'at the time of the thirty of the 
month') Ludohf, '.Lea?.' col. 333. But yet there occurs, besides, 
an Adjective-form in awl: 20, b/**i^\ 30, i*»A^; 40, hC'ttt'E; 

50, -\rti<£, 60, M*e; 70, rt-n^; so, rt*We; 90, W}<z. 

On the other hand no Adjective-forms are derived from 9°}^ or 

Number of (P) The Ethiopians have peculiar forms for the days of the 

the Day of we ek and of the month ( 1 ). From a Pass. Part, of the type *?ft-C 

the Week 

or Month, a Substantive Noun is derived afresh by the interpolation of an a 

after the first radical (so that if *7fl«C = J J& then 1fl«C is = 

Jjj'li), with the force of a Substantive like Trsvrdg, sfihojudg &c. 
(cf. § 109,3, b)( 2 ). Thus, rtV-je.— "the second day (of the week or 
of the month)" ( 3 ); iPfrft "the third"; £fl«d "the fourth"; ^a^h 

O C/. Ewald, 'Gr. Jr.', § 364. 

( 2 ) Cf. Ewald, 'ITe&r. Spr.' § 152, c. 

( 3 ) Hence too the Fem. fy^jf, while ffir/t* (postera dies) comes from 

§ 159. _ 371 — 

"the fifth" ; rt3.fl "the sixth" ; flQ-fl "the seventh" ; floo-'j "the 
eighth (day of the month)"; -fft-fl "the ninth"; Oo*C "the tenth". 
The "first" (day) of the week is ft,h.£« (for hdf£, on account of 
the Aspirate th*)] the "first" of the month Y\°%C ('summit'); 
hence the "eleventh" of the month is Ov**C • (Dh°i.C Numb. 7,72; 
so Ou^C- a>6tt-d Acts 27,27; Oo*C* ffl^tf^f) Lev. 23,6. These 
forms make no distinction between genders (*), and may be used 
quite independently without the word "day" being placed beside 
them: (iOi^C ' W&fcb "in 14 days" Hen. 78,6; or else they may, 
like other numerals, be connected with the object numbered, by 
way of co-ordination, They are nearly always used, in place of 
the other numerals, whenever days, months or hours are numbered, 
e. g. Vfl£ : Of s fifr-P t tf»<p#A "he tarried there ('a two-days') 
two days" John 11,6; i*>A*A> dA+s (DiPfcfi * A»A/ih "three days 
and three nights" (lit 'a third day and a third night') Matt. 12,40; 
15,32; John 2,19; Luke 13,14; John 20,26; Gen. 7,4, 10; 8,10; 
24,55; Ex. 7,25; 20,9; Lev. 15,13; even 0D<PM s rf.m^m/itt'O 
"364 days" Hen. 72,32. In like manner they stand for Numeral 
Adjectives, when days are enumerated: froo s fltfi*-*} s flA'lh "on 
the eighth day" Luke 1, 59; 2,21; but a complementary Suffix of 
the 3 rd pers. sing. Masc. is usually attached in that case (as with 
tf-A- &c, § 157):— hoo s 0i**4- s (D/AYO* » A»A/)h Acts 27,27 
(Old) (v. also § 191). In rare instances they are employed in 
enumerating other objects than divisions of Time, Hen. 77, 8( 2 ). 

(c) To express Numerals in the sense of Manifoldness (Mid- Muitipiica- 
tiplicatives), Passive Participles of the type *?fl«G may be used. tive3, 
For since verbs even may be derived from the Numbers 1 — 10, 
according to § 77, a Passive Participle may also be formed: /^A'ft 
"threefold, triple", "triangular", "triune"; Cfrd "fourfold", 
"quadrangular" &c. For "two" in this application ]f]£Ml "double" 
is used. 

Farther, Substantives of the type ^"IUCH* (§ HI) and ^«7 
•fl^ and still more commonly of the type yt-fiC^ and 9 a0 l'(l 
<5'l-( 3 ), are derived, to express "Multiplicity" and "the Manifold" 

C 1 ) And yet we read in Matt. 27,46: fl«H« : ^foO^ (i*fr < M*) 

"the ninth hour". 

( 2 ) [Flemming here reads A'flf}-, the cardinal numeral, instead of Dill- 
mann's ordinal AO'0 (ace), tr.] 

( 3 ) Being in fact, first of all, Passive Participles of the type 0OflaD*Q 


— 372 - § 159. 

(properly, "the product"). Hence: ih/^Afl^ "threefold" and 
"Trinity"; ^C-flfl^ "fourfold" Luke 19,8; Ex. 21,37; ^HjPfl^ 
"five-fold" Ex. 21,37 ; W/^C^ "ten-fold"; ^ftA^ "ten-thousand- 
fold" =10, 000 (Hen. 21,6; 40,1; 71,8, 13 &c); or {T/^Afl^ 
"threefold"; i^lJPfl^ "five-fold" Gen. 43,34; JPfWlV^ "seven- 
fold", {PhAi^ "ten-thousand-fold" Ps. 67, 18. In the Accusa- 
tive these Substantives are used adverbially (§ 163): JF'/^Aft'f" 
"threefold" Deut. 19,3; ^C'flfl'h "fourfold"; F^Mr "five-fold" ; 
fHl.t "seven-fold" Ps. 11,7; 78,13; W/^CI* "ten-fold" 
Is. 6,13. 

From the number "two" is formed hflfl'lh "the double" 
('doubling') and JldH'f- "twofold" (Adv.), and also from the same 
root 9°\\6{{Jt' "doubling" in the general sense of "multiplying", 
"multiplied". This last word may be combined with any number, 
to express "manifoldness" : {Phi* ' 9°\\6{{/i* "an hundredfold" 
Gen. 26,12; Matt. 19,29; Luke 8,8; hd(H* s 9°\ld[\Jlr "double" 
Rev. 18,6; *fllM • j^hdfl'h "manifold" Luke 18,30; % 9°YldH't' 
Hen. 91,16; P»)|0fl/I- ' fcA<h i h9°hM<£ Rev. 9, 16 0):— even 
% 9°hdfl.^*+ ' ^rUC^ Hen. 93,10. 

Simpler expressions are met in fli*»Afl "thirtyfold", fl{J°?i*Jh 
"an hundredfold" Mark 4, 20. 

Abstract (d) Abstract Numeral Substantives are given in /**AA» "Tri- 

nity"; -V7fl, "the Five"; frm "the Seven", "Week" (§ 120,0, 
also in ^"Vfl (§ HI, §)■ 

Numeral (e) To express Numeral Adverbs in the signification of 'so 

and so-many-times', the Cardinal number of the second Fern, type 
(§ 158) is put in the Accusative: /**AA "thrice" Matt. 26,34; 
Hen. 65,2; ^9°fl "five times" 2 Cor. 11,24; f|»fl0 "seven times" 
Gen. 4,15: or, — and this may be said to be still more frequent,— 
that form is left entirely uninflected and is used in that guise 
as an adverb (§ 163): ft-flfl "seven times" (of very frequent 



(§ 116, y), or names of things, of the type OO a i'dC and tf»*7flC (H6,/S&a), 

increased next by the Fern, ending ^f* or it (§ 120, a), before which cro is re- 
duced to {P. 

O [It is much more likely that j^jfldfl/f" occurs here in its particu- 
lar meaning of "double", and not in its general sense of "so-many-fold", for 
it comes before, instead of after, the other numerals, and it purports to be a 
translation of Svo /x.vpia%eg pvpiccbtov. tr.] 

§ 159. — 373 — 

occurrence). For "once", 9°bC is employed (Ixi, slo) Mark 14,41; 

7,27; Titus 3,10; or (\9°dC, although the latter properly means 

"all at once" Cant. 4,9; or hth't (SJ^Ij) Judges 6,39; 16,18.— 

For "twice", *ifl(l Titus 3, 10, or hdd-fr, or Vftao. For higher 
as well as for lower numbers a periphrasis may also be employed 
by means of T.H. ("time", "hour", "turn"): ipAJH-s 7.H, "thrice"; 
hCA^H* ' 9°}ti"' 7.H. "four hundred times"; or wAfH* * T,H.,?f 

"thrice". 1.H, may also be left out, if the meaning is clear from 
the context: fWl«J : (1(1 * fHlfl "70X7 times" Matt. 18,22; 
fl'flO'h "seven times" Josh. 6,16. Or JTMndfl/lh is used (v. 
supra c). . - 

In answer to the question, 'For which time?'. the Ordinal is 
given, either in the neuter with the preposition fl, e. g. (l°f Af! 
"for the third time" Luke 23,22; (1^*70° "for the second time" 
Matt. 18,16 (but also U6d Luke 23,20, or /5*7<w»); flfrfld 
Job 5,19; also in the Fern, and Ace, e. g. <JWldf" "for the fourth 
time" Numb. 10,6; — or as a Personal by way of Apposition to 
the Person to whom the action is ascribed as repeated for such- 
and-such a number of times, e. g. "thou strikest me <?0* : "i Afttl * 
Tl'J'fj for now the third time" Numb. 22,28: v. infra § 191. 

(/") The part of the whole (or Aliquot Fraction) is usually Fractional 
expressed by fc£' (T) "hand", more rarely by h^A "division" Numbers. 
Hen. 78,4, with the Ordinal number in Masc. or Fern, form: — 
^••fliU* * ft&V ' A?°JtC "the fourth part of the earth"; 4*ftf£ s 
&£■ Hen. 73,3; MVh > fc£- 73,5; ^9°tl-t • h&O- (Ace.) 
Lev. 5,16; Gen. 47,24, 26; 9/»YM« i hR Lev. 6,13. But the 
Ordinal is often put in the Constr. State: — ^.-flA-f- ' h£ " the 
fourth, as to the part" = "the fourth part", e. g. Rev. 6,8; v. also 
§ 191; thus V^O ■ h£ "a tenth part" Gen. 14,20; 28,22; 
Matt. 23, 23. "Two parts" are also given as ^Yldd/t Deut. 21,17. 
Fractional Numbers are e. g. V 'MfjF'fl'lh "three-fifths" Hen. 78,7; 
(in » %% &£" "by sevenths" Hen. 74,3. [Cf. also Hen. 73,6—8]. 

(g) To express the idea "so many each" (Distributives) in Diatribu. 
numbers, Ethiopic has no special formation. Repetition of the 
numeral, first of all, does duty instead, at least in the case of 
uncompounded numerals: htl\$. m - hihV* httrk* hth'h "singuli, 

( l ) V. on this word supra, p. 259 Note^). 

— 374 — § 159. 

singulae" Hen. 72,1, 3; 7,1; 89,59; Gen. 40,5 0; fcAJb « hAk 
Gen. 7,9; 15, 2, 3; Aflfl^ '• Udd't (ace.) Gen. 7,2, 3 ( 2 ). When this 
is not practicable, or is regarded as too prolix, the Prefix-Particles 
fl, At H are employed in a double form, as flfl, AA? tflf • Of these 
forms HH may be used only when a Genitive relation, or a Rela- 
tive clause is already present in the case, e. g. V^K ! fl^hi 3 ' 
-MxtL » hfol > Hfl»C* > HH i /hA* » J^AOJ-f: i wKahpj. i Aft 
£*gy » HH ' D/^4- » /hA4* ! JtAlWfc "the man took ear-rings of 
gold, each an ounce in weight, and bracelets for her hands, each 
ten ounces in weight" Gen. 24,22; cf. also Gen, 34,25; 37,7; 
43, 21. So too, when the prepositions fl and A would have been 
used, even had there been no distributive meaning, the double form 
of these is obviously the proper form to express the distributive 
"each": flfl: ^C- AflA^" "for a penny each a-day" Matt. 20,2; 
Hen. 34,2; AA * 6 "to every one" Matt. 25,15; Hen, 7,1; Jud- 
ges 11,40 ( 3 ). But these last two prepositions, fl and A> rnay also be 
placed, in the double form, before any other word in the sentence, 
— be it Subject or Object, or in any other reference, — for the 
purpose of expressing ocvd, Kara: — flJV/^h* ' flfl ■ %SC "and 
they received dvd Zyvapiov or a penny each" Matt. 20,9, 10; (D(D 
Ufltf**- : OlrM * flfl • frAfc*"!? "and he gave them each two vest- 
ments" (literally: "garments by the pair") Gen. 45,22; "IV/^h • 
flfl «* OwO? : b&W* ' AA • 9°hrlr "we will take ('by way of ten 

( x ) [That txthJ'i- • tutl^!* (A6) may also be employed in the sense 
of "some" or "a few" is shown by a passage in l Le Livre des Mysteres du 
Cielet de la Terre (ed. Perruchon), p. 18, 1. 14; cf. Praetorius, ZDMG LVIII, 
p. 488.] 

( 2 ) Other words too are repeated in like manner to express "singuli" 
'UhfU ' 'flftrt. "«n singuli", "every man" Judges 8,24; 17,6; V*7U * i*7U 
"every morning" Ex. 36,3; 2 Kings 13,4; *^fl : *^fl "more and more" 
2 Kings 3,1; \\0O s \\ao Ludolf, 'Lex: col. 397; \l9°& i \l9°& 
Ex. 8, 10. 

( 3 ) In older Manuscripts A?tA is a ^ s0 me ^ with, instead of AA> which 
is to be judged of in accordance with § 140 sub fin.; e. g. instead of A A : b 
"to every man", we meet with A?tA ! b, whereby 6 is raised to the Plural* 
Gen. 42,25 Note, 47, 12 Note, 49,28 Note. "We farther come upon the expression 
"twelve princes AKA ! (instead of A A s ) rhHfl,^ , ' ,, ** for their several tribes" 
Gen. 25, 16, in which the Collective rhH" "their tribe" is raised by f\(i 
to a new Plural with a distributive force. "~ 

§ 160. — 375 — 

men') ten men out of every hundred" Judges 20, 10; £flA> s flO : £ 
"they begin to say one by one" Matt. 26, 22 ; HAA * H.hlb s /h"? 
qoar>, (' w hose maladies were — so to speak — tzar thiav 1 ) "each of 
whom had his own special disease" Matt. 4, 24 &c. 

(h) To express the ideas irpmov, Zevrspov, rpirov ("in the first, Expressions 
second or third place") we find jtrfrfc, hAh^", °t Aft^ Sir. 23, 23 °l t *^™' 
(the Subj. is Fern. gen.). T P iTOV - 


Under this title Adverbs, Prepositions and Conjunctions fall 
to be specially dealt with. 



§ 160. 1. Adverbs of Demonstrative meaning. 

(a) The most general particle in this class had originally the *• Adverbs 

v J ■o l J of Demon- 

form of i, V (§ 62) "there!" "see there! as if pointing to an strati™ 
object. It no longer, however, occurs in this short form, but only meamn 8 :_ 


as a Compound. 1. It may be compounded with the a (ha) of of Demon- 
direction (§ 143), as *iO (Ps. 79, 3 ; Gen. 4, 8 Note ; Herm. 82 a, 13) ; B £*™ 
tO 4Esr. 3,26 (Konig, p. 136); *>«* Mark 10,21 (Rom. ed.); or, 
usually, Y$ = "hither", "come", always employed by way of sum- 
mons or incentive, corresponding to hsvpo or "epypv Matt. 19, 21 ; 
8,9; 9,18; 14,28 and equivalent to "come now!" "up!" e. g. 
Rev. 6, l( x ). As it is always used by way of command or summons, 
it is conjugated just like an Imperative ( 2 ), — in particular, taking 
the 2 nd pers. fern, sing., 1\ (Gen. 19, 32; John 4, 16), as well 
as the 2 nd pers. pi. masc, 1(h (Matt. 11,28; 21,38; Ps. 94,1; 
Judges 16, 18), and fern. "}<J (and Y<J Matt. 28, 6). A verb usually 
appears along with it, e. g. Gen. 11,4; yet \°i even by itself yields 
complete sense: ID'iO- * *Tffl»P "and hither to me!" (i. e. "come ye 
to me!") Gen. 45,18. 2. It may also be compounded with Suffix 
Pronouns in the Acc.-subordination (i. e. as Verbal Suffixes). 

( x ) Of. also Trumpp, p. 559, and 'Sitzber. d. k. layer. Ak. d. W.' 1877, 
p. 119 sqq. 

( 2 ) Cf. in Hebrew— Ewald, l Hebr. SprJ § 101, c. 

— 376 — § 160. 

With the suffix, however, of the 1 st pers. sing, the form is not >fc 
but Vf (doubtless to avoid in this case repetition of the n) = "there 
I am!" or "here I am!" i. e. "see! I am here!" Matt. 8,7; 
Acts 9, 10 ; Hebr. 10, 7 ; Ps. 39, 10 ; or ^f is even combined with a repe- 
tition of the pronoun M "I", as in Jf : M Gen. 22, 1, 11; 27, 18. 
It appears also with the suffix of the 3 rd pers. sing. masc. as 
VlM 1 ) (having the a lengthened by the tone and the aspirate) 
"there he is!" or "there it is!", and, generally, "behold!" e. g. 
Ps. 7,15; Gen. 19,8; Matt. 10,16; 15,22. The suffixes y, Iftfi*-, 
U"i it takes, in their truncated form, a, omit, on; but then, in ac- 
cordance with §41, it lets a separating semivowel be heard between 
itself and them, thus V,? "behold her!" John 19,27; Luke 19,20; 
Gen. 12, 19, or }<p. Usually however V*P has a neuter sense and 
is thus equivalent to VU* "behold!" John 19,5, 26; Luke 17,21, 23; 
Matt. 11,19; 24, 23,26; Ps. 51,6; farther Jf«<m- "behold them!" 
Mark 3,32,34; Acts 5,25; and W} "behold them (/".)!" Gen. 19,8. 
It is not in use with the suffixes of the 1 st pers. Plur. or 2 nd pers. 

Another particle ( 2 ), which is used like J 1 } in the sense "there!", 
is "hi Qn> H5n), from the same root as the foregoing, but with the 
pronunciation an (§ 62) or en; whence "htYlt* * "there! you!" = 
\aj3sTe Matt. 26, 26, also by way of incentive or summons like i 1 }. 

There are, besides, several other short enclitic particles of 
indication, from the same stem. The particle V, which hitherto has 
only been met with as an affix to the preposition and conjunction 
htlh "till", expresses direction, "htlWi "as far as — ": — hMfi s 
0<W1 "as far as the west" Ps. 49,2; 112,3; Malachi 1,11; ft^fl 
Itfi ' fcflhi : MM Ex. 13, 2; fcflh* : ^fl •' OKt>» * 0°thil Jud- 
ges 15,14; ftfth} : C&Jn$ p IH Hen. 89, 5, 8, 75. It is perhaps 
merely a shortened form from the fuller fc, which still occurs with 
the Accusative of direction: (D'tl't ' hthtt "to one place", or 
(John 11, 52) hth'l'i. alone, "in one", "into one place" (v. Ltjdolf, 
l Lex.' col. 332) ( 3 ). Corresponding in meaning to this fc, but formed 
from another root (§ 62), is % "there", "here", in use still as an 

( 1 ) Hence the Amhai-ic *i(fh "he is". 

( 2 ) On the other hand ft*V« /3<xh%e Ex. 4, 19 is scarcely in this class. 

( 3 ) In the view of Peaetoeius, 'Amh. Spr. 1 p. 197 this \ or % is con- 
sidered to have become the ordinary Accusative^sign in Amharic. 

§ 160. — 377 — 

affix to Vf-A "universality": tf"A# "everywhere", but Accusative 
tf-Afc "in every direction"; lltf-A^ "everywhere" Ex. 40,32; fcjp 
tf-A# "from every quarter" Mark 1,45; ?ijPtf'A#, with the same 
meaning, Hen. 28, 2. And just as the form V alternated with 
fc, so was it also at one time with the forms y and % cf. §§ 143 
and 163. 

(b) Independent Adverbs of Place and Time. To this independ- 
class belong, in the first place, OfC), "there", "thither", and *Hf Adve e ^ 8 of 
"here", "hither". These two particles in this form have probably place and 

' x Time. 

come from % and H, (cf. what is given under (a) ; cf. also infra H, 
in JE-hH.). Examples:— *Mf "here" Matt. 14,17; 26,36; "hither" 
Matt. 8,29; 14,18; Uf "there" Mark 11, 5; "thither" Rom. 15,24. 
Both of them are also compounded with prepositions: — flUP 
Matt. 13,42; llW Matt. 17,4; h9*V? "thence" Matt. 11,1, also 
of time Hen. 38, 6 ; ftjPTJf 5 hMl '• UP &c. To point to what is more 
remote, the language has a derivative from h, formed with the y 
of direction, which is here hardened into rh (§ 62), hdi and h*h 
"to yonder place" Matt. 26, 36; Numb. 17,2; or with prepositions: 
•1(1 s hth "to yonder place" Matt. 17,20; also (With "in yonder 
place" Heb. 7,8; fc9°Vl,h Josh. 8,22. Besides, from hih "to 
yonder place" a word for "in yonder place" or "there" may be 
formed by appending h a second time, YlthYl "there" Luke 17, 21, 
23 ; Matt. 24, 23 ; Gen. 19, 9 ; whence (llif \ • Olflhrhhfc "here and 
there"; also in the sense of ultra, supra, v. Dillmann's '■Lex.\ 
col. 823. £ftH. is treated as an Adverb of Time, "just now", 
"now". It is a compound of £fc (§ 65) and an adverb H,f), which 
certainly at one time referred to Place, and was merely transferred 
to Time. It is in very frequent use, compounded also with pre- 
positions: txTfttM, "from this time forward"; ftfth .• £hH. "till 
now". Meanwhile it is employed not merely for the Time which is 
present to the speaker, but for a present Time in the future or in 
the past, like the Hebrew nrtf, e. g. Hen. 38,4; 50,5. Other Ad- 
verbs of Time must be expressed by periphrasis: "thereafter" 
h9°tl, h9°W, hri.0- (Hen. 83,10: 89,19), txT^'hC ' TH* 

O [In older MSS. ^f ; v. Dillmann's 'Lex: col. 13; cf. also Kebra Nag. r 
Introd., p. XVI.] _ 

( 2 ) Formed from the Vll, like % and fc. "With respect to the termina- 
tion, all three may be compared with the Hebrew n?fc$, V& ^ftfc- 

— 378 — § 161. 

and the like; "at that time" h°%H, $M ' %%, flfl»-?i* -" <w»«P 

§ 161. 2. Interrogative Adverbs and Adverbs of Relative 

(a) Interrogative Adverbs. 

2. inter- Ethiopic has no introductory particles ( x ), such as other 

Adverts Semitic tongues have, to mark a sentence generally as an inter- 
and rogative one, and thus introduce a question in the absence of a 

Eeiative more definite interrogative Adverb. —It has only a few short par- 
^aKLnfer" ^ c ^ es ' i n particular V- and 0-, which are appended to some word 

.rogative j in the Interrogative sentence, like, for instance, ne in Latin. On 
the degree of difference between these two, compare § 198. They 
seem originally to mean "it", in the sense of "it (is the case)" ( 2 ) ; 
and they have gained their interrogative force through their enclitic 
position conjoined with the tone: — •\'}\9 *hth Matt. 9, 28 "you 
believe;— (is) that (the case)?" = "do ye believe?" M^b » H£ 
a °9C'h Matt. 11,3 "thou art he that should come; — (is) that (the 
case)?" or "(is it) so?" = "art thou he that should come?" (On 
the use of these Interrogative particles in certain Conditional 
Clauses, e. g. flfltf- : {Ab\ s fi<J» s Afc0°AhV "if we had forgotten 
the name of our God" &c. Ps. 43, 22, v. § 205). The particle >- 
is often attached also to fuller and more definite Interrogatives. 
like JP*'}'h, JiJ&'fc, ItxGH &c. If V- comes in contact with the vowel- 
less t of a Verb, only one t is written: — ^"^Wh "wilt thou de- 
stroy?" Gen. 18,28; on the other hand, in the case of the Noun 
we have JJ'Ir'JV- "is he well?" Gen. 29, 6, because it has to be pro- 
nounced ddhn e nu( 3 ). For the alternative interrogation, Ethiopic 
has (D°%.0o, literally "and what perhaps?" i. e. "or?", compounded 
of "% and ao (§ 63). Eor the dependent interrogation, \ao is 
employed, properly "if", and then "whether". On this word cf. 

O Like n, !. 

( 2 ) One is greatly tempted, of course, to put 'f* in the same class as «T 
and ne and num. But as |J« (from *[i § 62) is manifestly formed in the very 
same way, and can mean nothing but "it" and, farther, as (1 "it is" is very 
often used to introduce a question (§ 198), it is more advisable to explain 
*f in this way too; and all the more, that %, ^; ^, V; £, % correspond to 
one another throughout, in formation and in meaning. 

( 3 ) But v. Tbumpp, p. 559, aricf cf. Konig, p. 96. 

§ 161. — 379 — 

Interrogative Adverbs of more definite force are : (1). hg,*fc 
"where?" and "whither?" (the latter sense occurring, for example, 
in Gen. 37, 30 and in Hen. 102, 1), employed both in dependent 
and in independent interrogation, and formed from the Inter- 
rogative ft£, which converts Demonstratives into Interrogatives, 
and *fc "here"( x ); often combined farther with fr., h^'h "where?" 
"whither?". Combined with prepositions: — fth&'U "where?" 
(Matt. 2,4; Judges 20,3); also "in what way?" Matt. 9, 15; 12,34; 
h9°h^ "whence?" Matt. 21,25; Hen. 41,5; Gen. 29,4; -^ft * 
fc£'tr "whither" ; ftflh : KjK.'fr "to what point?", frj&'fc is also used 
indefinitely in ^Negative sentences, either with or without % or \ 
in the sense of "anywhere", 3 Kings 3, 36; 10, 12; 4 Kings 5, 25. — 
(2). "ThH. "when?", formed from ftH,, £KH. by means of ao (§ 63), 
and often strengthened also by >«; — h^hH. "how long since" ("a 
quo tempore?"), fcflh:"7Mf. "till when?" "how long?" (Ps.12,1— 3; 
Josh. 18,3; Matt. 17,17); A^VKH. "for what time?" 1 Peter 1,11. 
(3). h£ "how?" formed from h{h£), § 63, b and £ "here", "thus", 
§ 64, b. It may be strengthened by >«, and may be compounded 
with fl, nh£ "in what way?" Mark 2, 18, and it is very often used 
in dependent interrogation, as well as in the exclamation — ""What!" 
Hen. 21,8. Frequently it exhibits a conception somewhat more 
distinctly coloured, e. g. K&aotyXi r ftG "how g reat must % 
darkness be!" Matt. 6,23; 1 John 3,1; hK • ££"f-& "bow much 
more!" Matt. 6,30; 7,11; 10,25. Instead of plain fcG,— ftGG, 
&4-C hd*£ and hdJh& are also met with, particularly in Cyrillus 
Alexandrinus ; v. Dillmann's 'Lex.', col. 807. (4). In Ethiopic 
one uses for the interrogative "why?" F"}^ or JP^V- "what?", 
e. g. Hen. 83,6; Gen. 40,7; or more frequently the same word in 
the Accusative 9"^, 9°Wl~ Gen. 26,27; Matt. 7,3; or A? ^ 
"wherefore?" Ps. 2, 1; or UMi* » 9°tir "for what reason?" 
Matt. 17,19; while fl?™'}^ means "in what way?" Ps. 118,9. Or 
"why?" may be indicated by means of turns like 9°^ '- hfth? 
"what has made her laugh?" i. e. "why does she laugh?" Gen. 18, 13 ; 
24, 31 ; Matt. 20, 6; Judges 18, 8. 

C 1 ) The original form for %, allied to H,, preserved in IJTID, ^^o? 
"•Fl?!* — Notice ftj&"fc with 7\9° following = J^jJ in sentences like ^j! 
liJtS ■ !*« tjJ* "what is this to that?" G. A. 7,5, 6 bis , 7, 8, 9, 14. 

— 380 — § 162. 

(&)Eeiative (b) Relative Adverbs. For the meaning "where" *}fl is usu- 

ally employed, formed from *1f (hardened out of U, § 62, 1, b) and 
the Preposition fl, here set last^); originally demonstrative "in — 
there", and the Compound is a Preposition in very frequent use 
in this sense (§ 165); but it has also become relative: "in — where", 
"where'/ and "where to", e. g. -Ifi : U/Hb : M : OP '• frlfr » H£ 
^AMlfc John 12,26; Matt. 8,19,20; 13,50; Ps. 83,3 &c. Farther, 
in the relative clause which it introduces, OP may be placed in 
addition to it, but yet separated from it by a word or two( 2 ): — 
"1fl s VtiOK s OP "wherein they were" Hen. 17, 1( 3 ); Gen. 13, 4; 
Josh. 22,19 &c. *^fl is also compounded with prepositions: fl*^fl 
"there, where" or simply "where" Matt. 13,57; Josh. 8, 24 ; Hen. 12, 1; 
33,2; "wheresoever" Matt. 26, 13; ft7-f- : -^fl "wheresoever" Hen. 
16,1; ftyVfl "whence" Hen. 41,3; Matt. 12,44. For "when" 
fyoo is used (§ 64,3,6), e.g. John 4,21; tij\oo "till" Zeph. 3,8. 
Still, y%0o is employed rather as a Conjunction or a Preposition 
(v. infra). Besides, the mere relative H, referring to a fore-men- 
tioned word expressing time, is quite sufficient to express "when" 
(v. § 202, 3). The conception "how", "as" or "like" is expressed 
by ha**, but it is always either Preposition or Conjunction. 

§ 162. 3. Negative, Affirmative, Exclamatory, and Restric- 
tive Particles, and some Enclitics of the most general meaning. 
3. Negative, The ordinary particle which serves to negative either a single 

ExcTamT' word or an entire clause, is h^, § 62, c. It is always prefixed to 
tory and some other word, and in fact to that word which has to be nega- 

Kestrietive .-in. 

Particles, tived first or specially; and in such a combination it occasionally 
Jiwtain exercises an influence upon an initial h (§ 48, 6)(*). Stronger and 

Enclitics, more independent negations are conveyed by ^h (§ 64, b) "in no 
wise", "not", and by JiAP, — on which last compare §§ 167 and 
197, — mostly corresponding in conception to the Hebrew p# and 

the Arabic J^li, seeing that it signifies first of all: "it is not", 
"there is not". It is used also for "no" Matt. 5, 37 ; 13, 29 ; 
Ex. 10, 25 &c. The word Trf-flf , a compound of M (= TK), 

( 1 ) [V., however, Praetorius, ZDMG LVII, p. 272.] 

( 2 ) DBhlBta. 

( 3 ) [Flemming's reading is *^fl : ftft : UhU). s OP- tr.] 

( ) The accent of the word which is connected with j\^, remains un- 
affected by it : Trumpp, p. 559. "~ 

§ 162. — 381 — 

§ 62, c and *f]f "with me" (§ 167), literally "not with me (is it)",—- 
signifies "I am not in the position", "I am not allowed", "I am 
not able". It is with this word that one declines to accede to a 
request: Jas. 4,7; Matt. 21,29. There is an older form ft*Jfl, 
(§ 167). Cf. also KHftl, Mfljl and »fl.||<n»-. 

As an Affirmative we have ftlDC 1 ) "yes", "of course", "cer- 
tainly" Matt. 5,37. With h\f "Oh! yes" consent is announced to 
a summons, so that it is the contrary expression to 'ht'fif'- — 
Judges 6,13, 15, 22; Matt. 21,29, 30; 27,20; Rom. 3,26; Jas. 3,3; 
4, 7; 5,6. As to its origin, v. § 62, &( 2 ). To beseech any one, the 
particle ft "now!" "I pray" is made use of, attached as an enclitic 
to the Imperative : ^<70? T ft "turn, I pray thee" Ps. 79, 15 ; ft^* 
<VJft "save, I beseech thee"( 3 ) Ps. 117, 24. It comes from the 
demonstrative root ft (§ 62, 1, a); and, being no doubt originally a 
mere form of pointing out something "there !", it has thence been 
used to direct the attention of the person who is entreated, to 
some object or circumstance. The same meaning is given more 
emphatically by htl\b "O now!" (§ 64, b) ( 4 ), of independent force 
it is true, but yet placed after the Imperative: Acts 22, 27; 
Gen. 24,23. For "yes indeed!" "certainly!" "it is so!" ^ is also 
used: Isaiah 14, 10; Phlx. 3( 5 ). 

An exclamation of joy or mockery is found in VJttft "ha!" 
(§ 63, c) Ps. 34,24; 39,21; 69,4; Job 39,25. 

Of restrictive force is \\a*> (§ 64, 6), regularly put last, which 
means first "thus", then "like what" (n»2 indef.), and thence 1. 
"nearly" Gen. 32, 32 ; Gen. 39, 10 (where it is put first for a special 
reason); 2. "nothing other than", or "just", "merely": G^hr^ ' 
tlC/" • \\o° "merely into the belly" Mark 7, 19; Ml » (M'flfl ; h ! 
\\ao "not by bread alone" Matt. 4,4; 5,47; 21,21; Ps. 61,9. It 
is therefore specially used with Pronouns, to express the notion of 
"just" (idem), § 150, c. 

( x ) Probably abbreviated considerably from an older type. I refer it 

provisionally to ^\, &jt, \TK, MiTK. 
s= "& ' " 

( 2 ) Yet it might also have sprung from u-hu, hu-hu, "that it is", "thus 
it is". 

( 3 ) Thus like Hi and the Arabic Modus Energeticus. 

( 4 ) I do not think that this comes from fth<D = fthf? as this word 
does not mean "to beg". 

( 5 ) [i. e. Philexius, Quae&tio 3. tr.] 

§ 182. — 455 — 

flfl'Htf- i in.£ ■ «*"2"£ "it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath- 
day" Matt. 12,12; 12,10; Deut. 22,19; A.j&^Oftflh * <OJP# 

"let it not seem hard to thee (§ 178) to let him go free" Deut. 15,18; 
"htro : AjB^hhlJA « 1i*^A«£ "if it is not possible that this pass 
away" Matt. 26, 42; h*W « i*"7P i i"tft i l-flftf- i <»«/*«£• 1 (DOh 

*L(i • AhAfllh "it is not proper to take the children's bread and 
to give it to the dogs" Matt. 15, 26; jrVf»AAi AM* * (§ 124, begin- 
ning) i<w»A • Ki-\r • tl^di- • ^CTK » K?°fldA • fl*£fc i «n»1 

*7/**"h ! ft'^li.K'flrhiC "it is easier for a camel to go through the 
eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of 
God" Matt 19,24 (cf. 9,5); tiftl** ■ 0q*£«f ■ ATf»+ • £-f!C 

('there has been for you enough of the compassing of this moun- 
tain') "you have compassed this mountain long enough" Deut. 2,3( 1 ). 
Such unions are explained most readily by the consideration that 
in thought the impersonal turn of the Verb is replaced by a per- 
sonal one (e. g. "it is lawful" is thought of as "we may" or "one 
may"). Meanwhile, this construction is not absolutely necessary: 
the complement may be applied to such verbs in the Subject- 
or Nominative-case, and then they cease to be impersonal : A/I" * 
¥j\f*tifiL ' anqffi "it is better for me to die" 1 Cor. 9, 15 ; ftA" : 
Wl • ,M.£ft • -flVlA Hen. 37,3; eOft-fl i <DA.£" "it becomes 
hard for her to bring to the birth" Hen. 62, 4; fih Afa^ " : flA^d 
"it is sufficient for you,— to eat" Hen. 102, 9 (cf. Hebr. 9,27; 
10, 31). In the case of Infinitives in 6 it is impossible to discern 
which of the two constructions they are following, e. g. in ftlfi : IP 
VJK. s fcflWHl "then it is not good to marry" Matt. 19, 10, inas- 
much as K<D*An may be Nominative as well as Accusative. 

On the Accusative with the Infinitive after Verbs of Saying 
and Perceiving, v. § 190. 

Q3) When this, the most obvious form of union, is not found 
practicable, a Conjunction like Xiao, fl, ftf)0D or other similar 
form, is employed, e. g. "he said, that &c"; cf. § 203. 

(b) If the verb to be subordinated is related to the principal 
verb, — rather as the intended result or the aim — , it takes the 
following forms. 

(*) An instance in which U(p> is first construed with the Subjunc- 
tive, and afterwards with the Accusative of the Infinitive, is met with in 
Sap. 16, 28 A. 

§ 163. — 383 — 

to discern in it a faded form of y "it" or "thus", in the sense of 
TfW "so"?)- 


§ 163. 1. The greater number of words which are used ad- 1. Adverb* 
verbially are originally nouns ; and only a very few spring directly of V1 * ce 
from the verb. Every noun, when subordinated in the Accusative (Ace. of 
to the verb of a clause, may limit and determine that verb after xHSm& 
the fashion of an Adverb (8 174). Thus the Accusative is pre- Manner 

. rn (Ace. of 

cisely the proper Case, with which to form Adverbs. And in fact Adj.); and 
such formation has been brought about with the Adjective, as well tt^d^tj 
as with the Substantive; for, seeing that every Adjective may P refad n8 

•ii ' t p -\t i i ■ ii Prepositions 

easily be conceived oi as Neuter, — thereby coming to resemble a to substan- 
Substantive in meaning — , it may, when put in the Accusative ^^^„ 
under such a conception, become an Adverb also. Besides, instead of 
several Conceptional words continue in use in the language, only a 1Dg 
in the form of this adverbial Accusative; and it is such words 
especially which fall to be described in this place. 

Qualifications of Place and Time, or Nouns which are used 
in the Accusative of Place and of Time, are, e. g., the following 
words, originally Substantives: — A<£„ "side" (e. g. K.d^i (Dh+ 
H&, "neither this way nor that way" Josh. 8, 20 ; Ex. 2, 12) ; oȣv 
d^i't "above" and "upward"; 4 w -A4 M, A.*t' "downward"; "Yhhii 
"in the midst" (Mark 3,3); tfD^/h-f- "below"; h«PA "behind"; 
Oah& "around"; <>M£.-|- "beyond"; £JP* "on the right hand"; 
fy<qao "on the left hand"; £fl-fl "northward"; ,£"}<: "behind" 
and "afterward" (Matt. 25,11); £"1<H« "backward", "back"; 
<£Ktn> "in front" (Numb. 1,53; 32,17; Dent. 20,4; Josh. 6,9; 
Ps. 45,5); ffl-tim "in", "within"; "IRao "awry", "across"; A»A/I" 
"by night"; */n()Al" "by day" and "to-day" (Gen. 43,16, 25); 
rtCh "in the evening"; ty&ao "in front", "eastward" (Gen. 2,8), 
"first", "before" (Matt. 13,30; 17,10); -foj£ "this year" (Luke 13,8); 
J«7U "early in the morning"; HA£ and w^d "continually"; 
lifJtw "to-morrow"; and words originally Adjectives: — A0«A 

( x ) [For another explanation of this ft v. Bezold, 'Zeitschr. f. Assyr? 
XV, p. 398.— It also appears to have been employed merely to indicate that 
the thoughts of another person are being introduced by the speaker or writer; 
v. Kebra Nag., Introd., p. XX.] 

— 384 — § 163. 

"high", "upward"; jf-A^f "under" (Josh. 16,3; 18,13, Note); 
*«g-V or *<P^ "far", "far away" (Matt. 15,8; Mark 7,6); Crh-4* 
"far distant"; Oh^t "entirely" (Heb. 9,4); Tifr<5. "continually" 
(Ex. 21,6); tou*"t* (pavspug; T^J^f "a long time", "some time". 
The following are retained in use only in this adverbial Accusa- 
tive: — AdA "above" (chiefly as a preposition, v. infra); ^fai* 
"below", "down" Matt. 4, 6 (but chiefly as a preposition). 

Qualifications of Size or Measure comprehend the Numeral 
Adverbs (§ 159, e): \\M\V and JPhdfl/f- "repeatedly"; hfl-fl 
"doubly" ('the second time'); Jiflfl and /J*7<w» "again"; ODflfi 
and ftjPtflV ('the bigness of — ') "as large as"; °%ao(n^ and 
a %0D(f\'} "how greatly" (Job 35,5); £.Jt:4*& "very", "exceeding- 
ly", "specially", "above all" (even as Predicate) ; ft^i "how often ?" ; 
v. supra § 157, 1. 

Qualifications of Kind and Manner are nearly always formed 
from Adjectives, e. g. ao&& "bitterly" ; !*»*/? (as well as i*»V£) 
"finely", "well"; ftfrP "badly", "ill", frfr.0 "strongly", "power- 
fully"; ¥ft.0i> "perfectly", "entirely"; 0fl.f "highly"; T£«f» and 
-n** "exactly"; #£«!> "frequently; -MM "much", "often"; 
*1(NZ " a U together", "together"; Jt4-*1 "at the same time"; 
£ao.£ "jointly"; ^rh-f- "humbly", "modestly"; #4-0 "idly"; 
Gi?0 "rightly", and "directly opposite" (Hen. 72,8), "correctly" 
(Chrest p. 76, line 14); *Wm "little"; <Pm-i "quickly", "sudden- 
ly"; Rt'bO • flJ^flVi (j>ptfCT&g Kod raxsccg Sap. 6,5; *i£A Kparai&g 
Sap. 6,8; i\S\ao sv/usvo&g Sap. 6,16; "Jft-rh G®(f>p6v®g Sap. 9,11; 
|)A<D "in reality", and many others. — C/. also ft^ 1 * s Jffil : K# 
^|OD« Tob. 5, 15. But the following forms, derived from Substan- 
tives, are of very frequent occurrence, being mainly retained in 
use as Adverbs only: /h«|» "by degrees", "a little"; ilth "unani- 
mously"; flh "in vain" (fljfi "emptiness"); aofyfoa) "in succes- 
sion", "forthwith" ; 7ft-fc-f« "a little", "gradually"; £C7 "together", 
"at the same time"; '7'fl'h "suddenly"; K *^ (K? 00 ?.-?) "se- 
cretly"; and w T ith especial frequency *p4» properly "exactly", then 
commonly "very", "even", farther "precisely", "certainly" ; T4* * 
k, "not even" (ne quidem)^). 

( x ) A remarkable intensive-form is found in Ps. 44,2, viz. HlOnifl 
"most skilfully" ("dexterously"), from an intensive Adjective fllflflVfl, 
derived, in accordance with § 112, b, from tlje K fllflfl "to be wise". 

§ 163. — 385 — 

But by means of the preposition fl (§ 164) the language at- 
tains the same object as through the agency of the Accusative. By 
prefixing this preposition to a Substantive or Adjective, Adverbs of 
Kind and Manner may be formed: (lft'Orli "in the morning" ; flftp 
"for nothing" (Matt. 10,8); i\^K t % "lastly", "at last"; (\KC.h "in 
Greek" (Luke 23,38); fl^Tf "in Ethiopic"; flrhrt^ "falsely" 
(Matt. 5,33); (tf^fl/lh "proudly"; ftK"lfr "in secret"; fU^JC 
"voluntarily" (with Suffix) ; (WtCV "by constraint" ('invito ammo') : 
fli*»?£ "in a friendly way" (Gen. 26,29); (\faw*9° "miserably" 
(Matt. 21,41); mjWh "innocently" (Gen. 20,6); fllft-fc "in se- 
cret"; (1^17 "in safety" (Gen. 26, 31) ; |ltf"A« &c. In words which 
convey the notion of "gradually", fl is doubled (cf. § 159, #): flfl 
*Jft*t^"> flflfh4*- Other Prepositions also are employed to express 
Adverbial notions, such as: A*JA0° "for ever"; -}fl : hAft ('to 
another side') "elsewhere"; h^^h^ "once" and "long ago" 
('from of old'). Thus }x9° is prefixed, over and above, to .K"^ 
"afterward", making h9°^ tt i^ "after that" (Matt. 21, 32). 

2. A certain number of Adverbial qualifications also are ex- 2. other 
pressed by means of other forms. A Noun may be set in the sentence ^° d r ™* b ° f 
adverbially, without inflection and otherwise lifeless, in the very being 
form in which it issues from the Stem-forming process; but, save Nouns witb 
for the Numeral Adverbs (§ 159, e), this takes place only in a very ^^ 
few words, which have become entirely or almost entirely obsolete in or with 
any other use: f-JJ "to-day" ("day"); ^Hi^ "once" ("antiquity") ^SolT 
Eph. 5,8; fr<TJ "truly", "certainly'^ 1 ); W\ "in the first place", 
"at first" (occurring often; but also the Ace. tyS\°%, though rare- 
ly) ( 2 ); cf. also °ir • hf'Jf; btft * K9°dA^; U1C * h9°01C 
. — A few others have a Suff. Pron. appended (like -Hi'ihP "for- 
merly"), or other terminations originally pronominal. The most 
common among them is the Neuter u (hu)( 3 ) "of it", "thereof": 
4^<n>- ("the first of it") "in the first place", "earlier", "once", 
"sooner" (very common) ; ^^°%{h and «M tf l? » Y - Dillmann's 
'Lex.', col. 463 sq.; i[dfc ("height of it") "above", Jos